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American economic growth, business cycles (1870-2005) - economic growth swamps economic fluctuations over time; 1929 and 1933 - American economy shrank by 30%, foreign trade slowed, unemployment reached 25% in 1933 (15 million people out of work); 43-month contraction, 13-month conclusion in 1937-38; 1940 - output regained 1929 level (preparations for World War II underway); no similar decade in 135 years; 1946 - Congress passed Employment Act of 1946, mandated broad government economic policy, created President’s Council of Economic Advisers; discovered number of "automatic stabilizers" created as part of New Deal (before 1946 - business cycles more frequent, swings greater, economy often operated below long-term norm 2% growth rate; after World War II - recessions milder, less frequent; growth steady); recessions - 1981-82 (associated with Volcker disinflation); 1974-75 (associated with OPEC price increases, commercial real estate crash); each lasted 16 months from peak to trough.

Source: Macroeconomics by  Charles I. Jones; New York : W.W. Norton, c2002; Professor of Economics (University of California, Berkeley), Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research;    (; dates above shifted about five years to right, elongated horizontal scale in years between 1970 and 2000 (does not change the point; shape of line is correct)  

June 27, 1884 - President Chester Arthur signed bill sponsored by Representative James Hopkins of Pennsylvania to establish a Bureau of Labor to collect information on the subject of working people and the "means of promoting their material, social, intellectual, and moral prosperity" (placed in the Department of the Interior); 1886 - Bureau of Labor Statistics (principal fact-finding agency for Federal Government in broad field of labor economics and statistics) published First Annual Report (496-page study of industrial depressions); March 21, 1888 - President Grover Cleveland signed bill making Department of Labor independent of the Department of Interior; 1913 - Bureau of Labor Statistics began calculating the Consumer Price Index (CPI) - measure of average change over time in prices paid by urban consumers for market basket of consumer goods and services (84,000 prices in about 200 categories measured in 2008); March 4, 1913 - William Howard Taft signed Public Law 426-62, created U. S. Department of Labor (included Bureau of Labor Statistics); July 1915 - BLS began publication of Monthly Labor Review.

  Consumer Price Index US 1913-2004 (source: U.S. Department Of Labor -Bureau of Labor Statistics;

1920 - Wesley Clair Mitchell, professor of economics (Columbia University), introduced "business cycle" analysis; founded National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) to pursue quantitative studies of U.S. business cycles; private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works.

Personal Saving Rate - 2000-2009

(source: Bureau of Economic Analysis;

Consumer Sentiment  1975-2010

  (source: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis;


March 2007 - Center for Budget and Policy Priorities released new study - how the progressivity of the federal tax system has changed over time (effective federal tax rates going back to 1960, including income, payroll, corporate, and estate taxes; data for income groups reaching up to the top one-hundredth of one percent [.01 percent] of the population):


January 19, 2008 - Unemployment and recessions:


April 9, 2008 - Wage Stagnation:


April 2008 - Job Growth Change from previous quarter expressed as % (shading indicates national recession;


May 7, 2008 - Consumer Price Index (1998-2008)


June 2008 - Consumer Confidence at 16 Year Low


July 19, 2008 - Economic Slowdown - Home Price Index, Percentage of People with Jobs (3-month moving average), Year-over-Year Change in Real Consumer Spending (3-month moving average) - 1988 - 2008 (recessions in brown).

(source: Standard & Poor's/Case-Shiller; Bureau of Labor Statistics; Bureau of Economic Analysis;

July 29, 2008 - Budget deficit for 2009 fiscal year projected to reach half a trillion dollars; lower as % of GDP, than some earlier deficits:


August 2, 2008 - Unemployment at 5.7% in July 2008 (highest level in more than 4 years - steady loss of jobs (463,000 since January 2008).


August 20, 2008 - Producer prices rose to highest rate in 27 years in July 2008; housing starts fell to lowest rate in 17 years.


August 30, 2008 - Out of recession


September 2008 - Minimum wage raised to $6.55 per hour (up from $5.85 per hour) = $13,624 per year (75.9 million people paid by hour in 2007, 58.5% of workplace; 2.3% made minimum wage or less); Fair Labor Standards Act became law in 1938; established time-and-a-half pay for overtime; restricted child labor; set minimum wage at $.25 per hour (equivalent to $10.11 in 2008 dollars).


September 13, 2008 - Misery Index (sum of unemployment rate, inflation rate over preceding 12 months); only 3 presidential terms in which misery index rose at least 4 percentage points over 12-month span. (1949-53, 1973-77, 1977-1981 peak at 21.9% - incumbent party lost following election.


The US Misery Index by President
1948 to 2007

Misery Index = Unemployment rate + Inflation rate

President Time Period Average Misery Index
Jimmy Carter 1977 - 1980 16.27
Gerald Ford 1974 - 1976 15.93
Ronald Reagan 1981 - 1988 12.19
George H.W. Bush 1989 - 1992 10.68
Richard Nixon 1969 - 1973 9.98
George W. Bush 2001 - 2007 7.89
Harry Truman 1948 - 1952 7.87
William J. Clinton 1993 - 2000 7.80
John F. Kennedy 1961 - 1962 7.27
Lyndon Johnson 1963 - 1968 6.78
Dwight Eisenhower 1953 - 1960 6.26


November 2008 - Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that U. S. employers shed 533,000 jobs, 11th consecutive monthly decline; largest one-month job loss since December 1974; unemployment rate rose to 6.7 percent; National Bureau of Economic Research ruled that a recession (12th since the Depression) began in December 2007 = longest since Great Depression (previous record was 16 months, in severe recessions of mid-1970s and early 1980s); largest decline in consumer confidence in history of Reuters/University of Michigan Survey of Consumers (started polling in 1950s) - falling home and stock prices, fewer work hours, smaller bonuses, less overtime, disappearing jobs; more than 1.9 million jobs lost since January 2008; fresh reports of cutbacks or declines in construction spending, home sales, consumer spending, business investment, exports; December 4, 2008 - International Council of Shopping Centers described November sales at stores open at least a year as weakest in more than 30 years; economists estimated that the gross domestic product contracted at annual rate of 4% or more in fourth quarter; Mortgage Bankers Association's National Delinquency Survey reported record 1.35 million homes in foreclosure in third quarter 2008, drove foreclosure rate to 2.97% (76% increase from 2007).



November 8, 2008 - U. S. Labor Department reported U.S. unemployment rate soared to 14-year high in October; supported economists' warnings that current downturn will rival worst recessions since end of World War II.

(source: Labor Department;

December 17, 2008 - CPI was 3% lower in November 2008 than in August - steepest drop since 1933; deflationary:


February 26, 2009 - Taxes have remained fairly constant relative to size of the American economy (about 18% of gross domestic product) for half-century; 1950s and 1960s - American economy grow fastest in last 60 years, top marginal tax rate 90%; late 1990s - economy grow fastest in last generation, Clinton briefly raised federal taxes to 20% of G.D.P.; last three decades - pretax income of top 1% of earners has soared, their total federal tax rate has fallen to 31% (from 37%; source: Congressional Budget Office); benefits from higher taxes (security, education, health) outweigh costs, if spent well by government.


May 2009 - American trade deficit fell to 2.4% (as a percent of gross domestic product)  in the first quarter of 2009 (less than half of the deficit n the first quarter of 2008); smallest deficit in a decade; fastest rate of collapse ever; global economic imbalances shrunk by recession (Americans are no longer buying exports from countries which supplied products); not being caused by a rebound in American exports - peaked at 13.7% in the third quarter of 2008, down to 10.9% in first quarter 2009 (imports fell to 13.3% of G.D.P. from a peak of 18.6%, based on nominal dollar values, in part reflects the fall in oil prices, adjusted for inflation).


June 6, 2009 - Americans spent less than they spent a year ago - first time since World War II; sharpest rise in U. S. savings rate since the government began calculating the statistic in the 1950s. April 2009 - savings rate rose to a 14-year high of 5.7% of disposable income (record high of 14.6% in May 1975); chart - trends in personal consumption spending and savings rates (3-month moving averages smooth gyrations, savings rate averaged 4.8% over 3-month period); April 1961 - smallest year-over-year rise in consumption spending (1.8% increase over 12 month period; nominal dollars, not adjusted for inflation); 2009 - year-over-year figures down in every month; sharpest falloff in consumer spending in the current cycle for purchase of durable goods (vehicles and furniture); spending on nondurable goods (food and clothing) down for the first time since the 1940s,  continuing to fall; consumer spending on services still rising, at the lowest level in memory (rising payments for medical services); late 2008 - spending on durable goods down 12.6%, year-over-year (largest in more than 50 years).


June 8, 2009 - Decline in Net Worth of American Households


July 24, 2009 - Index of (10) Economic Indicators: 1) rising at rate which has accurately indicated end of every recession since 1959; 2) does not foretell strength of economic upturn; June 2009 - rose for third consecutive month (12.8% annualized rate); strongest indicators - financial; since 1960 - 6/7 recessions  (except 1990-1991) ended in month index showed 12% annualized gain (or 1-2months before); Conference Board's Index of 'coincident indicators' - down in 8 consecutive months, 17/19 past months, down 6.4% from peak in November 2007 (= steepest recession since 1960; previous steepest decline - 5.6% during 1973=1975 recession).

( business/20090725_CHARTS_GRAPHIC.jpg)

August 21, 2009 - Rise of super-rich hit wall


September 26, 2009 - 1Q 1954 - Total debt less than $500 billion; 2Q 2009 - domestic debt declined 0.3%, to $50.8 trillion (not seasonally adjusted, quarter-to-quarter comparisons risky) -first decline since first quarter of 1954; 2Q 2008-2Q 2009: National debt rose by more than a third, far more than at any time since World War II; went to: 1) investments in financial institutions to keep them alive; 2)  programs aimed at stimulating the private economy (government picked up part of the cost for some home buyers and some auto buyers); Total domestic debt (owed by individuals, governments and businesses) - climbed 3.7% (smallest increase since the Fed started calculations in the early 1950s): 1) nonfinancial businesses increased their debt by 1.3% (paid back more in old loans than took out in new ones); 2) total household debt fell by 1.7%; mortgage debt (largest component of household debt) fell at a 1.8% pace (first, of 10 recessions since the Fed began collecting numbers, in which the amount of home mortgage debt fell,  some from foreclosures); 1990-2009 - Biggest increase in debt in America came from financial companies (financial innovation vs. actual economic activity): 1) debt issued by financial companies with guarantees rose at a 10.2% (guaranteed by  underlying assets. as home mortgages, or by equivalent of government debt, borrowed by government-sponsored enterprises, as Fannie Mae); 2) debt issued by financial companies without guarantees rose at a 10.6% rate; 3) debt of nonfinancial businesses climbed 5.9%; 4) 1990 - nonfinancial businesses in the United States borrowed $1.70 for every dollar borrowed by the financial sector (guaranteed by government or not); 2009 - 68 cents.


October 2009 - Global view of the housing bubble: 2000-2007 - remarkable run-up in global home prices; trend reversed abruptly; 2008 - value of US residential real estate fell 10% (erased more than $3.4 trillion of household wealth); the global average declined by almost 4%; slide could persist for some time, could depress global consumption.


January 17, 2009 - Job Loss and Economic Rebounds: 1950 - Five periods in which employment declines lasted as long as 10 consecutive months; job market came back quickly after three periods (loss of jobs during the decline was at least 2.3% of the work force); 1990-1991 -  highest unemployment level was 6.8% (peaked at 7.8% in June 1992, 15 months after the recession ended); 2001 recession - the unemployment rate rose to 5.5% (topped out at 6.3% more than a year later); December 2007 - Employment peaked; employment declined for 22 consecutive months (down 5.2%) = deeper, longer than any time since 1950; more than the 1991 and 2002 declines put together; November  2009 - tiny gain of 4,000 jobs (source: Labor Department estimates); December 2009 - renewed loss of jobs.


Brooks Adams with a new evaluation by Marquis W. Childs (1971). America's Economic Supremacy. (Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 194 p. [orig. pub. 1947]). History, Modern--19th century; Economic history--1750-1918; United States--Colonial question; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918. 

Robert G. Albion and Others (1951). The Growth of the American Economy. (New York, NY: Prentice-Hall, 946 p. [2nd ed.]). United States--Economic conditions.

Benjamin M. Anderson (1980). Economics and the Public Welfare; Financial and Economic History of the United States, 1914-1946. (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, Inc., 602 p. [orig. pub. 1949]). Economist for the Chase National Bank (1920-1939). United States --Economic conditions; United States --Economic conditions --1918-1945. Climactic events during turbulent years between passage of Federal Reserve Act (1913), Bretton Woods Agreement (1945) - Western world suffered two World Wars, two major, several minor international financial panics, epidemic of currency devaluations, debt repudiations, civil wars, revolutions.

Terry L. Anderson and Peter J. Hill (2004). The Not So Wild, Wild West: Property Rights on the Frontier. (Stanford, CA: Stanford Economics and Finance, 263 p.). Executive Director of PERC (Center for Free Market Environmentalism), Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution (Stanford University), Professor Emeritus (Montana State University); Professor of Economics (Wheaton College, IL). Right of property--West (U.S.)--History; Property--West (U.S.)--History; Public lands--West (U.S.)--History; Common good--History; West (U.S.)--Economic conditions; West (U.S.)--Economic policy.  

Ed. Ralph Andreano (1962). The Economic Impact of the American Civil War. (Cambridge, MA.: Schenkman Pub. Co., 203 p.). United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Economic aspects.

John Ashworth (1995). Slavery, Capitalism, and Politics in the Antebellum Republic: Volume 1, Commerce and Compromise, 1820-1850. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 532 p.). Professor of American History (University of Nottingham). Slavery--Economic aspects--United States--History--19th century; Capitalism--United States--History--19th century; Working class--United States--History--19th century; United States--Politics and government--1815-1861; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865. 

Jeremy Atack, Peter Passell (1994). A New Economic View of American history: From Colonial Times to 1940. (New York, NY: Norton, 714 p. [2nd ed.]). United States--Economic conditions.

Eds. William J. Barber, Malcolm Rutherford, and Warren J. Samuels (2004). The Emergence of a National Economy: The United States from Independence to the Civil War. (Brookfield, VT: Pickering & Chatto, 6 vols.). Wesleyan University; University of Victoria; Michigan State University. Economics --United States --History --18th century --Sources; Economics --United States --History --19th century --Sources; United States --Economic conditions --To 1865 --Sources. History of US, Canadian economic thought from 17th century to 1900; construction of national economy, economic interests federal government should promote, protect (discussion of agriculture versus manufacturing, protectionism versus free trade); discussions of slavery, taxation, national infrastructure investment, expansion of frontiers of United States, theories of population growth; political, caustic discussions of formation of national bank, monetary policy, credit and debtl; beginning of political economy, economic theory in America.

Eds. William J. Barber, Malcolm Rutherford, Steven G. Medema, Marianne Johnson, and Warren J. Samuels (2004). Development of the National Economy the United States from the Civil War through the 1890s. (London, UK: Pickering & Chatto, 1,768 p.). Wesleyan University; University of Victoria; University of Colorado, Denver; University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh; Michigan State University. Fiscal policy --United States --History; United States --Economic conditions --To 1865; United States --Economic conditions --1865-1918. Issues such as national debt, supply of money, early efforts to present systematized text-book statements of political economy, protection versus free trade, railroad regulation, poverty in relation to institutions, competition versus monopoly, social structure in relation to economic policy, monetary theory, socio-economic role of religion, 'labour question', organisation of labour, government regulation versus ownership; controversy over Single Tax, efforts at social reform, applied policy topics;  issues of theory (income distribution, monetary standards, questions of evolutionary, dynamic economics).

Harold Barger (1955). Distribution's Place in the American Economy Since 1869. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 222 p.). United States -- Commerce -- History. A study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, New York.

James Anderson Barnes (1949). Wealth of the American People, A History of Their Economic Life. (New York, NY: Prentice-Hall, 910 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Robert L. Bartley (1992). The Seven Fat Years: And How To Do It Again. (New York, NY: Free Press, 351 p.). Editor (The Wall Street Journal). Supply-side economics--United States; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993; United States--Economic conditions--1981-2001. Defense of supply-side economics ("the new classical economics"), Reagan economic revolution of 1982-89: 1) tax cuts , 2) deregulation, 3) Federal Reserve's inflation-curbing money controls unleashed American enterprise, boosted national production 30% , 20% rise in per capita income; history of development of school of thought in 1970s.

Jared Bernstein (2008). Crunch: Why Do I Feel So Squeezed? (and Other Unsolved Economic Mysteries). (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 225 p.). Senior Economist, Director of the Living Standards Program at the Economic Policy Institute (Washington, DC). Fiscal policy --United States; Cost and standard of living --United States; Income distribution --United States; Globalization; United States --Economic policy --2001-. Dark secret of economics laid bare = set of decisions (based on power, not computer modeling) about best way to organize society to produce, distribute resources and opportunities (not objective scientific discipline); economics can be used to create society with more equitable distribution of wealth, more secure social safety nets.

Peter L. Bernstein (2005). Wedding of the Waters: The Erie Canal and the Making of a Great Nation. (New York, NY: Norton, 448. p.). Economic Consultant. Erie Canal (N.Y.); United States--Economic conditions.

Arthur C. Bining [and] Thomas C. Cochran (1964). The Rise of American Economic Life. (New York, NY: Scribner, 781 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Ernest L. Bogart and Donald L. Kemmerer (1947). Economic History of the American People. (New York, NY: Longmans, Green, 856 p. [2nd ed.]). United States--Economic conditions; United States--Industries--History.

eds. Michael D. Bordo, Claudia Goldin, and Eugene N. White (1998). The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 474 p.). Depressions--1929--United States; United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy.

Clair Brown, John Haltiwanger, and Julia Lane (2006). Economic Turbulence: Is a Volatile Economy Good for America? (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 197 p.). Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for Work, Technology, and Society (University of California, Berkeley); Professor of Economics (University of Maryland); Senior Vice President, Director of the Economics, Labor, and Population Department at the National Opinion Research Center (University of Chicago). Business cycles--United States; Statics and dynamics (Social sciences). Cycle of fluctuation, impact of volatility on American workers and businesses.

W. Elliot Brownlee (1979). Dynamics of Ascent: A History of the American Economy. (New York, NY: Knopf, 534 p. [2nd ed.]). Economics; United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy.

W. Elliot Brownlee, Mary M. Brownlee (1976). Women in the American Economy: A Documentary History, 1675 to 1929. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 350 p.). Women--Employment--United States--History.

Stuart W. Bruchey (1988). The Wealth of the Nation: An Economic History of the United States. (New York, NY: Harper Row, 259 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell (1946). Measuring Business Cycles. (New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 560 p.). Director of Research, National Bureau of Economics; Professor of Economics (Columbia University). Business cycles.

Anthony S. Campagna (1987). U. S. National Economic Policy, 1917-1985. (New York, NY: Praeger, 642 p.). Professor, Chairman of the Economics Department (University of Vermont). United States -- Economic policy. Various economic problems of past 70 years, what has been done to solve them.

Vincent P. Carosso and George H. Soule (1957). American Economic History. (New York, NY: Dryden Press, 654 p. [orig. pub. 1952]). United States--Economic conditions.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. (1990). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 463 p.). Industrial management--United States--History; Industrial organization--United States--History; Corporations--United States--Case studies.

Derek F. Channon (1973). The Strategy and Structure of British Enterprise. (Boston, MA: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 257 p.). Industrial organization--Great Britain; Industrial management--Great Britain; Business enterprises--Great Britain.

Lester V. Chandler (1951). Inflation in the United States, 1940-1948. (New York, NY: Harper, 402 p.). Inflation (Finance)--United States.; World War, 1939-1945--Finance--United States.

eds. Thomas C. Cochran [and] Thomas B. Brewer (1966). Views of American Economic Growth: The Agricultural Era (Volume One).  (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill). United States--Economic conditions--Addresses, essays, lectures.  

eds. Thomas C. Cochran [and] Thomas B. Brewer (1966). Views of American Economic Growth: The Industrial Era (Volume Two).  (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.). United States--Economic conditions--Addresses, essays, lectures.  

Robert M. Collins (2000). More : The Politics of Economic Growth in Postwar America. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 299 p.). Wealth--United States--History--20th century; Liberalism--United States--History--20th century; National characteristics, American; United States--Economic policy; United States--Economic conditions--1945-. 

Katharine Coman (1969). Economic Beginnings of the Far West: How We Won the Land Beyond the Mississippi. (New York, NY: Kelley, 2 vols.). Fur trade--West (U.S.); West (U.S.)--Economic conditions; West (U.S.)--History. Contents: I. The spanish occupation. Exploration and the fur trade.--II. The advance of the settlers. The transcontinental migration. Free land and free labor.

Dora L. Costa (1998). The Evolution of Retirement: An American Economic History, 1880-1990. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 234 p.). Retirement--United States--History; Aged--United States--Economic conditions; Aged--United States--Social conditions; Aging--Government policy--United States; Social security--United States; Old age pensions--United States; United States--Economic policy; United States--Social policy.

Lance E. Davis (1972). American Economic Growth; An Economist's History of the United States. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 683 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Ed. Scott Derks (2004). The Value of a Dollar: Prices and Incomes in the United States, 1860-2004. (Millerton, NY: Grey House Pub., 664 p. [3rd ed.]). Marketing Director For South Carolina Department Of Commerce. Prices United States History; Wages United States History; Purchasing power United States History'; Cost and standard of living United States History. History of American people through prices they paid for wide variety of products and services.

Eds. Scott Derks and Tony Smith (2005). The Value of a Dollar: Colonial Era to the Civil War, 1600-1865. (Millerton, NY: Grey House Pub., 436 p.). Marketing Director For South Carolina Department Of Commerce. Purchasing power--United States--History; Prices--United States--History; Wages--United States--History; Cost and standard of living--United States--History.

James L. Dietz (1986). Economic History of Puerto Rico: Institutional Change and Capitalist Development. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 337 p.). Investments--Puerto Rico--History; Capitalism--Puerto Rico--History; Puerto Rico--Economic conditions; Puerto Rico--Commerce--History; Puerto Rico--History.

Richard B. DuBoff (1989). Accumulation & Power: An Economic History of the United States. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 223 p.). Saving and investment--United States--History; Capital investments--United States--History; Monopolies--United States--History; Competition--United States--History; Capitalism--United States--History.

Eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman (1986). Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 884 p.). John H. Munro Professor of Economics and Professor of History (University of Rochester); Kenan Professor of Economics and History (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill). North America--Economic conditions; United States--Economic conditions.

--- (1996-2000). The Cambridge Economic History of the United States. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 3 vols.). United States--Economic conditions. Incomplete Contents: v. 1. The colonial era -- v. 2. The long nineteenth century -- v. 3. The twentieth century.

Harold U. Faulkner (1976). American Economic History. (New York, NY: Harper, 514 p. [9th ed.]). United States--Economic conditions.

Joseph Finkelstein (1992). The American Economy from the Great Crash to the Third Industrial Revolution. (Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 277 p.). United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945; United States--Economic conditions--1945-; United States--Economic policy.

Price Fishback ... [et al.] (2007). Government and the American Economy: A New History. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 500 p.). Frank and Clara Kramer Professor of Economics (University of Arizona). United States--Economic policy; United States--History. America’s democratic experiment allowed individuals and interest groups to shape structure, policies of government, which, in turn, have fostered economic success,  innovation by emphasizing private property rights, rule of law,  protections of individual freedom. 

Robert William Fogel (1964). Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 296 p.). Charles R. Walgreen Professor of American Institutions, Director for the Center for Population Economics (University of Chicago) and Winner - Nobel Prize for Economics in 1993. Railroads--United States--History; United States--Economic conditions.

Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman (1974). Time on the Cross; The Economics of American Negro Slavery. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 286 p.). Charles R. Walgreen Professor of American Institutions, Director for the Center for Population Economics (University of Chicago) and Winner - Nobel Prize for Economics in 1993; Professor of Economics and History (University of Rochester). Slavery--Economic aspects--United States; Slavery--United States--Econometric models. Winner of Bancroft Prize. Sweeping reexamination of economic foundations of American Negro slavery - entirely new portrayal of slavery's past. 

Paul W. Gates (1989). The Farmer's Age: Agriculture, 1815-1860. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 460 p. [orig. pub. 1960]). Agriculture--Economic aspects--United States--History--19th century; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

Paul W. Gates (1965). Agriculture and the Civil War. (New York, NY: Knopf, 383 p.). Agriculture--Economic aspects--United States; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Economic aspects.

Eugene D. Genovese, with a new introduction (1989). The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy & Society of the Slave South. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 335 p. [2nd ed.]). Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences (University of Rochester). Slavery--Economic aspects--United States; Slavery--Economic aspects--Southern States; United States--Economic conditions; Southern States--Economic conditions.

Claudia D. Goldin (1990). Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 287 p.). Women--Employment--United States--History; Sex discrimination in employment--United States--History.

Colin Gordon (1994). New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics in America, 1920-1935. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 329 p.). New Deal, 1933-1939; Labor policy--United States--History--20th century; United States--Economic policy--To 1933; United States--Economic policy--1933-1945; United States--Politics and government--1933-1945.

John Steele Gordon (2004). An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of America's Economic Power. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 480 p.). Columnist, American Heritage Magazine. Economic conditions -- U. S.; Economic history--U. S. Birth, development of American economy; first country to dominate world through creation of wealth; major technology in 20th century originated in United States, spread American culture, perspective around globe.

James Grant (1996). The Trouble with Prosperity : The Loss of Fear, the Rise of Speculation, and the Risk to American Savings. (New York, NY: Times Books, 348 p.). Business cycles--United States--History--20th century; United States--Economic conditions.

Norman S.B. Gras (1967). Business History of the United States about 1650 to 1950's. (Ann Arbor, MI: Lithographed by Edwards Bros.; distributed by the Lincoln Educational Foundation, New York, 470 p.). Professor of Business History (Harvard Business School). United States--Commerce--History. Condensed from his unpublished three-volume manuscript by Ethel C. Gras.

William Greenleaf (1968). American Economic Development Since 1860. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 391 p.). United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy; United States--History--1865---Sources.

Ernie Gross (2002). Advances and Innovations in American Daily Life, 1600s-1930s. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 298 p.). Technological innovations--United States--History; United States--Social life and customs. 

Songho Ha (2009). The Rise and Fall of the American System: Nationalism and the Development of the American Economy, 1800-1837. (London, UK: Pickering & Chatto, 256 p.). Department of History (University of Alaska Anchorage). Rise and fall, underlying causes of its failure, of the American system between the end of the war in 1815 and the Panic of 1837 (implemented by  U.S. government to develop national domestic market); started as expression of American nationalism; resulted in intensifying sectional conflicts within young republic; only implemented in minor cases, national market failed to emerge; 1840 - South bought just 8% of East's production (less from West). 

Louis M. Hacker (1961). Major Documents in American Economic History. (Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 2 vols.). United States--Economic conditions.  v. 2. The problems of a world power (the 20th century).

Louis M. Hacker (1961). Major Documents in American Economic History, Vol.2: the Problems of a World Power, the 20th Century. (Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 2 vols.). United States--Economic conditions. v. 1. From an agrarian to an industrial economy (1785-1900).

Oscar and Mary F. Handlin (1975). The Wealth of the American People: A History of American Affluence. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 266 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Robert L. Heilbroner, Aaron Singer (1999). The Economic Transformation of America: 1600 to the Present. (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 390 p. [4th ed.]). Industrialization--United States--History; United States--Economic conditions. Development of capitalism, age of machines through voices of business leaders, working people, inventors, unusual cast of presidents, generals, patriots. 

R. Rudy Higgens-Evenson (2003). The Price of Progress: Public Services, Taxation, and the American Corporate State, 1877 to 1929. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 168 p.). Government spending policy--United States--States; Taxation--United States--History--States; Corporate state--United States--History; United States--Politics and government; United States--Economic conditions.  

Charles Hoffmann (1970). The Depression of the Nineties; An Economic History. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Pub. Corp., 326 p.). Depressions--1893; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918.

Richard Holt (1995). The Reluctant Superpower: A History of America’s Global Economic Reach. (New York, NY: Kodansha International, 320 p.). Free enterprise--United States--History; Keynesian economics--History; United States--Foreign economic relations--History; United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy.

Daniel Walker Howe (2007). What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 904 p.). Rhodes Professor of American History Emeritus (Oxford University), Professor of History Emeritus (University of California, Los Angeles). Social change--United States--History--19th century; United States--History--1815-1861; United States--Foreign relations--1815-1861; United States--Politics and government--1815-1861; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865. End of the War of 1812 (1815) to the end of the Mexican American War (1848) - political, military events with social, economic, cultural history: 1) revolutionary improvements in transportation, communications that 2) accelerated extension of American empire; 3) railroads, canals, newspapers, telegraph dramatically lowered travel times, spurred spread of information; 4) prompted emergence of mass political parties, stimulated America's economic development from  overwhelmingly rural country to diversified economy in which commerce, industry took their place alongside agriculture; 5) rise of Andrew Jackson and his Democratic party; 6) power of religion to shape many aspects of American life (slavery, antislavery, women's rights , other reform movements, politics, education, literature; 7) bitterly controversial, brilliantly executed war against Mexico to gain California, Texas for the United States.

Michael Hudson (1975). Economics and Technology in 19th Century American Thought. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 426 p.). Distinguished Research Professor of Economics (University of Missouri, Kansas City). Economics --United States --History. First generation of Pennsylvanian Protectionists; Boston Protectionists; Border-State Protectionism until the New York Mainstream emerged; Henry Carey's generation after Civil War; Opponents of Protectionists; Generalists.

James Hudnut-Beumler (2007). In Pursuit of the Almighty’s Dollar: A History of Money and American Protestantism. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 288 p.). Dean of Vanderbilt Divinity School. Economics--Religious aspects--Christianity; Money--Religious aspects--Christianity; Protestantism--United States--History; Protestant churches--United States--History; Protestant churches--Doctrines--History; Stewardship, Christian; Money--United States--History; United States--Church history. Economics of American Protestantism; how economic pressures have helped shape what it means to be faithful.

Thomas P. Hughes (1989). American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870-1970. (New York, NY: Viking, 529 p.). Technology--United States--History.

Jonathan Hughes, Louis P. Cain (2003). American Economic History. (Boston, MA: Addison Wesley, 666 p. [6th ed.]). United States--Economic conditions.

James L. Huston (2003). Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights, and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 394 p.). Professor of history (Oklahoma State University). Slavery--Economic aspects--United States--History; Right of property--United States--History; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Causes; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Economic aspects. Property rights, as they pertained to slavery, was at center of Civil War.

ed. Jerry Jasinowski (1998). The Rising Tide: The Leading Minds of Business and Economics Chart a Course Toward Higher Growth and Prosperity. (New York, NY: Wiley, 274 p.). Economic development; Competition, International; United States--Economic policy--1993-.

Walter W. Jennings (1928). Introduction to American Economic History. (New York, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 546 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Ed. Richard R. John (2006). Ruling Passions: Political Economy in Nineteenth-Century America. (University Park, PA, Pennsylvania State University Press,  p.). Professor of History (University of Illinois, Chicago).United States --Economic conditions --To 1865; United States --Economic conditions --1865-1918; United States --Economic policy --To 1933; United States --Politics and government --19th century. 

Edgar Augustus Jerome Johnson (1961). American Economic Thought in the Seventeenth Century. (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 292 p. [orig. pub. 1932]). Economics--United States--History.

--- (1973). The Foundations of American Economic Freedom; Government and Enterprise in the Age of Washington. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 335 p.). Industrial policy--United States--History; Free enterprise; United States--Economic policy.

Robert E. Kelly; foreword by Nelson Benton (2008). The National Debt of the United States, 1941 to 2008. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 393 p.). Debts, Public --United States; Budget deficits --United States; Government spending policy --United States. Administrations of 12 presidents (Roosevelt through George W. Bush), annual budget deficits, interest expenses that fed national debt are examined in detail; what areas of government incurred overspending, how much was overspent.

Edward C. Kirkland (1961). Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor, and Public Policy, 1860-1897. (New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 445 p.). United States--Economic conditions. Series: The Economic history of the United States.

--- (1969). A History of American Economic Life. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 623 p. [4th ed.]). Business Historian. United States--Economic conditions.

Anne Kelly Knowles (1997). Calvinists Incorporated: Welsh Immigrants on Ohio’s Industrial Frontier. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 330 p.). Lecturer in Geography at the Institute of Earth Studies (University of Wales, Aberystwyth). Welsh Americans--Ohio--Ethnic identity--Case studies; Calvinists--Ohio--Case studies; Industrialization--Ohio--Jackson County--History--19th century; Industrialization--Ohio--Gallia County--History--19th century; Capitalism--Ohio--Jackson County--History--19th century; Capitalism--Ohio--Gallia County--History--19th century; Ohio--Historical geography--Case studies; Jackson County (Ohio)--Economic conditions; Gallia County (Ohio)--Economic conditions; Cardiganshire (Wales)--Emigration and immigration--History--19th century. Rural capitalist transformation, immigrants became involved with industrialization of region as workers, investors in Welsh-owned charcoal iron companies; how these strict Calvinists responded to moral dilemmas posed by leaving native land, experiencing economic success in United States. 

George Kozmetsky and Piyu Yue (2005). The Economic Transformation of the United States, 1950-2000: Focusing on the Technological Revolution, the Service Sector Expansion, and the Cultural, Ideological, and Demographic Changes. (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 493 p.). United States--Economic conditions--20th century; United States--Economic conditions--20th century--Statistics.

Herman E. Krooss (1970). Executive Opinion; What Business Leaders Said and Thought on Economic Issues, 1920s-1960s. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 438 p.). Businesspeople--United States; Executives--United States.

--- (1974). American Economic Development; The Progress of a Business Civilization. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 564 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Stanley Lebergott (1964). Manpower in Economic Growth; The American Record Since 1800. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 561 p.). Manpower--United States--History; Labor economics. Labor force (people) at center of economic history; demand, supply of labor is central focus; fundamental data (estimates of labor force, industrial composition, unemployment, real wages, self-employment) relied on by economic historians since published.

Harold C. Livesay (1979). American Made: Men Who Shaped the American Economy. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 310 p.). Businessmen -- United States -- Biography.

Jeffrey Madrick (1997). The End of Affluence: The Causes and Consequences of America's Economic Dilemma. (New York, NY: Random House, 223 p.). Former Economics Reporter (NBC). United States--Economic conditions--1971-1981; United States--Economic conditions--1981-. 

Eds. John W. Malsberger, James N. Marshall (2008). The American Economic History Reader: Documents and Readings. (New York, NY: Routledge, 556 p.). Department Chair Professor of History (Muhlenberg College); Professor of Accounting, Business & Economics (Muhlenberg College). Economics --United States --History; United States --Economic conditions; United States --Economic policy. Colonial period to present; 65 primary documents, 33 essays, 13 chapters (just over half cover post-1900 topics): 1) mercantilism and the colonial economy; 2) the economy of the new nation; railroads; slavery; 3) labor in industrializing America; 4) the rise of big business; 5) the New Era of the 1920s; 6) the Great Contraction; 7) the New Deal, World War II, and Keynes;8) the postwar Keynesian consensus; 9) the collapse of that consensus in 1969-1980; 10) Reaganomics; 11) Clintonomics.

Ed. Deidre N. McCloskey (1993). Second Thoughts: Myths and Morals of U.S. Economic History. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 208 p.). Academic. United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy.

Robert A. McGuire (2003). To Form a More Perfect Union: A New Economic Interpretation of the United States Constitution. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 395 p.). United States. Constitutional Convention (1787); United States. Constitution--Economic aspects; Constitutional history--United States; Constitutional law--Economic aspects--United States; Economic liberties (U.S. Constitution); United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

Richard B. McKenzie (1994). What Went Right in the 1980s. (San Francisco, CA: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 397 p.). Professor, Economics and Walter B. Gerken Chair of Enterprise & Society (University of California, Irvine). Economic indicators--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1981-2001. 1980s weren't decade of greed: charitable giving rose dramatically, employment spiraled upward; balancing of conventional (contrasting) wisdom.

David R. Meyer (2003). The Roots of American Industrialization. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 333 p.). Professor of Sociology and Urban Studies (Brown University). Industrialization--United States--History--19th century.; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865. How eastern United States made successful transformation from agricultural to  industrial economy - 1) 1790 - 1820; 2) 1820 - 1860; agriculture and industry were mutually reinforcing.

Broadus Mitchell (1947). Depression Decade; From New Era Through New Deal, 1929-1941. (New York, NY: Rinehart, 462 p.). Depressions--1929--United States; New Deal, 1933-1939; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

Marina Moskowitz (2004). Standard of Living: The Measure of the Middle Class in Modern America. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 300 p.). Lecturer in History, Director of the Andrew Hook Centre for American Studies (University of Glasgow). Middle class--United States--History; Cost and standard of living--United States--History. 

David C. Mowery, Nathan Rosenberg (1998). Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th Century America. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 214 p.). Technology--United States--History--20th century; Internal combustion engines--United States--History--20th century; Electric engineering--United States--History--20th century; Chemical engineering--United States--History--20th century.

ed. David C. Mowery (1999). U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 411 p.). Industries--United States--Forecasting--Congresses; Economic forecasting--United States--Congresses; United States--Economic conditions--1981---Congresses. 

Allan Nevins (1927). The Emergence of Modern America, 1865-1878. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 446 p.). United States--Economic conditions; United States--Social conditions; United States--Civilization.

Albert W. Niemi, Jr. (1975). U.S. Economic History: A Survey of the Major Issues. (Chicago, IL: Rand McNally College Pub. Co.,, 361 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Joao F. Normano (1943). The Spirit of American Economics; A Study in the History of Economic Ideas in the United States Prior to the Great Depression. (New York, NY: John Day Company, 252 p.). Economics--United States--History; Economics--Canada--History.

Douglass C. North and Lance E. Davis (1971). Institutional Change and American Economic Growth. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 282 p.). United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic conditions--Mathematical models.

Bernard D. Nossiter (1990). Fat Years and Lean: The American Economy Since Roosevelt. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 271 p.). United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945; United States--Economic conditions--1945-; United States--Economic policy.

Brendan O'Flaherty (1996). Making Room: The Economics of Homelessness. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 349 p.). Professor of Economics (Columbia University). Homelessness --United States; Homelessness --Canada; Housing --United States; Housing --Canada; Housing policy --United States; Housing policy --Canada. Economic analysis of homelessness (six cities) - about markets; new homelessness trend (started in 1980s) - response to changes in housing market, linked to widening gap in incomes of rich, poor, accompanied by rising rents for poor people, continued housing abandonment; resulting shrinkage in size of middle class, fewer hand-me-downs for poor, higher rents for available low-quality housing; differing rates of homelessness in North America, Europe, from one city to next, interesting changes in composition of homeless populations; distinction between homeless people on streets every day, those "officially" counted as homeless.

Brendan O'Flaherty (2005). City Economics. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 587 p.). Professor of Economics (Columbia University). Urban economics; Urban policy; Sociology, Urban. Verbal, geometric, arithmetic analysis of economics of cities.

Michael J. Panzner (2009). When Giants Fall: An Economic Roadmap for the End of the American Era. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 264 p.). FT Knowledge/New York Institute of Finance faculty member. International economic relations --21st century; Natural resources; Geopolitics --21st century; Balance of power; United States --Economic conditions --21st century. Coming age of post-American dominance in perspective, far-reaching effects on lives, economic opportunities; how widespread economic changes will impact businesses, investors; why individuals will be forced to rethink livelihoods, lifestyles, living arrangements; key economic, political, geopolitical, social issues to realities of earning a living, protecting, preserving wealth, running a business, looking after loved ones; achieve financial security, stability in increasingly uncertain, dangerous world.

Randall E. Parker (2007). The Economics of the Great Depression: A Twenty-First Century Look Back at the Economics of the Interwar Era. (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 257 p.). Professor of Economics (East Carolina University). Depressions--1929--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945. Evolution, current state of economic literature on  Great Depression: status of remaining debates, what economists do, do not know about economics of interwar era, new directions economic research is taking to better understand.

ed. Edwin J. Perkins (1977). Men and Organizations: The American Economy in the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Putnam, 201 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Edwin J. Perkins (1988). The Economy of Colonial America. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 251 p. [2nd ed.]). United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

Edwin J. Perkins and Gary M. Walton (1985). A Prosperous People: The Growth of the American Economy. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 240 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

ed. George L. Perry, James Tobin (2000). Economic Events, Ideas, and Policies: The 1960s and After. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 365 p.). United States--Economic policy--1961-1971; United States--Economic policy; Money--Europe--History--20th century; United States--Economic conditions--1961-1971; United States--Economic conditions.

Ed. Glenn Porter (1980). Encyclopedia of American Economic History: Studies of the Principal Movements and Ideas. (New York, NY: Scribner, 3 vols.; 1,286 p.). United States--Economic conditions. Contents: Chandler, A. D. Rise and evolution of big business; Vernon, R. and Wortzel, H. Multinational enterprise; Tedlow, R. S. Advertising and public relations; Baughman, J. P. Management.

Barry W. Poulson (1981). Economic History of the United States. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 672 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Colorado). United States--Economic conditions.

Clyde Prestowitz (2010). The Betrayal of American Prosperity: Free Market Delusions, America’s Decline, and How We Must Compete in the Post-Dollar Era. (New York, NY, Free Press, 288 p.). Founder of the Economic Strategy Institute. United States --Economic policy; United States --Economic conditions --21st century; United States --Commercial policy; United States --Foreign economic relations --China; China --Foreign economic relations --United States. Erosion of fundamental pillars of American economic economic might, leadership started well before 2008 financial crisis - supported home industries, protected market against unfair trade, made world’s finest products, led technological innovation, strong savers; post-WWII - consumption, not production drove economy; free trade always a win-win; all globalization is good; market is always right, government regulation or intervention in economy always causes more harm than good; didn’t matter that factories fled overseas (moving to "higher ground" of services); flawed orthodoxy gutted American economy (2008 financial crisis only most blatant, recent consequence); great challenge in competing with economic juggernaut of China, other fast-rising economies; dramatic changes to confront painful permanent slide in standard of living; dollar will no longer world’s currency; military strength whittled away; increasingly subject to will of China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, various malcontents.

Roger L. Ransom, Richard Sutch (2001). One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 458 p. [2nd ed.]). Professor of History and Economics (University of California, Riverside); Distinguished Professor of Economics (University of California, Riverside). Afro-Americans--Southern States--Economic conditions; Southern States--Economic conditions; Southern States--History--1865-1951. Best introduction to early post-emancipation, post-bellum, economy of the South; economic institutions that replaced slavery, conditions under which ex-slaves were allowed to enter economic life of  United States following the Civil War.

Sidney Ratner, James H. Soltow, Richard Sylla (1993). The Evolution of the American Economy: Growth, Welfare, and Decision Making. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 599 p.). United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy.

Heather Cox Richardson (1997). The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies During the Civil War. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 342 p.). Associate Professor, Department of History (University of Massachusetts). Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- )--History; United States--Economic policy--To 1933; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865; United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.

Hugh Rockoff (1984). Drastic Measures: A History of Wage and Price Controls in the United States. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 289 p.). Wage-price policy--United States--History.

Nathan Rosenberg (1972). Technology and American Economic Growth. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 211 p.). Technological innovations--United States--History.

Nathan Rosenberg & L.E. Birdzell, Jr. (1986). How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 353 p.). Capitalism--History; Economic history; Europe--Economic conditions; United States--Economic conditions.

Samuel Rosenberg (2003). American Economic Development Since 1945: Growth, Decline, and Rejuvenation. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 339 p.). United States--Economic conditions--1945-; United States--Economic policy.

Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (1995). The Economics of Defense. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 387 p.). Robert R. and Katheryn A. Dockson Chair of International Relations and Economics (University of Southern California); Professor of Economics and Director, Centre for Defence Economics (University of York, UK). Economic conversion--United States; United States--Defenses--Economic aspects; United States--Military policy. Economic analysis of defense and peace issues.

Steven A. Sass (1986). Entrepreneurial Historians and History: Leadership and Rationality in American Economic Historiography, 1940-1960. (New York, NY: Garland, 301 p.). Economic history--Research--United States; United States--Economic conditions--Historiography. Series: American business history.

eds. Bruce R. Scott and George C. Lodge (1985). U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 543 p.). Competition, International; United States--Foreign economic relations.

Ronald E. Seavoy (2006). An Economic History of the United States: From 1607 to the Present. (New York, NY: Routledge, 368 p.). United States--Economic conditions. 1607 to the modern age, documented history of how the American economy has propelled the nation into a position of world leadership.

Tom Shachtman (1997). Around the Block: The Business of a Neighborhood. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace, 325 p.). Small business--Social aspects--New York (State)--New York--Case studies; Neighborhood--New York (State)--New York--Case studies; Chelsea (Manhattan, New York, N.Y.).

George Shea and edited by Alfred L. Malabre, Jr. (1968). Forty Years on Wall Street; Appraisals of the Economic Scene. (Princeton, NJ: Dow Jones, 254 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

"Adam Smith" (1990). The Roaring 80's. (New York, NY: Penguin, 303 p. (orig. pub. 19880). Economic history--1971-1990; United States--Economic conditions--1981-.

Page Smith (1990). The Rise of Industrial America: A People's History of the Post-Reconstruction Era. (New York, NY: Penguin, 965 p. [orig. pub. 1984]). United States--History--1865-1898.

Walter Buckingham Smith and Arthur Harrison Cole (1969). Fluctuations in American Business, 1790-1860. (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 195 p. [orig. pub. 1935]). Prices--United States--History; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

Robert L. Smitley (1933). Popular Financial Delusions. (Philadelphia, PA: Ronald Swain Co., 338 p.). Economics--Miscellanea; Finance--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

Robert Sobel (2000). The Great Boom, 1950-2000: How a Generation of Americans Created the World's Most Prosperous Society. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 450 p.). Professor (Hofstra University). Veterans--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1945-; United States--Social conditions--1945-.

Steve Solomon (1986). Small Business USA: The Role of Small Companies in Sparking America's Economic Transformation. (New York, NY: Crown, 358 p.). Small business--United States.

George Henry Soule (1947). Prosperity Decade; From War to Depression: 1917-1929. (New York, NY: Rinehart, 365 p.). United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

--- (1952). Economic Forces in American History. (New York, NY: Sloane, 568 p.). United States--Economic conditions.

Thomas A. Stapleford (2009). The Cost of Living in America: A Political History of Economic Statistics, 1880-2000. (New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 421 p.). Assistant Professor in the Program of Liberal Studies (University of Notre Dame). Cost and standard of living -- United States -- History. Inside Bureau of Labor Statistics; Consumer Price Index - history, context; account of quantitative knowledge that underpins much of American political economy; choices made in constructing, using cost-of-living statistics, why those choices matter for understanding American history, contemporary political and economic life; process of determining what it cost to live in America deeply political, contested over course of twentieth century.

Benn Steil and Robert E. Litan (2006). Financial Statecraft: The Role of Financial Markets in American Foreign Policy. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 208 p.). Director of International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations; vice president of research and policy at the Kauffman Foundation and senior fellow in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. Financial institutions --United States; Capital movements --Government policy --United States; International finance; International relations; United States --Foreign relations. Aspects of economic statecraft directed at influencing international capital flows; nearly $2 trillion worth of currency moves cross-border every day (roughly 90% accounted for by financial flows unrelated to trade in goods, services—a stunning inversion of figures in 1970); how precisely has American government practiced financial statecraft? how effectively? how be more effective?

Herbert Stein (1986). Washington Bedtime Stories : The Politics of Money and Jobs. (New York, NY: Free Press, 381 p.). U.S. Economic Policy, 1981-1993, 1993-; Finance-Public.

--- (1994). Presidential Economics: The Making of Economic Policy from Roosevelt to Clinton. (Washington, DC: AEI Press (American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research), 3 rd ed., 495 p.). Economic Policy, U.S. Government 1933-1945, 1945-1989, 1989-, Presidents-History 20th Century.

Herbert Stein & Murray Foss (1995). The New Illustrated Guide to the American Economy. (Washington, DC: AEI Press, Publisher for the American Enterprise Institute, 273 p.). United States--Economic conditions--1981.

Judith Stein (2010). Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 367 p.). Professor of History (City College and Graduate Center of the City University of New York). Keynesian economics; Financial institutions --United States; United States --Economic policy --1971-1981; United States --Politics and government --1969-1974; United States --Politics and government --1974-1977; United States --Politics and government --1977-1981. 1970s- end of age of factory; era of postwar liberalism, created by New Deal - practices, high wages, regulated capital produced robust economic growth, greater income equality; high oil prices, economic competition from Japan, Germany battered American economy, required new policies; war waged against inflation, not against unemployment; government promoted balanced budget instead of growth; beginning of age of finance, subsequent deregulation, free trade, low taxation, weak unions that has fostered inequality, now worst recession in sixty years.

Joseph E. Stiglitz (2003). The Roaring Nineties: A New History of the World's Most Prosperous Decade. (New York, NY: Norton, 256 p.). 2001 Nobel Prize Winner (Economics), Chairman of Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers, Chief Economist (World Bank). Enron Corp.--Accounting; Globalization; United States--Economic conditions--1981-2001; United States--Economic policy--1993-2001. 

Steven Stoll (2008). The Great Delusion: A Mad inventor, Death in the Tropics, and the Utopian Origins of Economic Growth. (New York, NY: Hill and Wang, 210 p.). Associate Professor of History (Fordham University). Etzler, J. A. (John Adolphus); Conservation of natural resources --United States --History; Utopias --United States --History; United States --Economic conditions. Endless economic growth rests on belief in limitless abundance of natural world. Life of strange, brooding 19th-century German engineer, technological utopian who pursued universal wealth from inexhaustible forces of nature; economic growth as we know it, not as measured by gross domestic product, but as expectation that society depends on continued physical expansion in order to survive.

George Rogers Taylor (1989). The Transportation Revolution 1815-1860. (Armonk. NY: M.E. Sharpe, 490 p. [orig. pub. 1951]). Transportation--United States--History--19th century; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

Andrew Tobias (1980). Getting by on $100,000 a Year, and Other Sad Tales. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 264 p.). Finance, Personal; Business; United States--Economic conditions--1971-1981.

Charles Manfred Thompson and Fred Mitchell Jones (1939). Economic Development of the United States: A First Course. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 794 p.). United States--Economic conditions; United States--Economic policy.

Alvin Toffler and Heidi Toffler (2006). Revolutionary Wealth. (New York, NY: Knopf, 492 p.). Economic forecasting; Wealth; Social change; Social prediction; Economic history--1945- ; Social history--1945- ; Civilization, Modern--1950-Twenty-first century--Forecasts. How tomorrow’s wealth will be created, who will get it,  how; not just about money, cannot be understood in terms of industrial-age economics. 

Lynn Turgeon (1996). Bastard Keynesianism: The Evolution of Economic Thinking and Policymaking Since World War II. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 156 p.). Keynesian economics; United States--Economic policy; United States--Economic conditions--1945-. 

Thurman W. Van Metre (1921). Economic History of the United States. (New York, NY: Holt, 672 p.). United States--Economic policy; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

Harold G. Vatter (1963). The U.S. Economy in the 1950's; An Economic History. (New York, NY: Norton, 308 p.). American Economic History and the History of Economic Thought (Portland State University). United States--Economic conditions--1945-.  

--- (1975). The Drive to Industrial Maturity: The U. S. Economy, 1860-1914. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 368 p.). American Economic History and the History of Economic Thought (Portland State University).  Industries--United States; United States--Economic conditions--1865-1918; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

 --- 1985). The U.S. Economy in World War II. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 198 p.). American Economic History and the History of Economic Thought (Portland State University). United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945; United States--Economic conditions--1945-; United States--Economic policy--1933-1945; United States--Economic policy--1945-1960.

Eds. Harold G. Vatter and John F. Walker (1996). History of the U.S. Economy Since World War II. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 499 p.). United States--Economic conditions--1945- ; United States--Economic policy.

Gary M. Walton and Hugh Rockoff (2004). History of the American Economy. (Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 640 p. [10th ed.]). United States--Economic conditions.

Wyatt C. Wells (2003). American Capitalism, 1945-2000: Continuity and Change from Mass Production to the Information Society. (Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, 224 p.). Distinguished Research Associate Professor of History (Auburn University, Montgomery). United States--Economic conditions--1945-; United States--Economic policy.  

Chester W. Wright (1949). Economic History of the United States. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 941 p. [2nd ed.]). United States--Economic conditions.

Gavin Wright (1978). The Political Economy of the Cotton South: Households, Markets, and Wealth in the Nineteenth Century. (New York, NY: Norton, 205 p.). Cotton trade--Southern States--History; Southern States--Economic conditions.

--- (1996). Old South, New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy since the Civil War. (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 321 p.). Industries--Southern States--History; Southern States--Economic conditions. 

Gavin Wright (2006). Slavery and American Economic Development. (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 162 p.). William Robertson Coe Professor in American Economic History (Stanford University). Slavery--Economic aspects--United States; Right of property--United States--History.; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865. Slavery as set of property rights which vested slave's human capital in  slave owner rather than slave. Property rights, not personhood, defined system; rejection of former in favor of latter ultimately distinguished North from South with respect to labor. 

Robert E. Wright (2008). One Nation Under Debt: Hamilton, Jefferson, and the History of What We Owe. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 419 p.). Teaches Financial History at Stern School of Business (New York University), Curator for the Museum of American Finance. Debts, Public -- United States; Budget deficits -- United States; Government spending policy -- United States. America's first national debt arose from immense sums needed to conduct American Revolution; key events that shaped U.S. financial system; how actions of forefathers laid groundwork for today's debt; how political leaders accumulated massive new debts to ensure popularity; critical evolutionary developments  how, by end of Andrew Jackson's administration, America's financial system contributed to national growth while new national, state debts amassed, sealed fate for future generations.

Andrew L. Yarrow (2010). Measuring America: How Economic Growth Came To Define American Greatness in the Late Twentieth Century. (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 240 p.). Vice President and Washington Director of Public Agenda. Economics -- United States -- Sociological aspects; Public opinion -- United States; Nationalism -- United States; United States -- Economic conditions -- 20th century; United States -- Social conditions -- 20th century. Rise of economic thinking in U.S. after World War II; how economic ideas came to have vastly greater influence on American culture, how those ideas dovetailed with  growing belief that  meaning and value of United States resided in its material outpu; how, why this new way of “measuring America” developed, how it was expressed, what it has meant, means for Americans today.

Thomas W. Zeiler (1992). American Trade and Power in the 1960’s. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 371 p.). United States--Commercial policy--History--20th century; United States--Commerce--History--20th century; United States--Economic conditions--1961-1971.


U. S. Business Cycle Expansion/Contractions (1854-2007)                           

Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research (contractions [recessions] start at the peak of a business cycle and end at the trough; prior to 1979, there were no formal announcements of business cycle turning points). The NBER does not define a recession in terms of two consecutive quarters of decline in real GDP. Rather, a recession is a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales.

United States Misery Index                                                                                                                     

The misery index was initiated by economist Arthur Okun, an adviser to President Lyndon Johnson in the 1960's. It is simply the unemployment rate added to the inflation rate. It is assumed that both a higher rate of unemployment and a worsening of inflation both create economic and social costs for a country. A combination of rising inflation and more people of out of work implies a deterioration in economic performance and a rise in the misery index.

U. S. Economy at a Glance                                                                                             

Six months of key economic data displayed in an easy-to-use format, including unemployment rate, average hourly earnings, consumer price index, producer price index, U.S. import price index, and productivity. Provides economic data charts for each state as well as links to Bureau of Labor Statistics reports. Subjects: United States -- Economic conditions.

What Was the GDP Then?                                                                                                                  

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a given time period. There are two ways to measure GDP: 1) Nominal GDP is the dollar value of production at current-year prices. For example, nominal GDP in 1990, $5,803 billion, is calculated using year 1990 prices for goods and services; 2) Real GDP is the dollar value of production using a given base year prices. For example, real GDP in 1990, $7,112 billion in year 2000 dollars, is calculated using 2000 prices for goods and services. Five values can be determined for any year, or range of years, between 1790 and 2005: Nominal GDP, Real GDP, GDP Deflator, Population Nominal GDP per capita, Real GDP per capita.


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