Management Links
MANAGEMENT: Public Relations

"Profitability is the Key to Value. If You've Got it, Flaunt It. If You Don't Have It, Get It (business strategy). If You Can't Get It, Get Out (capital strategy)."

--- Bill Fruhan, Professor of Finance, Harvard Business School, author of: Financial Strategy: Studies in the Creation, Transfer, and Destruction of Shareholder Value.

1904 - Ivy Ledbetter Lee, George Parker established third U. S. public relations firm, Parker and Lee, in New York City (lasted four years); 1906 - gained Pennsylvania Railroad Company as account; conceived "Declaration of Principles" - first articulation of concept that public relations practitioners have public responsibility that extends beyond obligations to client; October 30, 1906 - issued what is often considered to be first press release (printed verbatim by New York Times) - after accident with Pennsylvania Railroad; convinced company to openly disclose information to journalists, before they could hear information elsewhere; originator of modern crisis communications.

Ivy Ledbetter Lee (

1927 - John W. Hill opened public relations office in Cleveland, OH, after 18-year career as reporter, editor,  financial columnist; 1933 - took Donald Knowlton, former bank public relations director, after client's bank went out of business during Depression; 1934 - moved irm's headquarters to New York.

1946 - Harold Burson established Harold Burson Public Relations in office space provided by one of his two clients; marketed himself as business-to-business specialist; 1951 - William A. Marsteller founded Marsteller, Gebhardt & Reed through purchase of Gebhardt & Brockson; 1952 - Burson had dozen clients, five employees;  January 1953 - formed Burson-Marsteller, new public relations firm jointly-owned by Marsteller agency; 1983 - became world's largest public relations firm. 

Harold Burson - Burson-Marsteller (

William A. Marsteller - Burson-Marsteller (

(Burson-Marsteller), Mark Penn with E. Kinney Zalesne (2007). Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow’s Big Changes. (New York, NY: Twelve, 448 p.). CEO of Burson-Marsteller. Social influence; Social change; United States--Population--Social aspects. 1) single women by choice; 2) splitters; 3) sun haters; 4) philo-semites; 5) classical music dads.

(Aaron D. Cushman & Associates), Aaron D. Cushman (2004). A Passion for Winning: Fifty Years of Promoting Legendary People and Products. (Pittsburgh, PA: Lighthouse Point Press, 263 p.). Cushman, Aaron D.; Aaron D. Cushman & Associates--History; Public relations firms--United States--History; Public relations consultants--United States--Biography; Public relations--United States--History; Corporations--Public relations--United States--History; New products--United States--Marketing--History.

(Disney), Charles Ridgway (2007). Spinning Disney’s World: Memories of a Magic Kingdom Press Agent. (Branford, CT: Intrepid Traveler, 240 p.). Ridgway, Charles, 1923- ; Walt Disney Company--Public relations--History; Press agents--United States--Biography; Disneyland (Calif.)--Biography; Walt Disney World (Fla.)--Biography. Forty years working Disney - from Disneyland, to Walt Disney World, to Euro-Disney; "war stories" from front lines of perhaps biggest marketing success in history.

(GE), Bill Lane (2007). Jacked Up. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 300 p.). Manager, Executive Communications forGeneral Electric, Jack Welch’s speechwriter (1982 - 2001). Business presentations. Communication equaled ability to lead; Welch's most outstanding speeches, opinions, philosophies, principles.

(Hill & Knowlton), John W. Hill (1958). Corporate Public Relations; Arm of Modern Management. (New York, NY: Harper, 178 p.). Public relations--Corporations.

--- (1963). The Making of a Public Relations Man. (New York, NY: D. McKay Co., 273 p.). Public relations.

(Hill & Knowlton), Karen S. Miller (1999). The Voice of Business: Hill & Knowlton and Postwar Public Relations. (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 261 p.). Hill and Knowlton, Inc.--History; Public relations firms--United States--History; World politics--1945---Public opinion. Public opinion--United States.

(Lyric Opera of Chicago), Danny Newman (1977). Subscribe Now!: Building Arts Audiences Through Dynamic Subscription Promotion. (New York, NY: Theatre Communications Groups, 276 p.). Director of Press, Public Relations. Performing arts--Ticket subscription; Performing arts--Public relations. "Father" of modern subscription sales; theories for building audiences through subscriptions (embraced by nonprofits around world; used in 31 countries, printed in 10 editions).

(Lyric Opera of Chicago), Danny Newman; foreword by Studs Terkel (2006). Tales of a Theatrical Guru. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 260 p.). Director of Press, Public Relations. Entertainers--Anecdotes; Singers--Anecdotes. 33 profiles of key arts people, many connected with Lyric Opera of Chicago; complete picture of world that few have ever seen so intimately.

(MGM), E.J. Fleming (2005). The Fixers : Eddie Mannix, Howard Strickling, and the MGM Publicity Machine. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 315 p.). Mannix, Eddie; Strickling, Howard; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Theatrical agents -- United States -- Biography; Motion picture industry -- Public relations -- California -- Los Angeles.

(Northern Pacific), Sig Mickelson (1993). The Northern Pacific Railroad and the Selling of the West: A Nineteenth-Century Public Relations Venture. (Sioux Falls, SD: Center for Western Studies, 232 p.). Northern Pacific Railroad Company--History; Advertising--Real estate business--History--19th century; Land settlement--West (U.S.)--History--19th century.

(Ogilvy Public Relations Worldwide), Rohit Bhargava (2008). Personality not Included: Why Companies Lose Their Authenticity--and How Great Brands Get It Back. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 300 p.). SVP of Digital Strategy. Branding (Marketing); Authenticity (Philosophy). Consumers have more access to information than ever, more power to share their voice, brand's identity no longer controlled through marketing,  advertising; what you demonstrate to customers matters most (power of personality).

(Ruder Finn), Kathy Bloomgarden (2007). Trust: The Secret Weapon of Effective Business Leaders. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 223 p.). Co-CEO of Ruder Finn, Inc. Trust; Values; Organizational effectiveness. Characteristics that make today’s leaders successful; principles, techniques they use to earn confidence of employees, colleagues, customers, public.

(Sawyer Miller), James Harding (2008). Alpha Dogs: The Americans Who Turned Political Spin Into a Global Business. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux,, 272 p.). Business and City Editor at The Times in London. Sawyer Miller (Firm)--History; Sawyer Miller (Firm)--Biography; Political consultants--United States--History--20th century; Media consultants--United States--History--20th century; Political consultants--United States--Biography; Media consultants--United States--Biography; Public relations and politics--United States--History--20th century; Political campaigns--United States--History--20th century; Campaign management--United States--History--20th century; Globalization--Case studies. Short-lived, enormously influential campaign business, backroom strategists on every presidential contest from Richard Nixon to George W. Bush; invented an American-style political campaigning, exported it.

Ronald J. Alsop (2004). The 18 Immutable Laws of Corporate Reputation: Creating, Protecting, and Repairing Your Most Valuable Asset. (New York, NY: Free Press, 306 p.). News Editor and Senior Writer (The Wall Street Journal). Corporate image; Brand name products--Management; Corporations--Public relations.

Paul Argenti & Janis Forman (2002). The Power of Corporate Communication: Crafting the Voice and Image Your Business. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 294 p.). Communication in management; Corporations--Public relations; Communication in organizations.

Pekka Aula and Saku Mantere (2008). Strategic Reputation Management: Towards Company of Good. (New York, NY: Routledge, 237 p.). Department of Communication, Faculty of Social Sciences (University of Helsinki); Department of Management and Organization (HANKEN). Corporate image --Management; Corporations --Public relations; Communication in management; Strategic planning. Ways in which organizations achieve "goodness" through reputation, reputation management, reputation strategies; business environment as communicative field of symbols, meanings in which organization is built, destroyed; eight generic reputation strategies.

Isadore Barmash (1983). "Always Live Better Than Your Clients":Tthe Fabulous Life and Times of Benjamin Sonnenberg, America's Greatest Publicist. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 208 p.). Sonnenberg, Benjamin, 1901-; Press agents--United States--Biography.

Andy Beal, Judy Strauss (2008). Radically Transparent: Monitoring and Managing Reputations Online. (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Technology Pub., 378 p.). Marketing Pilgrim blog; University of Nevada, Reno. Corporate image --Computer networks; Corporations --Public relations --Computer networks. Reputation monitoring, management system; four skills for personal reputation construction: public relations, search engine optimization, research, online content creation to create online content for blogs, social networking sites, text communication; Internet research techniques for identifying, monitoring online identities; exercises that reinforce key discussions.

Edward L. Bernays (1965). Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 849 p.). Bernays, Edward L., 1891- ; Public relations consultants--New York--Biography; Public Relations; Social Conditions--United States.

--- (1986). The Later Years: Public Relations Insights 1956-1986. (Rhinebeck, NY: H & M Publishers, 152 p.).

Donald W. Blohowiak (1987). No Comment!: An Executive's Essential Guide to the News Media. (New York, NY: Praeger, 221 p.). Mass media and business; Mass media and business--United States.

Ed. Bill Cantor and Chester Burger (1989). Experts in Action: Inside Public Relations. (New York, NY: Longman, 520 p. (2nd ed.). Public relations--United States; Public relations consultants--United States; Industrial publicity--United States. Longman series in public communication.

Compiled by Scott M. Cutlip (1965). A Public Relations Bibliography (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 305 p. [2nd ed.]). Public relations -- Bibliography.

Scott M. Cutlip (1994). The Unseen Power: Public Relations, a History (Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 807 p.). Public relations -- United States -- History; Public relations -- Social aspects -- United States.

--- (1995). Public Relations History: From the 17th to the 20th Century: The Antecedents (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 300 p.). Public relations -- United States -- History; Public relations -- Social aspects -- United States.

Eric Dezenhall (2003). Nail ’Em!: Confronting High-Profile Attacks on Celebrities & Businesses. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 342 p.). Served in Ronald Reagan's White House Office of Communications, Founding Partner of Nichols-Dezenhall. Public relations; Crisis management. 

Eric Dezenhall and John Weber (2007). Damage Control: Why Everything You Know About Crisis Management Is Wrong. (New York, NY: Portfolio, Founder and CEO of Dezenhall Resources; President of Dezenhall Resources). Washington-based crisis management consultants. Crisis management--United States--Case studies; Public relations--United States--Case studies. 

Robert L. Dilenschneider (1990). Power and Influence: Mastering the Art of Persuasion (New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 258 p.). Former Chairman, Hill & Knowlton. Public relations; Persuasion (Psychology); Public relations consultants--Professional ethics.

--- (1992). A Briefing for Leaders: Communication as the Ultimate Exercise of Power (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 287 p.). Former Chairman, Hill & Knowlton. Leadership; Executive ability; Communication in management; Chief executive officers. 

Grahame Dowling (2001). Creating Corporate Reputations: Identity, Image, and Performance. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 299 p.). Corporate image; Corporations--Public relations--Case studies; Brand name products--Management. 

Stuart Ewen (1996). PR: A Social History of Spin. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 480 p.). Academic. Public Relations.

Peter Firestein (2009). Crisis of Character: Building Corporate Reputation in the Age of Skepticism.  New York, NY Sterling, 304 p.).Global Strategic Communications, Inc. Business ethics; Industrial management. Ways executives can shape internal corporate culture to support their business interests; how corporate strategy must shift to deal effectively with globalization, new environmental, human rights standards that come with it; fail-proof way for executives to immunize themselves, their companies against breakdowns; Seven Strategies of Reputation Leadership.

Charles J. Fombrun (1996). Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 441 p.). Corporate Image.

Charles J. Fombrun, Cees B.M. van Riel (2004). Fame & Fortune: How Successful Companies Build Winning Reputations. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 273 p.). Professor (Stern School of Business, NYU; Executive Director - Reputation Institute); Professor (Rotterdam School of Management). Corporate image; Corporations--Public relations; Brand name products--Management. 

Leslie Gaines-Ross (2008). Corporate Reputation: 12 Steps to Safeguarding and Recovering Reputation. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 183 p.). Chief Reputation Strategist (Weber Shandwick). Corporate image; Responsibility; Corporations--Public relations; Organizational effectiveness. Restore, rebuild companies when corporate reputation damaged.

Ed. Jack Gottschalk (1993). Crisis Response: Inside Stories on Managing Image under Siege. (Detroit, MI: Gail Research Inc., 463 p.). Corporate Image, Crisis Management.

James R. Gregory with Jack G. Wiechmann (1999). Marketing Corporate Image: The Company as Your Number One Product (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 274 p. [2nd ed.]). Corporate image.

Noel L. Griese (2001). Arthur W. Page: Publisher, Public Relations Pioneer, Patriot. (Atlanta, GA: Anvil Pub., 427 p.). Page, Arthur W. (Arthur Wilson), 1883-1960; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Statesmen--United States--Biography; Corporations--United States--History; Publishers and publishing--United States--History; Public relations--United States--History. In-house public relations adviser to AT&T from 19207-1946; embraced concept of good corporate citizenship, pushed AT&T to be open, honest in press dealings.

Arthur W. Paige (

Wiliam L. Haig (1997). The Power of Logos: How to Create Effective Company Logos. (New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 191 p.). Corporate Image, Logos.

Keith Michael Hearit (2005). Crisis Management by Apology: Corporate Responses to Allegations of Wrongdoing. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 250 p.). Corporate image; Crisis management; Apologizing; Corporations--Public relations; Business communication. Role of apology in response to public attack.

Ray Eldon Hiebert (1966). Courtier to the Crowd; The Story of Ivy Lee and the Development of Public Relations. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 351 p.). Lee, Ivy L. (Ivy Ledbetter), 1877-1934.

Allan J. Kimmel (2004). Rumors and Rumor Control: A Manager’s Guide to Understanding and Combatting Rumors. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 256 p.). Professor of Marketing at ESCP-EAP, European School of Management (Paris). Communication in management; Rumor; Crisis management. Rumor phenomenon - unique and distinct form of communication.

John P. Kotter and Lorne A. Whitehead (2010). Buy-in: Saving Your Good Idea from Being Shot Down. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 208 p.). Matsushita Professor of Leadership, Emeritus (Harvard Business School); Leader of Education Innovation (University of British Columbia). Sales promotion; Creative ability in business; Public relations. Anticipate, combat attacks--so good idea makes positive change; how to win support idea needs to deliver valuable results: 1) understand generic attack strategies that naysayers, obfuscators deploy time and again; 2) engage adversaries with tactics tailored to each strategy; 3) "inviting in the lions" to critique idea, being prepared for them, capture busy people's attention, help them grasp proposal's value, secure their commitment to implementing solution; counterstrategies for each category: 1) death-by-delay: enemies push discussion of idea so far into future, it's forgotten; 2) confusion: they present so much data that confidence in proposal dies; 3) fearmongering: critics catalyze irrational anxieties about idea; 4) character assassination: they slam your reputation, credibility.

Richard A. Lanham (2000). Revising Business Prose. (Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 117 p. [4th ed.]). English language--Business English; English language--Rhetoric; Business writing; Editing.

Jacquie L'Etang (2004). Public Relations in Britain: A History of Professional Practice in the Twentieth Century. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 288 p.). Public relations Great Britain; Public relations Great Britain History 20th century. 

Michael Levine (2003). A Branded World: Adventures in Public Relations and the Creation of Superbrands. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 260 p.). Brand name products -- United States; Public relations -- United States.

Roland Marchand (1998). Creating the Corporate Soul: The Rise of Public Relations and Corporate Imagery in American Big Business. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 461 p.). Corporate image--United States--History; Public relations--Corporations--United States--History; Big business--United States--History; Advertising--United States--History. 

Gerald C. Meyers with John Holusha (1986). When It Hits the Fan: Managing the Nine Crises of Business (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 271 p.). Crisis management.

Gerald C. Meyers & Susan Meyers (2000). Dealers, Healers, Brutes & Saviors: Eight Winning Styles for Solving Giant Business Crises (New York, NY: Wiley, 266 p.). Corporate turnarounds; Crisis management.

David E. Nye (1985). Image Worlds: Corporate Identities at General Electric, 1890-1930 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 188 p.). General Electric Company; Photography, Industrial--United States.

Wally Olins (1990). Corporate Identity: Making Corporate Strategy Visible through Design. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 224 p.). Corporate Image.

Laura Penny (2005). Your Call Is Important to Us: The Truth About Bullshit. (New York, NY: Crown, 256 p.). Teaching Fellow (University of King’s College). Propaganda; Public relations; Advertising; Deception; Manipulative behavior.

Marion K. Pinsdorf (1999). Communicating When Your Company Is under Siege: Surviving Public Crisis. (New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 425 p. (3rd ed.)). Corporate image; Public relations; Crisis management; Business communication; Strategic planning.

Alan R. Raucher (1968). Public Relations and Business, 1900-1929 (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 178 p.). Public relations -- United States -- History.

Irving J. Rein, Philip Kotler, Martin R. Stoller (1987). High Visibility: The Making and Marketing of Professionals into Celebrities. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, 366 p.). Public relations; Fame.

Al Ries and Laura Ries (2002). The Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 295 p.). Father-Daughter Marketing Consultants. Advertising; Brand name products; Public relations. 

John W. Riley, Jr., in association with Marguerite F. Levy (1963). The Corporation and Its Publics; Essays on the Corporate Image (New York, NY: Wiley, 195 p.). Public relations--Corporations. 

Irwin Ross (1959). The Image of Merchants; The Fabulous World of Public Relations. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 288 p.). Public relations.

Robert Simonson (2010). The Gentleman Press Agent: Fifty Years in the Theatrical Trenches with Merle Debuskey. (Milwaukee, WI: PUB Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, 300 p.). Former Editor of from 1999 to 2006.Debuskey, Merle; Press agents --United States --Biography; Theater --New York (State) --New York --History --20th century. New York theater's top publicist for 50 years; handled more Broadway shows than any press agent in Broadway history; Joe Papp's right-hand man for thirty years, first mouthpiece for Circle in the Square, Lincoln Center Theater; fought Robert Moses (with Papp), ensured that Shakespeare in the Park remained free; made sure How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying kept its title; saved Zero Mostel's life; housed redbaiters target John Henry Faulk, befriended blacklisted; manhandled George C. Scott, Mort Saul; romanced Kim Stanley. Merle Debuskey - Broadway press agent (

Stan Sauerhaft and Chris Atkins (1989). Image Wars: Protecting Your Company When There's No Place to Hide. (New York, NY: Wiley, 246 p.). Corporate Image.

Herb Schmertz with William Novak (1986). Good-Bye to the Low Profile: The Art of Creative Confrontation. Former Head of Communications for Mobil Oil. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 242 p.). Public relations.

Robert Scoble and Shel Israel (2006). Naked Conversations: How Blogs Are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 251 p.). Helps run Microsoft’s Channel 9 Web site (top-ranking business blog among Technorati's Top 100). Weblogs; Business communication; Internet--Social aspects. Efficient, more credible method of business communication. 

John Simmons (2002). We, Me, Them & It: The Power of Words in Business. (New York, NY: Texere, 255 p.). Communication in management.

Marion G. Sobol, Gail E. Farrelly and Jessica S. Taper (1992). Shaping the Corporate Image: An Analytical Guide for Executive Decision Makers. (New York, NY: Quorum Books, 168 p.). Corporate image.

Art Stevens (1985). The Persuasion Explosion: Your Guide to the Power & Influence of Contemporary Public Relations. (Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 224 p.). Public relations--United States; Publicity--United States.

Richard S. Tedlow (1979). Keeping the Corporate Image: Public Relations and Business, 1900-1950. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 233 p.). Publicity--United States; Public relations--Corporations; Public relations--United States.

Larry Tye (1998). The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & the Birth of Public Relations. (New York, NY: Crown, 306 p.). Bernays, Edward L., 1891- ; Public relations consultants--United States--Biography; Public relations--United States--History--20th century.

Robert J. Wood with Max Gunther (1988). Confessions of a PR Man. (New York, NY: NAL Books, 269 p.). Wood, Robert J.; Public relations consultants--United States--Biography. 

Joyce Wouters (1991). International Public Relations: How To Establish Your Company's Product, Service, and Image in Foreign Markets. (New York, NY: American Management Association, 308 p.). Export marketing--United States--Management; International business enterprises--United States--Management; Corporations, American.



Institute for Public Relations                                                                                                                                                                              

The Institute for Public Relations focuses on the science beneath the art of public relations. We exist to expand and document the intellectual foundations of public relations, and to make this knowledge available and useful to all practitioners, educators, researchers and corporate/institutional clients.

Museum of Public Relations                                                                                                                                                                                

Established in 1997.

O'Dwyer's PR Daily                                                                                                              

Oxford University Centre for Corporate Reputation                                                                                                                                              

Established in January 2008, independent research centre which aims to promote a better understanding of the way in which the reputation of corporations and institutions around the world are created, enhanced, and protected. The Centre is also commissioning executive education programmes for boards and senior executives, using material from its own research programmes and the experience of senior visiting fellows from industry and the professions.

Arthur W. Page Society                                                                                                                                                                          

Founded in December 1983, a professional organization a professional association for senior public relations and corporate communications executives who seek to enrich and strengthen their profession. The membership consists primarily of chief communications officers of Fortune 500 corporations, the CEOs of the world's largest public relations agencies, and leading academics from the nation's top business and communications schools who have distinguished themselves teaching corporate communications. The Page Society has strict membership selection criteria, and consequently, has attracted the very best and brightest of the profession. The Page Society is dedicated to strengthening the management policy role of chief public relations officers. The Page Society is upheld by management concepts, known as the Page Principles, which have been tested for more than half a century and have earned the support and respect of chief executive officers throughout the country. Named for  Arthur W. Page, co-founder Doubleday, Page & Co. (1905-1927 - served as editor of the World's Work) , VP of Public Relations, AT & T (1927-1946). Considered the father of corporate public relations.


"Public Interest Reporting on the PR/Public Affairs Industry," from the folks at the Center for Media and Democracy who brought you the book Toxic Sludge Is Good for You. Includes the "Spin of the Day", with archives, and the "Disinfopedia" ("the encyclopedia of propaganda"), which offers case studies on deceptive PR campaigns, info on how to research front groups, and more.

Public Relations Society of America                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

PRSA is the world’s largest organization for public relations professionals. Its nearly 20,000 members, organized worldwide in over 100 chapters, represent business and industry, technology, counseling firms, government, associations, hospitals, schools, professional services firms and nonprofit organizations. Chartered in 1947, PRSA’s primary objectives are to advance the standards of the public relations profession and to provide members with professional development opportunities through continuing education programs, information exchange forums and research projects conducted on the national and local levels.

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