1561 - First
coins produced by machinery (known as a 'mill') rather than by
hand; 1663 -
replaced hand struck coinage.
1613 - Copper
farthing produced; silver coin too small.
Massachusetts established only Colonial Mint;
September 1‚ 1652 -
John Hull, Robert Sanderson officially opened Massachusetts Bay
Mint in Boston‚ issued
Shilling, first coin produced in what is now the United States;
initial issue consisted of simple round planchets with NE
punched on obverse, denomination on reverse.
July 16, 1661
- Bank of Stockholm issued first banknotes in Europe.
Colony of Massachusetts authorized the first official paper
currency ever used in the Western Hemisphere; prior to that
colonists generally used unofficial coins; 1652-1682
- Boston-based silversmiths John Hull and Robert Sanderson
operated their own mint, issued silver shillings and three and
December 10, 1690 -
Massachusetts colony bills of credit for soldiers were first
official currency in America.
1717 - Value of golden guinea fixed at 21
May 10, 1775
- Second Continental Congress convened in Pennsylvania , issued
paper currency for first time.
June 22, 1775
- Congress authorized first issue of Continental Currency, some
$2 million in bills of credit, known as "Continentals", to help
to finance American Revolution. Featured likenesses of
Revolutionary soldiers, inscription "The United Colonies."
Backed by promise of "future tax revenues"; ultimately failed,
left the young nation saddled with a hefty war debt. America
resisted the urge to issues new paper notes until the dawn of
the Civil War.
1775 - Three
men appointed to supervise printing of $2 million in bills; 28
citizens of Philadelphia employed by Congress to sign, number
July 25, 1775
- Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling Magna
- The Continental Congress provided for standing committee
of five to oversee Treasury Department; Committee referred to by
various names, including Board of Treasury, Treasury Office of
Congress established Treasury's Office of Accounts with an
Auditor General, under Standing Committee of the Treasury.
1776 - Treasurer of the United States authorized
to employ persons to sign bills.
April 1, 1778
- Oliver Pollock, New Orleans businessman, created dollar ($)
sign; his penmanship made abbreviation appear to be
transposition of letters "p" and "s."
July 9, 1778
- The Articles of Confederation regulated coin alloys and
1779 -Continental Congress created office of
Secretary of the Treasury; July
1779 - position abolished when new Board of
- The final issue of Continental Currency authorized; money
later became worthless, gave rise to saying "not worth a
February 17, 1781
-- The Office of the Superintendent of Finance replaced Board of
1781 -- Robert Morris unanimously elected Superintendent
- The first known imprint of Great Seal of the United States
1784 - The
Continental Congress established Board of Treasury to consist of
July 6, 1785
- First time in history, nation adopted decimal coinage system;
dollar unanimously chosen as money unit for United States.
- Congress approved Thomas Jefferson's proposal for
8, 1786 - Congress adopted silver dollar, decimal system
1786 - The Continental Congress authorized
establishment of Mint facility in Philadelphia, PA.
1789 - Law enacted by Congress created
Â Treasury Department; second oldest department in Federal
Government; September 11, 1789 - Alexander Hamilton took oath of
office as first Secretary of the Treasury.
13, 1789 - Temporary Loan made; believed to be
only loan negotiated without authority of law.
- Congress authorized first U.S. Government securities.
January 28, 1791
-Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton submitted Mint Report
to Congress; gave results of U.S. Government's first financial
survey on silver content of Spanish dollar.
April 2, 1792
- Congress passed the Coinage Act; authorized: 1) legal tender
system; 2) establishment of the U.S. Mint and a decimal-based
currency system, 3) the President to construct Mint buildings in
the nation's capitol, Philadelphia (first federal building
erected under the Constitution), 4) minting of $10 Eagle, $5
half-Eagle and 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins and silver dollar,
dollar, quarter, dime and half-dime;
April 14, 1792 - astronomer and
mathematician David Rittenhouse installed as Mint's inaugural
Director (served from 1793 until 1795); ushered 11,178 copper
coins into circulation, oversaw initial issues of gold and
silver currency; Robert Scot appointed first engraver to federal
May 8, 1792 - An Act of
Congress established Commissioner of Revenue in the Treasury
6, 1792 -- President George Washington declared
end to coin shortage with striking of first half-dime coins.
February 9, 1793 -
Congress authorized use of foreign coins as legal tender in
1793 - Bank of England handed out first 5 pound
- First silver dollar coins released into circulation.
- First half-dollar coins placed into circulation.
Robert Scot formed bank note engraving business in Philadelphia,
PA; 1810 - three Philadelphia engravers, with
associations to Scot, formed Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co., one
of principal producers of American Banknotes.
January 31, 1795
-- Alexander Hamilton resigned, ended his term as first
Secretary of U. S. Treasury.
September 22, 1795
- First $10 gold coins, known as "eagles," roduced.
October 10, 1795
- United States Mint hired first two female employees.
- First $2-1/2 gold coins, known as "quarter eagles," produced.
1797 - Frst
copper pennies produced ('cartwheels') in England by application
of steam power to coining press.
February 26, 1797
- First £1 note issued by Bank of England.
1799 - U.S. Mint
made an independent agency.
August 24, 1814 -
The British burned Main Treasury Building, dined by its light
across street in Rhodes Tavern.
1816 - First
time British silver coins produced with intrinsic value
substantially below their face value – first official 'token'
July 4, 1829
- Cornerstone laid for first U.S. mint (Chestnut and Juniper St,
1834 - An
Act of Congress regulated gold coinage; reduced gold
March 3, 1835
-- An Act of Congress authorized Charlotte Mint in North
Carolina (in operation from 1838 until 1861); authorized
Dahlonega Mint in Georgia (in operation from 1838 until 1861);
authorized New Orleans Mint in Louisiana.
March 23, 1836
- Franklin Beale invented steam-powered coin press; produced
first batch of coins for U.S. Mint.
June 9, 1837
- The Republic of Texas authorized issuance of money
March 8, 1838
- U.S. Mint in New Orleans began operation (produced dimes).
March 28, 1838 -
Charlotte Mint in North Carolina produced first "branch mint"
coinage, gold half-eagle coins.
August 26, 1842 -
A Fiscal Year of July 1 through June 30 established for Treasury
March 3, 1849
- Gold Coinage Act authorized $20 Double Eagle gold coin.
Creation of Swiss Franc; prior to 1850: about 860 different
coins were in circulation in Switzerland, all were legal tender.
March 12, 1850
- First U.S. $20 gold piece issued.
March 3, 1851 -
Congress authorized smallest U.S. silver coin (3 cent piece).
July 3, 1852
- Congress authorized second U. S. mint (San Francisco, CA).
February 21, 1853
- U.S. authorized minting of $3 gold pieces.
February 21, 1857
- Act of Congress outlawed foreign currency as legal tender
- American Bank Note Company formed from merger of Rawdon,
Wright, Hatch & Edson (founded 1847, 23.9% share), Toppan,
Carpenter & Co. (founded 1845, 22.4% share), Danforth, Perkins &
Co. (founded 1858, 21.8% share), Bald, Cousland & Co. (founded
1853, 13.3% share), Jocelyn, Draper, Welsh & Co. (founded 1854,
8.4% share), Wellstood, Hay & Whiting (founded 1855, 8.2%
share), John E. Gavit (founded 1851, 2% share); offices at
Merchants' Exchange Building, 55 Wall St.;
1879 - merged with National Bank Note
Co. (formed 1859), Continental Bank Note Co. (formed 1863);
1891 - introduced
"planchette paper" (supplied by Crane & Co.), contained colored
paper discs (rather than silk fibers or silk threads), instantly
revealed any counterfeit; became pre-eminent supplier of
engraved travelers check forms (with safeguards against
- supplied bank notes for 48 countries,printed stock
certificates, bonds, checks; 1911
- merged with United Bank Note Corp. (formed in 1906 as holding
company to acquire stock of American Bank Note Co.);
1940s - worked
with American Cyanamid Company, Crane & Co. to develop
"Melamine" paper, provides increased resistance to folding,
tearing, rubbing, wet strength or resistance to wear when
subjected to moisture; 1990
- International Banknote merged with U.S. Banknote Company L.P.
(founded 1884) in transaction valued at $104 million, formed
United States Banknote Corporation, second largest security
printer in world; July 1, 1995
- name changed to American Banknote Corporation;
international operations genertated nearly 75% of revenue;
1998 - sold
American Bank Note Holographics (formed in mid-1980s) for $116
million to reduce domestic debt service;
1999 - forced to restate 1998 earnings
because of questions regarding overstatement of revenues, net
income by Holographics; at least 20 class-action suits filed,
investigations initiated by independent auditors, SEC, U.S.
Attorney's office in New York;
August 1999 - stock delisted;
December 18, 1999
- filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection;
August 22, 2002 -
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New
York confirmed Reorganization Plan (effective October 1, 2002);
August 8, 2003 -
jury found that Morris Weissman, former chairman, CEO of
American Banknote, had inflated company's earnings in 1996 and
1997; April 8, 2005
- Bankruptcy Court confirmed Company's Plan of Reorganization as
American Banknote Corporation.
March 9, 1861
- Confederate currency authorized - $50, $100, $500, $1,000
April 8, 1861
- Confederacy seized U.S. Mint at Dahlonega, GA.
July 17, 1861 -
United States Government issued first paper money, U.S. demand
notes popularly known as Greenbacks.
November 20, 1861
-- Salmon P. Chase, 25th Secretary of the Treasury, instructed
Director of the Philadelphia Mint to develop appropriate motto
to be used on United States coins.
February 25, 1862
- Congress formed U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing;
Congress passed Legal Tender Act, authorized use of paper notes,
called "greenbacks", to prevent counterfeiting, to pay
government's bills; ended long-standing policy of using only
gold or silver in transactions, allowed government to finance
enormously costly war long after its gold, silver reserves
depleted; greenbacks were legal tender (creditors had to accept
them at face value). Congress also passed income tax, steep
excise taxes, both of which cooled inflationary pressures
created by greenbacks; March 17,
1862 - first two issues of Greenbacks made legal
tender; 1863 -
another legal tender act passed; by Civil War's end nearly
half-billion dollars in greenbacks issued. The Legal Tender Act
laid foundation for creation of permanent currency in decades
after Civil War.
March 10, 1862
- First paper money issued in US: $5, $10, and $20.
April 21, 1862
- Congress established U.S. Mint in Denver, CO.
1862 - Act of Congress provided that Secretary of the
Treasury is responsible for selection of designs, including
portraits, which appear on paper currency.
August 21, 1862
Treasury Department released fractional currency,
also known as postage currency: new 5, 10, 25, and 50-cent notes
(economy took a beating from Civil War).
August 29, 1862 - Bureau of Engraving
and Printing founded; originally housed in basement of Treasury
Building, staff of six (didn't print notes, separated $1 and $2
United States Notes produced by private companies);
1863 - bureau
started printing notes; 1887
- assumed full responsibility for producing nation's currency;
bureau grew from six to 2,800 employees in two offices in
Washington, DC, branch in Fort Worth, TX;
2006 - bureau annually engraves
approximately 6.5 billion notes worth $80 billion.
November 20, 1862
- First engraving staff (3 people) started work at
Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
25, 1863 - President Lincoln signed National Currency
Act; established Office of the Comptroller of the Currency,
bureau governed by Secretary of the Treasury, to begin first
steps to nationwide circulation of standardized currency.
1863 -- An Act of Congress authorized Carson
City Mint in Nevada (in operation from 1870 until 1893); United
States produced first fractional currency notes.
May 9, 1863
- Hugh McCulloch appointed as first Comptroller of the Currency
(later served as Secretary of the Treasury).
October 10, 1863
- First fractional currency notes released into circulation.
December 9, 1863
-- Salmon P. Chase approved proposal by Director of the
Philadelphia Mint for changes to mottoes on United States coins.
February 17, 1864
-- The Confederate States of America authorized fourth printing
of currency, amounted to $200 million of notes.
April 22, 1864
- Congress authorized use of phrase "In God We Trust" on U.S.
March 3, 1865 --
An Act of Congress authorized Director of the Philadelphia Mint
to place motto "In God We Trust" on all gold and silver coins.
November 13, 1865
--First gold certificate issued.
1866 - An
Act of Congress stated that only portrait of deceased
person may appear on bank notes.
May 16, 1866
authorized minting of five-cent piece; voted to discontinue use
of small silver coin, half-dime, and replace it with five-cent
piece; initial version of nickel featured shield on front,
"5" on back, plain-faced; successive runs of coin more ornate;
1913 - Bureau of Engraving and Printing issued
now-coveted "buffalo" nickel, with buffalo, bust of Native
American on respective sides; current, and even more ornate,
incarnation of coin pays homage to Thomas Jefferson--features
third U.S. president's likeness on one side, rendering of his
home, Monticello, on other.
September 17, 1868
- Nation's six-year-old currency agency officially
christened as Bureau of Engraving and Printing, national
currency production bureau.
- U.S. Mint at Carson City, NV opened; February 10, 1870
- first silver dollar coins released into circulation; eight
coin denominations bearing mint mark "CC" produced until June 1,
1893; Mint produced more than $49,000,000 of gold and silver.
June 27, 1871
- Yen became new form of currency in Japan.
February 12, 1873
established Bureau of the Mint under Treasury Department;
authorized Treasury Department to place motto "In
God We Trust"
on all United States coins.
February 19, 1873
Comptroller of the Currency
required to report on condition of State banks.
January 19, 1874
United States Mint
authorized to strike coinage for foreign governments.
- U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Engraving and Printing
created to print all U.S. notes, securities;
1877 - became sole producer of all
United States currency
1894 - Began printing postage stamps.
February 23, 1876
- Last fractional currency issued, fortotal of $368,720,000. of
March 3, 1877
- Functions of the
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act; provided for issue of silver
certificates, authorized coinage of silver dollar coins.
May 2, 1878
- U.S. stopped minting 20 cent coin.
May 31, 1878 -
Act of Congress forbade further retirement of U.S. legal tender
September 26, 1880
- Congress enacted law mandating that coin designs must remain
in use for 25 years.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
began producing all United States paper currency and government
securities; function centralized for first time.
February 20, 1895
- Congress authorized U.S. mint at Denver, Colorado.
March 3, 1899
- Congress authorized Lafayette silver dollar.
March 14, 1900 -
Gold Standard Act fixed value of dollar against gold.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
delivered first postage stamp coils.
May 18, 1908
- Congress passed legislation that made maxim "In God We Trust"
an obligatory element of certain coins; motto dates to early
1860s, when Civil War stirred religious feelings throughout
nation. America's heightened piety manifested itself in many
places, including treasury department, which received countless
letters requesting that nation's coins pay some form of tribute
to God. Concerned citizens, religious leaders found fast friend
in Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase, who readily agreed that
"trust of our people in God should be declared on our national
coins." James Pollock, director of U.S. Mint at Philadelphia,
charged with devising suitable motto. After some key revisions
from Chase, Pollock decided upon "In God We Trust."
May 30, 1908 - National
Monetary Commission established; published 40 banking treatises,
led to establishment of Federal Reserve System.
August 2, 1909
- First Lincoln head pennies minted to replace Indian Head Cent;
; 95% copper, first
US coin to depict likeness of a president; August 7
- first Lincoln head pennies issued.
May 14, 1910
- Canada authorized issuing of silver dollar coins.
February 23, 1916
- Congress authorized McKinley Memorial $1 gold coin.
February 24, 1919 -
Revenue Act codified existing tax laws.
February 22, 1922
- Congress authorized Grant Memorial $1 gold coin.
1928 - Basic
face, back designs of all denominations of United States paper
currency adopted (except backs of $1 and $2 denominations in
general circulation today).
August 7, 1928
- Dollar shrank; Treasury unveiled new version of note, one
third smaller than predecessor.; Bureau of Engraving and
Printing printed one billion new bills in denominations ranging
from one to ten thousand dollars; 1929 - Treasury
department rolled out smaller version of dollar, shrunk by 25%,
displayed now standard set of portraits and emblems.
December 5, 1931
- Citizens Bank of Tenino, WA failed, created shortage of money;
Chamber of Commerce authorized local newspaper to print first
issue of wooden money in U. S. (to avoid merchants' having to
travel 30 miles, 4 hours, over roads built for horses and mules
to get change).
July 31, 1932
- George Washington quarter went into circulation.
March 16, 1933
-- President Franklin D. Roosevelt deleted gold from coinage,
from circulation and from collections; illegal to hold gold in
1933 - President Roosevelt forbade hoarding of gold,
required delivery of gold coins to government;
Executive Order regulated hoarding, exporting of gold;
prohibited holding of gold by United States citizens.
1933 - Nellie Taylor Ross took control of United States
Mint (first woman); unveiled dime, production of steel penny
(designed to aid nation's finances during World War II).
June 5, 1933 -
Abrogation of Gold Standard.
December 28, 1933
- Pursuant to Gold Reserve Act of 1934, President Roosevelt
ordered private owners of gold certificates to deliver their
Treasurer of the United States.
January 17, 1934
- Illegal for private citizens to own gold certificates.
January 30, 1934 - Gold
Reserve Act withdrew gold coins from circulation, provided for
devaluation of dollar's gold content, created Exchange
May 1, 1935
- Canada's first silver dollar circulated.
March 15, 1938
- United States Secret Service unveiled "Know Your Money"
campaign; designed to raise awareness about characteristics of
legal tender; called attention to counterfeiting (problem that
had plagued nation since 19th century); 1863 -
government had hoped to halt counterfeiting by establishing
national currency; backfired, scores of faked bills flooded
market; 1865 - government established Secret
November 18, 1941
- United States agreed to purchase silver from Mexico to help
October 8, 1942
- Wartime five-cent coin, made of copper-silver-manganese,
authorized; "P" Mint Mark, to denote Philadelphia Mint, first
appeared on United States coin.
June 20, 1948
- Deutsche Mark introduced in West-Germany.
August 16, 1948
- Israeli pound became legal tender.
- Louis Eliasberg, Baltimore financier, finished building
complete collection of regular issue United States coins
comprising all then-known dates, mint marks; only person to ever
build complete set of U.S. coins; 1925 - began
collecting; 1942 - largest, most important
purchase: Clapp Estate Collection (built first by J.M. Clapp
from 1880s through his death in 1906, and then his son John H.
Clapp from 1906 on) for $100,000; 1949 -
purchasing last gold coin he needed (1841 $2 1/2); 1950
- purchased last silver coin he needed (1873-CC no arrows
dime); 1982 - Eliasberg gold coins auctioned
by Bowers and Ruddy; 1996-1997 - Eliasberg Copper,
Nickel, and Silver coins auctioned by Bowers and Merena; among
greatest in numismatic history.
July 4, 1952-
Canadian Currency, Mint and Exchange Fund Act allowed gold coins
of $5, $10, and $20 to be minted.
- Coin distribution responsibilities transferred from
Treasurer of the United States
United States Mint.
July 1, 1955
- President signed Public law 84-140; mandated that motto
God We Trust"
appear on all United States currency and coinage.
- President signed Joint Resolution declaring that motto "In
God We Trust"
be national motto.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
delivered first currency bearing motto "
In God We Trust";
October 1, 1957
- first appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency;
first on U.S. Federal Reserve Notes.
March 17, 1960
- New £1 notes issued by Bank of England.
-- All $1 currency notes printed on, after this date bore
national motto "
In God We Trust."
December 31, 1960
- Farthing coin, in use in Great Britain since 13th century,
ceased to be legal tender.
June 4, 1963 -
Act of Congress that allowed exchange of silver certificates for
silver dollars signed into law.
November 6, 1963
-- Production of $1 Federal Reserve notes with motto "In
God We Trust"
December 30, 1963
-- President Lyndon Johnson approved John F. Kennedy
January 23, 1964
-- Production of $5 United States notes bearing motto "In
God We Trust" began;
February 12, 1964 - Production of $2 United States notes
bearing motto "In
God We Trust"
began; February 24, 1964 -- Production of $10
Federal Reserve notes bearing motto began.
March 24, 1964
- Kennedy half-dollar issued.
- Silver certificates no longer redeemable in silver dollars,
pursuant to Act of
1963 (redeemable in silver bullion).
July 31, 1964
- Production of $5 Federal Reserve notes bearing motto "In
God We Trust"
July 23, 1965 -
Coinage Act signed; substituted cupro-nickel clad coins for
silver coins in United States circulating coins, deleted all
Mint Marks from coins (returned in 1968).
September 1, 1965
- San Francisco Mint produced coins for first time since
1955; bore no Mint Mark until 1968, when "S" restored.
August 18, 1966
- First redesigned $100 bills, featuring motto "In God We
Trust", printed; August 24, 1966 - production of
$50 Federal Reserve notes bearing motto began.
November 6, 1966
- First $1 Federal Reserve notes delivered to Dallas, San
Francisco Federal Reserve Banks.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
completed conversion to dry printing method.
April 23, 1968
- First decimal coins issued in Britain (5 and 10 pence).
June 24, 1968 - Exchange
of silver certificates for silver bullion discontinued.
August 1, 1968
- Canada began replacing silver with nickel in coins.
November 27, 1968
- First $100 United States notes delivered to Treasury.
April 1, 1969
- Royal Canadian Mint formally formed asCrown Corporation.
April 11, 1969 -
Export ban on U.S. silver coins, which began on May 18, 1967,
- ownership of pre-1934 gold coins no longer required license
from Treasury Department.
July 14, 1969 -
Department of the Treasury, Federal Reserve System announced
that currency notes in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000,
and $10,000 would be discontinued immediately due to lack of
use; issued until 1969, last printed in 1945.
July 31, 1969
- Halfpenny ceased to be legal tender in Britain.
October 14, 1969
- Britain introduced 50p (fifty-pence) coin, replaced
ten-shilling note (in anticipation of decimalization of
December 30, 1970
- Coinage Act authorized production of Eisenhower
February 15, 1971
- Great Britain, Ireland switched to decimal-based currency.
October 14, 1971
- First Eisenhower one-dollar coins released into circulation.
December 18, 1971
- Smithsonian Agreement ended import surcharge, devalued dollar,
realigned exchange rates; official U.S. price for gold raised to
$38 per ounce.
April 3, 1972 -
Official U.S. gold rate raised from $35 per ounce to $38 per
February 13, 1973
-- President Nixon raised official gold price in United
States from $38.00 an ounce to $42.22 an ounce.
October 18, 1973
- Congress authorized bi-centennial quarter, half-dollar and
December 7, 1973
-- Treasury Department requested standby authority to make
aluminum one-cent coins.
December 30, 1974
- Public Law 93-373 allowed United States citizens to own gold;
first time since 1933; December 31, 1974 - United
States citizens permitted to buy gold coins, gold bullion.
October 10, 1978
- US President Jimmy Carter signed bill into law that authorized
minting of Susan B. Anthony dollar;
December 13, 1978
- United States mint in Philadelphia started production on Susan
B. Anthony dollar (silver, not much bigger than quarter);
1979 - 850 million coins put into circulation; flop -
people confused it with quarter.
January 14, 1980
- Gold (released from government control) traded at record
price, exceeded $800 an ounce; 1821 - units of
English currency were redeemable for fixed quantity of gold,
change that Britain hoped would stabilize its rapidly growing
economy; late 19th century - most industrialized
nations on full gold standard (facilitated international
monetary transactions, stabilized foreign exchange rates);
1914 - curbing of gold exports at outbreak of World
War I forced recourse to inconvertible paper currency;
1920's - economic growth overtook gold reserves, some
nations supplemented reserves with stable currencies like pound,
dollar (perceived as measure of permanent value); 1930
- world economy, gold standard collapsed (in response, most
governments sharply limited convertibility of paper currency);
1933 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt prohibited
circulation of gold coins (though gold still used to define
value of dollar); 1930's-1960's - currencies
remained "pegged" to gold until global reserves dwindled;
1971 - United States suspended free exchange of U.S.
gold for foreign-held dollars; 1974 - lifted
four-decade ban on private purchase of gold (gold bullion traded
in European markets at highs approaching $200 an ounce);
1975 - U.S. government began to sell some of its
holdings on open market ; 1978 - officially
abandoned gold standard.
October 27, 1981 - First
woman sworn in as Chief Sculptor-Engraver of the United States
at Philadelphia Mint.
October 13, 1982
- Bureau of Engraving and Printing unveiled first batch of
mechanical equipment intended to inspect notes.
April 17, 1983
- First National Coin Week began.
April 21, 1983
- One pound coin introduced in United Kingdom.
June 25, 1984
- First gold coin struck by United States Government in 50
years; American Eagle Gold Bullion Coin produced at
June 30, 1984
- Last sixpence minted in Great-Britain (in use since 1551).
November 12, 1984
- Chancellor Nigel Lawson announced in parliament that English
pound note (quid) would disappear after more than 150 years;
replaced by coins which introduced in April 1984.
September 22, 1985
- Plaza Accord, international effort to bring down value of
dollar, stabilize exchange rates, reached.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
announced new currency design to prevent counterfeiting;
first major design change since 1929.
September 8, 1986
- American Eagle Gold Bullion Coin struck; first time since 1933
United States Mint
produced gold coin.
March 31, 1988 -
West Point Bullion Depository became first new mint since 1862.
July 1, 1990
- German Democratic Republic accepted Deutsche Mark as its
October 10, 1994
- Value of Russian ruble decreased, 3081 rubles per dollar.
September 27, 1995
- Government unveiled redesigned $100 bill with off-center,
enlarged picture of Ben Franklin;
March 25, 1996
- redesigned $100 bill went into circulation.
June 12, 1997
- Treasury Department unveiled new $50 bill meant to be more
January 1, 1998
- Euro introduced for use by European businesses; June 1,
1998 - European Central Bank opened in Frankfurt,
May 11, 1998
- French mint produced first coins of Europe's single currency,
August 17, 1998
- Russia devalued ruble.
September 24, 1998
- Redesigned $20 bills, harder to counterfeit, went into
January 1, 1999
- "Euro" debuted
asfinancial unit in corporate and investment markets = first
time since Charlemagne's reign in ninth century that Europe
united with common currency; eleven European Union nations,
representing some 290 million people, launched currency in hopes
of increasing European integration, economic growth;
irrevocably established conversion rates between their
respective national currencies and euro, created monetary
union wit single currency, gave birth to euro; closed at 1.17
U.S. dollars on first day of trading in foreign exchange
January 1, 2002
- Euro became legal tender for European consumers - currency of
15 countries, 320 million people; replaced Deutsche Mark, French
franc, Italian lira, Spanish peseta, Greek drachma,
Austrian schilling, Belgian franc, Finnish markka, Irish pound,
Luxembourg franc, Dutch guilder, Portuguese escudo; around 7.8
billion euro notes, 40.4 billion euro coins (worth €144 billion)
put into general circulation by central banks of twelve
participating countries of euro area; euro notes distributed by
bank machines; shops started to give customers change in euro
May 13, 2003
- Government unveiled new version of $20 bill - first to be
colorized in effort to thwart counterfeiters.
April 26, 2004
- U. S. government unveiled new colorized $50 bill.
November 1, 2004
- Bank of Japan issued new series of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 yen
notes; old and new series circulated together.
- Decline in U.S. dollar's purchasing power
(1800-2005) (Source: Barron's)
September 19, 2005
- Gold Rush-era coin, confirmed as one of only 12 Quarter Eagles
known to exist of 246 made by San Francisco Mint in 1854,
containing 1/8 of an ounce of California gold, sold for $
253,000 at a Beverly Hills auction; owned by descendant of
Chinese immigrants who worked in California gold fields.
September 28, 2005
- U.S. Treasury unveiled new $10 bill, featured splashes of red,
yellow and orange.
- Cost of metals in penny (zinc, copper) rose above 0.008
cents, more than twice value in Fall 2005; U.S. government spent
at least six-tenths of cent (above cost of metal) to make each
penny - lost about half of a cent on each new penny minted;
July 18, 2006 - Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Arizona)
announced legislation to eliminate penny (production cost =
$.014), to round cash transactions to nearest nickel; 1982
- copper rose to record levels; Mint started making pennies
mostly of zinc (with thin copper coating).
November 20, 2006
- Edmund C. Moy, Director of United States Mint, unveiled four
designs for on-dollar coins, featured likenesses of first first
four presidents; began decade-long series to portray every
deceased president; first coin, with George Washington on one
side, Statue of Liberty on other side, began to
circulate in February 2007.
2009 - U.S. Mint honored Edward Kennedy
Ellington ('Duke') with place on quarter coin issued to
celebrate his birthplace, District of Columbia; coin depicts
Ellington sitting at piano surrounded by words "District of
Columbia"; first African American to appear by himself on
circulating coin (York, African American slave who accompanied
Lewis and Clark on journey westward across United States,
appeared with them in canoe on 2003 Missouri quarter).
- only person to ever build a complete set of U.S. coins
November 2009 - Penny accounts for about 58.4%
of all coins circulating, but only contributes 7.5% of the
value, 298.7 billion in circulation; quarter accounts for 56.8%
of all coin value (source: IbisWorld);
costs more to produce pennies than they are worth, United States
Mint has been producing fewer in recent years.
April 24, 2010
- Total volume of United
States currency outstanding rose by $34.7 billion in 2009 (all
but $33.4 billion of increase in $100 bills); value of euro notes
outstanding, of 100 euros or more, rose 6.3% in 2009,
smaller bills climbed 4.9%; dollar split sharper:
$100 bills rose 5%, smaller bills gained only 1.5%.
Sir Norman Angell (1929).
The Story of Money. (New York, N: Frederick A. Stokes
Company, 411 p.). Money--History.
Alonzo Barton and Emily Eaton Hepburn (1924).
A History of Currency in the United States. (New York,
NY: Macmillan, 573 p.). Money--History; Coinage--History;
Currency question; Federal Reserve banks.
Klaus W. Bender (2006).
Moneymakers: The Secret World of Banknote Printing. (Weinheim,
Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag, 316 p.). Foreign Correspondent for
the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" (FAZ), Germany's leading
daily paper. Paper money --Europe; Counterfeits and
counterfeiting --Europe; Bank notes --Europe.
In-depth view of banknote
industry, its modus operandi
S.M.H. Bozorgnia (1998).
The Role of Precious Metals in European Economic Development:
From Roman Times to the Eve of the Industrial Revolution.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 209 p.). Europe -- Economic
conditions; Money -- Europe -- History; Precious metals --
Europe -- History; Economic history.
Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge (1969).
Legal Tender; A Study in English and American Monetary History.
(New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 181 p. [orig. pub. 1903]). Legal
tender; Money--United States--History; Money--Great
James Buchan (1997).
Frozen Desire: The Meaning of Money. (New York, NY:
Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 320 p.). Money--History--Miscellanea.
Arthur R. Burns (1965).
Money and Monetary Policy in Early Times. (New York, NY:
A.M. Kelley, 517 p.). Money--History; Coinage--History.
Numismatics; Coins, Ancient. Weights and measures.
John Chown (1994).
A History of Money: From AD 800. (New York, NY:
Routledge, 306 p.). Money--History; Credit--History.
John Cooley (2008).
Currency Wars: How Forged Money is the New Weapon of Mass
Destruction. (New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, 320
p.). Counterfeits and counterfeiting--Political aspects;
Political stability--Economic aspects. Greed and fear as catalysts in
world economics; forgery as way of waging war, seizing power;
counterfeit money as weapon; grand-scale forgery's corrosive
implications for global economic, political, social stability.
Simon Coupland (2007).
Carolingian Coinage and the Vikings: Studies on Power and
Trade in the 9th Century. (Burlington, VT:
Ashgate/Variorum, 336 p.). Money -- France -- History; Coinage
-- France -- History; Economic history -- Medieval, 500-1500;
Vikings -- France; France -- History -- To 987.
Joanne C. Dauer, Edward A. Dauer (2003).
American History as Seen Through Currency: A Pictorial History
of United States Currency as Seen Throughout Important
Historical Events. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Edward and
Joanne Dauer, 400 p.). Paper money--United States--History;
Glyn Davies (2002).
A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day.
(Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 720 p. [3rd ed.]).
Emeritus Professor (University of Wales). Money; Money--History;
Agnes F. Dodd (1911). History of Money in
the British Empire & the United States. (New York, NY:
Longmans, Green, and Co., 356 p.). Money--Great
Britain--History; Money--United States--History; Money--Great
Armand van Dormael (1997).
The Power of Money (Washington Square, NY: New York
University Press, 184 p.). Money--Europe--History--20th century;
Money--United States--History--20th century; Economic
Ed. Mark Duckenfield (2004).
The Monetary History of Gold: A Documentary History, 1660-1999.
(Brookfield, VT: Pickering & Chatto, 536 p.). Gold --History;
Gold standard --History; Money --History.
Catherine Eagleton and Jonathan Williams; with
Joe Cribb and Elizabeth Errington (2007).
Money: A History. (Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 272 p.).
Curator of Paper Money and Modern Coins; Curator of Roman and
Iron Age coin; Curator of Asian coins; Curator of South Asian
coins (all at the British Museum). Money--History;
paper money from ancient to modern times; use of monetary
exchange from primitive barter system to online, cashless
systems: 1) Ancient Mesopotamia, Greece and Egypt; 2) Roman
world; 3) Medieval Europe; 4) Islamic lands; 5) India and
Southeast Asia; 6) China and the Far East.
Africa and Oceania; 7) early modern period and
the modern period (introduction of the Euro and e-money).
Paul Einzig (1962).
The History of Foreign Exchange. (New York, NY: St
Martin’s Press, 319 p.). Financial Journalist, Lombard Street,"
column for the Financial News. Foreign exchange--History.
Impressive, controversial, provocative, work; a classic.
Primitive Money in Its Ethnological, Historical, and Economic
Aspects. (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 557 p. [2nd
Joseph A. Ernst (1973).
Money and Politics in America, 1755-1775; A Study in the
Currency Act of 1764 and the Political Economy of Revolution.
(Chapel Hill, NC, Published for the Institute of Early American
History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va., by the University of
North Carolina Press, 403 p.). Department of History (York
University). Currency question --United States; Monetary policy
--History; Great Britain --Colonies --America --Finance; Great
Britain --Colonies --America --History --18th century; United
States --Politics and government --To 1775.
Joseph Farris (2001).
Money Inc.: A Wry Look at Business Today. (Mt. Pleasant,
SC: Spectacle Lane Press, 133 p.). Business--Caricatures and
cartoons; Money--Caricatures and cartoons. Portions of this work
have appeared previously in: Accounting Today, Barron's, Harvard
Business Review, Natural Pharmacy, The National Law Journal, The
New Yorker, and Wall Street Journal.
Albert Edgar Feavearyear (1931). The Pound
Sterling: A History of English Money. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon
Press, 367 p.). Money--Great Britain--History; Currency
Niall Ferguson (2001).
The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700-2000.
(London, UK: Allen Lane, 552 p.). Money--History; History,
The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World.
(New York, NY: Penguin Press, 432 p.). Laurence A. Tisch
Professor of History (Harvard University), William Ziegler
Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School),
Senior Research Fellow of Jesus College (Oxford), Senior Fellow
of the Hoover Institution (Stanford). Finance--History;
Money--History; Economics--History. Finance is foundation of
human progress, essential backstory behind all history; origins of key financial institutions, concepts; sooner or later every bubble bursts;
sooner or later
bearish sellers outnumber bullish buyers; sooner or later greed
flips into fear.
Eds. Robert M. Fishman and Anthony M. Messina
The Year of the Euro: The Cultural, Social, and Political import
of Europe’s Common Currency. (Notre Dame, IN: University
of Notre Dame Press, 328 p.). professor of sociology and a
fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and
the Nanovic Institute for European Studies (University of Notre
Dame); associate professor of political science and a fellow of
the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and Nanovic
Institute for European Studies (University of Notre Dame).
Euro--Social aspects--Congresses; Euro--Political
aspects--Congresses. Whether new common currency will reshape Europe's cultures,
societies, political systems and, if so, in what ways.
Alison Frankel (2006).
Double Eagle: The Epic Story of the World’s Most Valuable Coin.
(New York, NY: Norton, 320 p.). Senior Writer at The American
Lawyer. Double eagle (Coin)--History. Author brings coin's
history to life and illuminates the world of coin collecting.
One coin, for years only known 1933 twenty-dollar Double Eagle in world, has
inspired passions of thieves and collectors, lawyers and
John Kenneth Galbraith (1975).
Money, Whence It Came, Where It Went. (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 324 p.). Money--History; Economic history.
Barbara Garson (2001).
Money Makes the World Go Around. (New York, NY: Viking,
342 p.). Capital movements; Mutual funds; International finance;
Jason Goodwin (2003).
Greenback: The Almighty Dollar and the Invention of America.
(New York, NY: Holt, 321 P.). Dollar.
Elgin Groseclose (1976).
Money and Man: A Survey of Monetary Experience. (Norman,
OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 307 p. [4th ed.]).
Money--History; Currency question.
William Hamilton; with an introd. by John
Kenneth Galbraith (1980).
Money Should Be Fun. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 128
p.). Money--Caricatures and cartoons; American wit and humor,
Kenneth W. Harl (1996).
Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 533 p.).
Professor of History (Tulane University). Coins, Roman;
Coinage--Rome--History; Rome--Economic conditions.
Ed. William V. Harris (2008).
The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans. (New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 330 p.). Shepherd Professor
of History (Columbia University). Money --Rome --History; Money
--Greece --History; Rome --Economic conditions --30 B.C.-476
A.D; Greece --Economic conditions --To 146 B.C.
Complexity of Greek, Roman
monetary systems, how systems worked, how they did, did not
resemble modern monetary system.
Eric Helleiner (2003).
The Making of National Money: Territorial Currencies in
Historical Perspective. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press, 277 p.). Money; Money--Political aspects; Currency
Manuel Hinds (2006).
Playing Monopoly with the Devil: Dollarization and Domestic
Currencies in Developing Countries. (New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 304 p.). Former Chief Adviser to the President
of El Salvador on the Dollarization of the Country in 2000-2001.
Money--Developing countries; Currency question--Developing
countries; Monetary policy--Developing countries.
Currency problems faced by developing
countries, practical advice for policy makers on how
to deal with them.
James Willard Hurst (1973).
A Legal History of Money in the United States, 1774-1970.
(Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 367 p.).
Money--United States--History; Monetary policy--United States.
Louis Jordan (2002).
John Hull: The Mint and the Economics of Massachusetts Coinage.
(Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 348 p.). Hull,
John, 1624-1683; Coinage--Massachusetts--History--17th century;
Coins, American--Massachusetts; Mints--Massachusetts;
Massachusetts--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775--Sources;
Craig Karmin (2008).
The Biography of a Dollar: How Mr. Greenback Greases the Skids
of America and the World. (New York, NY: Crown Business,
272 p.). Reporter for the "Money and Investing" section of The
Wall Street Journal. Dollar, American; Foreign exchange;
International finance. Dollar's history from early days in mid-19th century to position
at top of global economy; power of Federal Reserve, inner
sanctums of foreign central banks, foreign exchange traders;
enabled global economy to flourish but allowed U. S. to owe
shocking amounts of money, raised concerns that dollar standard
may not be sustainable.
Jason Kersten (2009).
The Art of Making Money: The Story of a Master Counterfeiter.
(New York, NY: Gotham, 304 p.). Senior Editor at Maxim magazine.
Luciano, Arthur Julius; Counterfeiters --Biography; Counterfeits
and counterfeiting. How Art Williams, Jr. painstakingly defeated
anti-forging features of U. S. Treasury Department's 1996 New
Note (most secure hundred-dollar bill ever created); printed
millions in counterfeit bills for 14 years, sold them to
criminal organizations, used them to fund cross-country spending
sprees at shopping malls all over
America; how they stayed one step ahead of Secret Service;
searched for long-lost father, betrayed; delinquent
genius, sensitive young man seeking paternal love, aesthetic
Edited by Robert Mankoff; introduction by
Christopher Buckley (1999).
The New Yorker Book of Money Cartoons: The Influence, Power, and
Occasional Insanity of Money in All of Our Lives.
(Princeton, NJ: Bloomberg Press, 110 p.). New Yorker (New York,
N.Y. : 1925); Money--Caricatures and cartoons; American wit and
Nicholas Mayhew (2000).
Sterling, The History of a Currency. (New York, NY:
Wiley, 290 p.). Curator in the Heberden Coin Room (Ashmolean
Museum); Fellow of St. Cross College, (Oxford). Money--Great
John J. McCusker (1978).
Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1775: A Handbook.
(Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 367 p.).
Money--Tables; Money--United States--History--Colonial period,
ca. 1600-1775; Money--Europe--History.
How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Commodity Price
Index for Use As a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of
the United States. (Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian
Society, 142 p. [2nd ed.]). Ewing Halsell Distinguished
Professor of American History and Professor of Economics
(Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas). Prices --United States
--History; Consumer price indexes --United States --History;
Money --United States --History; Value --History.
Stephen Mihm (2007).
A Nation of Counterfeiters: Capitalists, Con Men, and the Making
of the United States. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 472 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of
Georgia). Bank notes--Forgeries--United States; Banks and
banking--United States; Counterfeits and counterfeiting--United
States. Bank note
counterfeiting in antebellum U.S.; countless banks issued
paper money in variety of denominations, designs; counterfeiters
flourished, circulated vast quantities of bogus bills; how
federal government issued greenbacks for first time, began
dismantling older monetary system, counterfeit economy it
Robert Minton (1975).
John Law, The Father of Paper Money. (New York, NY:
Association Press, 288 p.). Law, John, 1671-1729; Capitalists
and financiers--Biography; Paper money--France--History.
Wesley Clair Mitchell (1903).
A History of Greenbacks. (Chicago, IL: University of
Chicago Press, 577 p.). Assistant Professor of Economics
(University of Chicago). Greenbacks --History.
Carl H. Moore, Alvin E. Russell (1987).
Money: Its Origin, Development, and Modern Use.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 164 p.). Money--History.
Walter T.K. Nugent (1968). Money and
American Society, 1865-1880. (New York, NY: Free Press, 336
p.). Money--United States--History.
Arthur Nussbaum (1957). A History of the
Dollar. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 308 p.).
Sitta von Reden (2010).
Money in Classical Antiquity. (New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press, 237 p.). Lecturer in Ancient History
(Universität München). Money -- Greece -- History; Money -- Rome
-- History. Impact of money on economy, society, culture of
Greek and Roman World; how money affected economy, which factors
need to be considered in order to improve understanding of
ancient money; money plays different roles under different
social and political circumstances.
Fred L. Reed (2005).
Show Me the Money!: The Standard Catalog of Motion Picture,
Television, Stage, and Advertising Prop Money.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 790 p). Prop money--Catalogs; Money
in motion pictures--Catalogs. Hollywood’s storytellers have
produced wealth of imitation greenbacks (more than 270 types
of motion picture, other theatrical prop money—including nearly
Thomas J. Sargent, Francois R. Velde (2002).
The Big Problem of Small Change. (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 405 p.). Economics Professor
(Stanford), Officer (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago).
Anna Jacobson Schwartz (1987).
Money in Historical Perspective. (Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press, 442 p.). Money--History;
Money--Great Britain--History; Monetary policy; Gold
George Selgin (2008).
Good Money: Birmingham Button Makers, the Royal Mint, and the
Beginnings of Modern Coinage, 1775-1821. (Ann Arbor, MI:
University of Michigan Press, 345 p.). Professor of Economics in
the Terry College of Business (University of Georgia). Coinage
-- Great Britain -- History; Money -- Great Britain -- History.
British manufacturers' challenge to Crown's monopoly on coinage; 1780s - Royal Mint failed to produce enough
small-denomination coinage for factory owners to pay workers; currency
shortage threatened to derail industrial progress, manufacturers
began to mint custom-made coins, called "tradesman's tokens";
gained wide acceptance, served as nation's most popular currency
for wages and retail sales; 1821 - Crown outlawed all moneys
except its own.
Georg Simmel; edited by David Frisby;
translated by Tom Bottomore and David Frisby from a first draft
by Kaethe Mengelberg (1990).
The Philosophy of Money. (Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan
Paul, 537 p. [2nd enl. ed.]). Money.
Robert Sobel (2000).
The Pursuit of Wealth: The Incredible Story of Money Throughout
the Ages. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 347 p.).
Peter Spufford (1988).
Money and Its Use in Medieval Europe. (New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press, 467 p.). Money--Europe--History;
Numismatics, Medieval--Europe; Europe--Economic conditions--To
G. Richard Thompson (1985). Expectations
and the Greenback Rate, 1862-1878. (New York, NY: Garland,
310 p.). Greenbacks --History --19th century; Paper money
--United States --History --19th century; Foreign exchange
--History --19th century; Inflation (Finance) --United States
--History --19th century.
David Tripp (2004).
Illegal Tender: The Mystery of the Lost Double Eagle.
(New York, NY: Free Press, 320 p.). Former Head of Sotheby’s
Coin Department. Double eagle (Coin)--History.
Irwin Unger (1964).
The Greenback Era; A Social and Political History of American
Finance, 1865-1879. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 467 p.). Greenbacks--History; Currency question--United
States--History; United States--Politics and
government--1865-1877. Winner of Pulitzer Prize in History.
Deborah Valenze (2006).
The Social Life of Money in the English Past. (New York,
NY: Cambridge University Press, 324 p.). Professor of History
(Barnard College, Columbia University). Money--Social
aspects--England--History--18th century; Money--Social
aspects--England--History--17th century; England--Economic
conditions--18th century; England--Economic conditions--17th
century; England--Social conditions--18th century;
England--Social conditions--17th century. How money became involved
in relations between people in ways that moved beyond purely
Jack Weatherford (1997).
The History of Money: From Sandstone to Cyberspace. (New
York, NY: Crown Publishers, 288 p.). Money--History.
Lawrence Weschler (1999).
Boggs, A Comedy of Values. (Chicago, IL: University of
Chicago Press, 160 p.). Boggs, J. S. G. (James Stephen George);
Paper money; Money in art; Value. World of
the conceptual artist J.S.G. Boggs; accused by Bank of England
of counterfeiting (drew
paper currency so accurately, might enter marketplace
undetected; spent them at face value
with full explanation to any
shopkeeper who agreed to play along;
glass of value, nature of art and money.
Robert S. Wicks (1992).
Money, Markets, and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The
Development of Indigenous Monetary Systems to AD 1400.
(Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University,
354 p.). Money--Southeast Asia--History; Indigenous
peoples--Southeast Asia--History; Southeast
Asia--Commerce--History. Impact of monetization in pre-modern Southeast Asia from third century BC to rise
of Maleka in early fifteenth century; intertwining of
anthropology, archeology, history, culture, economics;
why ideas about money developed unevenly throughout
region; trade policies, price controls, exchange ratios,
monopolies, variant standards of value, administrative
complexity necessary for such economic complexity.
Eds. Jonathan Williams, with Joe Cribb,
Catherine Eagleton and Elizabeth Errington (1997).
Money: A History. (New York, NY: St. Martin's
Press, 256 p.). Curator of Roman and Iron Age Coins;
Curator of Asian Coins; Curator of Paper Money and
Modern Coins; Curator of South Asian Coins (all at
Britis Museum). Money--History. Origins, spread,
cultural diversity of money throughout world- from
exchange systems of earliest times to increasingly
cashless society of today; money, currency set against
background of broader issues (moral, political,
religious attitudes to money in different cultures);
development of monetary systems from ancient
civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt to invention of
coinage in Lydia in 7th century BC, its dissemination
throughout Greek, Roman empires; money in medieval West,
Islamic lands, ancient civilizations of India and China,
early modern period in West; consequences of
globalization of world monetary economy in 19th, 20th
William Wiseley (1977).
A Tool of Power: The Political History of Money. (New
York, NY: Wiley, 401 p.). Money--History; International
The Story of Money (A & E Home Video, 2 VHS Tapes).
Humorous and informative look at how money moves the world.
Money: What It Is; How It Works. (Huntsville, TX:
Educational Video Network, Inc., 80 min. DVD). Money--History;
Money--uses. Origins of money, what it stands for, how it fuels
the modern economic system.
Understanding Money and Inflation. (Huntsville, TX:
Educational Video Network, Inc., 71 min. DVD). Money --creation;
inflation. Explains inflation, creation of money, regulation of
American Currency Exhibit
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco's American Currency
American Numismatic Association Money
Explores art, history, science and much more to promote the
diverse nature of money and related items. Museum collection
consists of over 250,000 objects encompassing the history of
numismatics from the earliest invention of money to modern day.
The objects include paper money, coins, tokens, medals, exonumia,
and traditional money from all over the world. Some of the
highlights from the collection include individual rarities such
as the 1804 dollar, the 1913 'V' Nickel, the 1866 no motto
series, and the Aubrey E. and Adeline I. Bebee collection of
United States paper money.
Beyond Face Value:
Depictions of Slavery in
Produced by the United States Civil War Center - detailed look
how deeply embedded slavery was in all aspects of Southern life.
As evidence, the site offers hundreds of scans of Confederate
currency, examines documents for references to Southern
economics, agriculture, and slavery; offers series of
introductory scholarly essays by Civil War historians
contextualizes the phenomenon of Confederate currency and the
unique set of political, social, and cultural conditions that
created it (though little to help the reader understand each
individual image and the context of the historical reality that
it depicts; catalogs an important set of sources, as Southerners
consecrated their culture on the official documents of their
seceded government. Site historian Harold Holzer observes, "Much
more than remnants of a shattered economy, these artifacts open
a rare window onto the Confederacy's view of itself, and they
deserve our attention as artistic and political, not just
The Leslie Brock Center for the Study of
Decades before the American revolution, each of the colonies
issued their own paper money. These monetary experiments
embroiled the colonies in controversy, fueling political
disputes both within the colonies and between the colonies and
England. These experiments also raised fundamental economic
questions, such as how paper money influences prices, exchange
rates, economic growth, and the balance of trade. Almost three
centuries later, these issues remain unsettled, and continue to
Bureau of Engraving
Largest producer of security documents in the United States. The
BEP prints billions of Federal Reserve Notes for delivery to the
Federal Reserve System each year (the BEP does not produce coins
– all coinage is minted by the United States Mint). These notes
are produced at our facilities in Washington, DC, and Fort
Worth, Texas. In addition to U.S. currency, the BEP produces
several other security documents such as portions of U.S.
passports, materials for Homeland Security, military
identification cards, and Immigration and Naturalization
Certificates. All products are designed and manufactured with
advanced counterfeit deterrence features to ensure product
integrity. The BEP also advises other Federal agencies on
document security matters. In addition, the BEP processes claims
for the redemption of mutilated currency. The BEP’s research and
development efforts focus on the continued use of automation in
the production process and counterfeit deterrent technologies
for use in security documents, especially United States
Tom Chao's paper Money Gallery
This site is all about paper money. Most people associate money
with earning and spending. Very few consider money as an art
object or a collectable item. Only in the last several years has
paper money collecting as a hobby become more popular. Modern
banknotes are very attractive and colorful, especially in
uncirculated conditions favored by collectors. entire
collection: 1739* different banknotes; 298* countries; 984 web
pages; 3600+ pictures.
Coin & Conscience: Popular Views of
Money, Credit and Speculation
This exhibit features historical images (from the 16th through
the 19th centuries) depicting themes related to money and
finance, such as bankers, stock exchanges, the "money devil,"
credit and speculation, "misers, moneylenders, and thieves,"
love and money, and "vanity and virtue: allegories on the
pursuit of riches." View images by theme or artist. Includes an
introduction to the collection and a selected bibliography. From
the Bleichroeder Collection at the Baker Library, Harvard
Coins and History of Asia
Information and scans of over 2100 coins of Near Eastern,
Persian, Indian, Central Asian and Chinese history from 600 BC
to 1600 AD.
"Descriptions and images of paper currencies of early America
through the 1790's" (including Continental Congress issues,
lottery tickets, and fiscal documents). Can be browsed by
colony/state. Also features essays on the first printed currency
(1690), Bills of Credit, Land Office Banks, devaluation, the
Copper Panic, the value of money in Colonial America, the 1702
London Mint Assay, legal tender, and indenting. From the
University of Notre Dame, Department of Special Collections.
Subjects: Paper money...
The Current Value of Old Money
The Current Value of Old Money, created by Roy Davies, a science
librarian at the University of Exeter, provides annotated links
to an array of Websites that help answer the question "How much
would a specified amount of money at a certain period of time be
worth today?" The annotated links contain more than just simple
calculators, encompassing a rich variety of resources including
data tables, research papers, and electronic mailing list
archives on the question. The site also provides an informative
bibliography of print resources on the topic of inflation.
First Spouse 24-Karat Coin Program
Details about the U.S. Mint program "honoring our Nation's First
Spouses by issuing one-half ounce $10 gold coins featuring their
images, in the order that they served as first spouse, beginning
in 2007 with Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, (Thomas
Jefferson's Liberty), and Dolley Madison." Provides images of
the coins, biographies of the first spouses, and information
about issue dates and coin features. From the United States
Gallery Mint Museum
Private mint, whose mission is to build a permanent museum
showing the evolution of coin-making technology from ancient
Greece through the Industrial Revolution - museum will exhibit
the entire minting process, with full-scale equipment, including
a water wheel for generating power and a huge furnace for
melting silver and copper.
The Higgins Museum of National Bank
Opened in 1978, the purpose of this museum is to acquire,
preserve and display the notes and artifacts of the National
Banks... and pertinent reference materials relating to the
National Bank Note issuance era for educational purposes. 496
National Banks in 300 Iowa Communities issued National Bank
Notes during the Period 1863-1935. The most complete state
collection of National Bank Note issues ever assembled for a
major state, with 278 of the state's 300 communities of issue
History of the Dollar Sign
The Word "Dollar" and the Dollar Sign $: Origins, History and
Geography of Dollar Currencies.
History of Money from Ancient Times to
Monetary history in context from the dawn of civilization to the
beginning of the twenty first century.
Museum of Money & Financial Institutions
Aimed at public education in economics in general with a stress
on explaining the importance of money and financial institutions
in guiding personal, business and government activities.
History of the United States Mint
Money Museum (Kansas City Fed)
The museum tells the story of money - from the settler’s early
bartering system to U.S. currency’s humble beginnings – when
banks throughout the Union produced their own currency – to the
present day – where more and more business is being conducted
through electronic means. The centerpiece of the Money Museum is
the Truman Coin Collection, which includes over 450 coins dating
all the way back to George Washington's presidential
administration. Samples of historic currency supplement the coin
collection and help to re-create the events and personalities
that have come to shape our nation's money.
Presidential $1 Coin Program
"The United States is honoring our Nation's Presidents by
issuing $1 circulating coins featuring their images in the order
that they served, beginning with Presidents Washington, Adams,
Jefferson and Madison in 2007. The United States Mint will mint
and issue four Presidential $1 coins per year." Features a coin
release schedule, coin images (and edge lettering), and material
about coinage legislation and U.S. Mint directors during each
presidential term. From the U.S. Mint.
Tax History Museum
Virtual museum of United States tax history - provides a
synthetic overview of the history of American taxation.
Incorporating both narrative text and multimedia source
materials, the museum offers a concise summary of American
revenue policy and politics.
United States Money: A Guide to
"This guide covers selected resources on the history of money in
the United States from colonial times to the present." Topics
include paper money, coins, associations and government
agencies, pages for children, and museums and exhibits. Most
listings are for websites; includes a few print suggestions.
From the Library of Congress, Business Reference Services.
U. S. Mint Tours
Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins (VCRC)
The VCRC contains images and descriptions of coins from the
Early Republic through the end of the fourth century A.D. and
the formal division of the Roman Empire into east and west.
Browse by decades for the republic and by emperor/empress for
the empire, or search for specific features such as individuals,
deities, and inscriptions. Subjects: Coins, Roman...
Woden Nickel Historical Museum
History of wooden money in the U. S.
World Currency Museum
Gallery of thousands of images of banknotes world-wide.
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