Business History Links
BUSINESS HISTORY - Globalization & Free Trade
business biographies  

September 22, 1887 - 31 men (merchants, lumbermen, bankers, manufacturers), under chairmanship of alderman R. Clark, formed Board of Trade in Vancouver, BC to: 1) rebuild city after June 13, 1886 fire destroyed all but one of Vancouver’s buildings, 2) create an "organization to protect the interests of merchants, traders and manufacturers, to advance the trade of the area and to promote the advancement and general prosperity of Vancouver"; November 24, 1887 - charter issued (organization now official); named The Vancouver Board of Trade; 1888 - David Oppenheimer, Bavarian immigrant, Mayor of Vancouver, became President; 1891 - lobbied of Ottawa politicians finally resulted in laying of submarine cable from Vancouver, to Hawaii, to Sydney (succeeded in 1902); 1896 - played major role in transportation, development of port as Western Canada's premiere terminus - lobbied for steamship service to northern points to promote trade, open the country (5-day steamer service from Seattle to Alaska via Vancouver started in 1901); railway through Crows Nest Pass to open Kootenay district (mineral wealth); 1914 - special Act of Parliament created Vancouver Harbour Board; persuaded federal government to dredge First Narrows for shipping; 1926 - made grant to establish Faculty of Commerce at University of British Columbia; assisted in formation of Canadian Chamber of Commerce; 1952 - 10 bureaus, 10 standing committees worked on campaigns, exhibitions, luncheons, educational products, endorsements, representations to all levels of government on behalf of business community; 1960s - focus on 1) conventions, tourism as major North American industries, 2) more efficient regional transportation system (urged provincial establishment of metro transit authority); 1983 - became member of World Trade Centers Association; provided communications links to more than 300 trade centres around globe, electronic mail service, information search and retrieval from more than 300 databases; 2001 - dedicated to community affairs and revitalization of community spirit, corporate tax reduction, urban crime reduction, stewardship series, mentoring programs.

January 22-25, 1895 - Group of Cincinnati businessmen, largely composed of members of Cincinnati and Hamilton County Manufacturers Association, convened in Oddfellows Hall in Cincinnati, OH (583 association and manufacturing executives from all corners of the U.S. attended); founded National Association of Manufacturers; Thomas Dolan of Philadelphia chosen as non-partisan association's first president; January 1896 - first annual convention held in Chicago; name "National Association of Manufacturers of the United States of America" and constitution adopted; objectives: 1) retention and supply of home markets with U.S. products and extension of foreign trade; 2) development of reciprocal trade relations between the U.S. and foreign governments; 3) rehabilitation of the U.S. Merchant Marine; 4) construction of a canal in Central America; 5) improvement and extension of U.S. waterways.

May 1914 - National Foreign Trade Council formed at first National Foreign Trade Convention, in Washington, DC; concentrated on running the annual convention, serving as intermediary in commercial negotiations between U.S. interests and their trading partners in Caribbean, Latin America; 1936 - incorporated in New York State; hired permanent staff, enlarged scope of activities.

October 30, 1947 - The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the foundation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), is founded.

March 25, 1957 - France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg signed two treaties in Rome: 1) European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for the common and peaceful development of Europe's nuclear resources; 2) European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common Market - trade barriers between member nations were gradually eliminated, and common policies regarding transportation, agriculture, and economic relations with nonmember countries were implemented; eventually, labor and capital were permitted to move freely within the boundaries of the community; major step in Europe's movement toward economic and political union; 1951 - France and West Germany formed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), integrating their coal and steel industries; 1967 - ECSC, EAEC, EEC were fully merged as the European Community (EC); 1960 - Britain and other European nations established the weaker European Free Trade Association (EFTA) as an alternative; 1973 - Britain, Denmark and Ireland became EC members; 1981 - Greece joined; 1986 - Portugal and Spain joined; 1990 - former East Germany as part of reunified Germany joined; 1993 - European Union (EU) established following ratification of the Maastricht Treaty - called for a strengthened European parliament, creation of a central European bank and common currency, common defense policy, member states' participation in a larger common market, called the European Economic Area; 1995 - Austria, Finland, and Sweden became members.

January 16, 1965 - Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Canada-United States Automotive Agreement (Auto Pact); eliminated trade tariffs between the two countries, created single North American manufacturing market; Americans got a continental-wide free trade zone in auto parts, Canadians won production guarantees and content requirement (all auto product imports south of their border would come from Canada); elevated industrial policy to the international level; more efficient market lowered prices, increased production created thousands of jobs and wages for Canadians;  automobile and parts production surpassed pulp and paper, became Canada's most important industry; trade deficit turned to trade surplus (billions of dollars annually to Canada); left Canadian automobile industry in hands of American corporations; 1987 - comprehensive U.S.-Canada free trade agreement supplanted Auto Pact (invalidated by WTO invalidated as obstacle to free trade.

1978 - People's Republic of China began "open-door", market-oriented economic liberalization policy; Deng Xiaoping overturned Maoist apple-cart of ‘tiefanwan' or iron bowl - equal pay, lifetime employment, ‘cradle-to-grave' welfare benefits; opened Pearl River delta to foreign investment; has been most economically dynamic region, referred to as The Manufacturing Hub of China - Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew from just over US$8 billion in 1980 to more than US$89 billion in 2000. During that period, the average real rate of GDP growth in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone exceeded 16 percent, well above the People’s Republic of China's national figure of under 10 percent. In 1991, almost 50% of foreign investment in China was in Guangdong, and 40% in the PRD. By 2001 its GDP rose to just over US$100 billion and it was experiencing an annual growth rate more than three percentage points above the national growth rate (encompasses only 0.4 percent of the land area and only 3.2 percent of the 2000 Census population of mainland China, it accounted for 8.7 percent of GDP, 35.8 percent of total trade, and 29.2 percent of utilised foreign capital in 2001); Results - unbroken 30-year record of 9% or greater annual real GDP growth, 10-fold increase in average per capita income, lifting of 300 million people out of abject poverty; government's revenues as a share of GDP shrank to around 11%, from 31% in 1978 (20.8% of GDP in 2007, grew by 32.4%, far ahead of economic growth of 11.4%); Beijing unilaterally cut tariffs and joined the World Trade Organization, while shrinking the public sector. In the space of a few years starting in the 1990s, inefficient, state-owned enterprises shed about one-third of their workforce, by some estimates 60 million jobs. As a result, for about three decades the "socialist market economy" churned out double-digit growth year after year.

November 28, 1982 - representatives from 88 nations gathered to discuss the state of world trade in Geneva;  officials developed a framework for a global fiscal system predicated on the eradication of protectionist trade policies.

November 19, 1993 - The U.S. Senate voted in favor of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

December 8, 1993 - President Bill Clinton signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement; trade pact between the United States, Canada, and Mexico eliminated virtually all tariffs and trade restrictions between the three nations; January 1, 1994 - pact took effect, created the world's largest free-trade zone.

December 1, 1994 - U.S. Congress passed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) treaty.

November 30, 1999 - The opening of a 135-nation trade gathering in Seattle was disrupted by at least 40,000 demonstrators, some of whom clashed with police.

May 7, 2008 - Dollar against euro (low = $1.60).


June 2008 - Total World Trade: Since 1980 - trade in services, manufactured goods has tripled; trade in food, adjusting for inflation, has barely increased (convoluted tangle of restrictive rules - tariffs, quotas, subsidies).

Daniel Altman (2007). Connected: 24 Hours in the Global Economy. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 304 p.). Columnist (International Herald Tribune). Globalization--Economic aspects; International economic relations; International finance. June 15, 2005 - people, deals, issues that helped shape international economy on a randomly chosen day; hour-by-hour journey through more than a dozen cities in world trading system.

Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal (1989). Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 274 p.). International business enterprises--Management.

Richard J. Barnet, John Cavanagh (1994). Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 480 p.). International business enterprises--Case studies; Economic history--1945-.

John H. Barton. Judith L. Goldstein, Timothy E. Josling and Richard H. Steinberg (2006). The Evolution of the Trade Regime: Politics, Law, and Economics of the GATT and the WTO. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 242 p.). George E. Osborne Professor of Law Emeritus (Stanford University Law School); Professor of Political Science (Stanford University); Senior Fellow at the Freeman-Spogli Institute for International Studies and Emeritus Professor in the Food Research Institute (Stanford University); Professor of Law (UCLA School of Law). General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Organization); World Trade Organization; Free trade; Foreign trade regulation; Regionalism; Trade blocs; Free trade--Political aspects. Comprehensive political-economic history of development of world's multilateral trade institutions, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Joe Bennett (2008). Where Underpants Come From: From Checkout to Cotton Field - Travels Through the New China. (London, UK: Simon & Schuster UK, 272 p.). Syndicated Travel Writer and Columnist. Underwear; International trade; Free trade; International economic relations. Underpants - from store shelf to Chinese cotton fields; all there is to know about making, selling, exporting, buying pair of underpants bought at local discount store in New Zealand for $8.59; who could be making any money; how many processes, middlemen involved? odyssey to China to trace pants to their source; balanced, intricate web of contacts, exchanges makes global trade possible.

Suzanne Berger (2005). How We Compete: What Companies Around the World Are Doing to Make it in Today's Global Economy. (New York, NY: Currency, 352 p.). Raphael Dorman and Helen Starbuck Professor of Political Science (MIT), Director of the MIT International Science and Technology Initiative. Strategy formulation; Globalization; Management; Manufacturing resource planning. Which practices succeed/fail in today’s global economy, and why.  

William J. Bernstein (2008). A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World. (New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 384 p.). Financial Theorist, Historian. Globalization--Economic aspects; Globalization--Social aspects. Global commerce from prehistoric origins to today's controversies; trade and globalization as evolutionary process as old as war, religion (historical constant) that will continue to foster growth of intellectual capital, shrink world, propel trajectory of human species.

Jagdish Bhagwati (2004). In Defense of Globalization. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 308 p.). Professor (Columbia University). Globalization--Economic aspects; Globalization--Social aspects; Anti-globalization movement. 

Stanley Bing (2006). Rome, Inc.: The Rise and Fall of the First Multinational Corporation. (New York, NY: Norton, 197 p.). Gil Schwartz (CBS-TV Public relations Executive). Corporate state--Rome--Humor; Parables--Humor; Rome--History--Humor. Roman empire as multinational corporation - a family business prospers, an executive class rises, reverse takeovers destroy.

Paul Blustein (2009). Misadventures of the Most Favored Nations: Clashing Egos, Inflated Ambitions, and the Great Shambles of the World Trade System. (New York, NY, PublicAffairs 368 p.). Journalist in Residence at the Global Economy and Development Program (Brookings Institution). World Trade Organization; International trade; Commercial treaties; International economic relations. World of trade agreements - how World Trade Organization (established 1995) is sliding into dysfunctionality, poses new, grave menace to globalization; benefits of free trade grossly oversold; in more than seven years of global talks WTO has struggled, failed to resolve contentious differences between rich, developing nations; contributing to rise in protectionism; how high stakes negotiations went awry; risk - system that for six decades opened global economy, kept it from splintering.

James Bovard (1991). The Fair Trade Fraud. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 330 p.). Fellow at Competitive Enterprise Institute. United States -- Commercial policy; Protectionism -- United States.

William Brittain-Catlin (2005). Offshore: The Dark Side of the Global Economy. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 288 p.). Former BBC reporter, Investigator (Kroll Associates). Tax havens--Cayman Islands; International finance--Political aspects--Cayman Islands; Commercial crimes--Cayman Islands; Transnational crime--Cayman Islands; Cayman Islands--Economic conditions; Offshore capitalism

Stephen G. Brooks (2005). Producing Security: Multinational Corporations, Globalization, and the Changing Calculus of Conflict. (Princeton, NJ. : Princeton University Press, c2005.: Princeton University Press, 316 p.). Assistant Professor of Government (Dartmouth College). Security, International; International economic relations; Globalization; International business enterprises. Globalization of production - influence on war and peace.

Andrew G. Brown (2003). Reluctant Partners: A History of Multilateral Trade Cooperation, 1850-2000. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 254 p.). Former Director of the General Analysis and Policies Division for the United Nations. International trade; International economic relations. Possibilities for cooperation among states. 

Stephen G. Bunker and Paul S. Ciccantell (2005). Globalization and the Race for Resources. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 263 p.). Former Professor of Sociology (University of Wisconsin--Madison); Associate Professor of Sociology (Western Michigan University). Natural resources--History; Mineral industries--History; Globalization--History; Capitalism--History; International economic relations--History. Profound connection between global dominance, control of natural resources; how five nations  achieved trade dominance by devising technologies, social and financial institutions, markets to enhance their access to raw materials.

--- (2007). East Asia and the Global Economy: Japan’s Ascent, with Implications for China’s Future. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Former Professor of Sociology (University of Wisconsin--Madison); Associate Professor of Sociology (Western Michigan University). Industries--Japan--History--20th century; Raw materials--Japan; International economic relations--History; Globalization; Capitalism; Natural resources; Japan--Economic policy--1945- ; Japan--Foreign economic relations. What drove Japan's economic expansion (key factors), how Japan globalized work economy to support it, effects on reorganization of significant sectors of global economy;  why spectacular growth halted in 1990s; theory of "new historical materialism"; China's recent path of economic growth, dominance.

Nayan Chanda (2007). Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 416 p.). Director of Publications, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Social evolution; Commerce--History; Intercultural communication--History; Culture diffusion--History; Globalization--History. Globalization of human interaction; process of ever-growing interconnectedness, interdependence that began thousands of years ago.

Eds. Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., Bruce Mazlish (2004). Leviathans: Multinational Corporations and the New Global History. (New York, NY: Cambridge. International business enterprises; Globalization--Economic aspects.

Ha-Joon Chang (2007). Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 288 p.). Reader in the Political Economy of Development (University of Cambridge). Free trade; Capitalism. Contrarian history of free-market thesis; economic superpowers (U.S., Britain, Korea) attained prosperity by shameless protectionism, government intervention in industry, copying others’ technologies, ram policies that suit ourselves down throat of developing world.

Paul Cheney (2010). Revolutionary Commerce: Globalization and the French Monarchy. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 305 p.). Assistant Professor of History (University of Chicago). France -- Commerce -- History -- 18th century; France -- Economic policy -- 18th century; France -- Economic conditions -- 18th century; Economics -- France -- History -- 18th century. Political economy of globalization in 18th-century France; discovery of New World, rise of Europe's Atlantic economy brought unprecedented wealth, reordered political balance among European states, threatened age-old social hierarchies within them; French developed "science of commerce" aimed to benefit from new wealth while containing its revolutionary effects; Montesquieu became towering authority among reformist economic, political thinkers (developed politics of fusion intended to reconcile France's aristocratic society and monarchical state with needs and risks of international commerce); Seven Years' War proved weakness of model, reforms that could guarantee shared prosperity at home, in colonies remained elusive; when Revolution broke out in 1789, contradictions that attended growth of France's Atlantic economy helped to bring down constitutional monarchy.

Carl H.A. Dassbach (1989). Global Enterprises and the World Economy: Ford, General Motors, and IBM, the Emergence of the Transnational Enterprise. (New York, NY: Garland, 558 p.). Ford Motor Company -- History; General Motors Corporation -- History; International Business Machines Corporation -- History; International business enterprises -- History -- 20th century.

Steve Dryden (1995). Trade Warriors: USTR and the American Crusade for Free Trade. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 452 p.). United States. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative--History; Free trade--United States--History--20th century; Tariff--United States--History--20th century; United States--Commercial policy--History--20th century. 

Eds. Mark Duckenfield, Gordon Bannerman, Anthony Howe and Cheryl Schonhardt-Bailey (2008). Battles over Free Trade: Anglo-American Experiences with International Trade, 1776–2006. (Brookfield, VT: Pickering & Chatto, 1,616 p. (4 vols)). Free trade--history; International trade-- History. Evolution of free trade from publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776 to present day; relationship between trade and politics, appropriate role of international regulation, domestic concerns about foreign competition, multilateral trade agreements.

Francesco Duina (2006). The Social Construction of Free Trade: The European Union, NAFTA, and MERCOSUR. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 224 p.). Assistant Professor of Sociology (Bates College) and Visiting Professor at the International Center for Business and Politics (Copenhagen Business School). European Union; Canada. Treaties, etc. 1992 Oct. 7; MERCOSUR (Organization); Free trade; Free trade--Social aspects; Regionalism; Trade blocs. Economic sociology and comparative regional integration. New interpretation of proliferation of regional trade agreements (RTAs) at end of twentieth century.

John H. Dunning (1993). The Globalization of Business: The Challenge of the 1990s. (New York, NY: Routledge, 467 p.). International business enterprises; Investments, Foreign.

--- (1997). Alliance Capitalism and Global Business. (New York, NY: Routledge, 383 p.). Strategic alliances (Business); International business enterprises--Management; Investments, Foreign. 

Ed. John  H. Dunning (2000). Regions, Globalization, and the Knowledge-Based Economy. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 506 p.). International business enterprises--Case studies; Regional economics--Case studies; Globalization.

Alfred E. Eckes, Jr. (1995). Opening America's Market: U.S. Foreign Trade Policy Since 1776. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 402 p.). Former Trade Official in Reagan and Bush Administrations. Exports--United States--History; Free trade--United States--History; United States--Commercial policy; United States--Commercial policy--Sources. 

Alfred E. Eckes, Jr., Thomas W. Zeiler (2003). Globalization and the American Century. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 343 p.). Globalization--History--20th century; United States--Foreign relations--20th century.

Howard J. Erlichman (2010). Conquest, Tribute, and Trade: The Quest for Precious Metals and the Birth of Globalization. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 542 p.). Economic history --16th century; Commerce --History --16th century; Precious metals --History --16th century; Imperialism --History --16th century; Gold mines and mining --History --16th century; Silver mines and mining --History --16th century; Copper mines and mining --History --16th century; Portugal --History --16th century; Spain --History --16th century; Netherlands --History --16th century. How closely-related states of Portugal, Spain, later Dutch Republic were able to check powerful Ottoman Empire, supersede great Italian city-states, overturn centuries of Muslim commercial domination in Africa and Asia; rose to power through exploitation of mineral resources in Central Europe, Africa, Americas, Japan; created first multinational corporations, launched scores of boomtowns, squandered huge amounts of capital; destroyed indigenous societies across globe through policies of colonial subjugation; how mineral wealth that funded first global empires dissipated in series of never-ending wars in Europe, culminated in succession of Spanish state bankruptcies, defeat of the Spanish Armada, rise of Dutch Republic in northern half of Spanish Netherlands; underestimated Dutch emerged as world's most powerful trading nation at century's end; they co-opted Iberian achievements, served as commercial bridge to later triumphs of British Empire, United States.

Ed. Peter Engardio (2006). Chindia: How China and India Are Revolutionizing Global Business. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 224 p.). Senior Writer at BusinessWeek; Former Asia Correspondent for six years. Globalization--Economic aspects--China; Globalization--Economic aspects--India; China--Economic conditions; China--Economic policy; India--Economic conditions; India--Economic policy. Frontline reports from BusinessWeek's award-winning Asia staff with point-by-point commentary by experts. 

Ronald Findlay, Kevin H. O’Rourke (2007). Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 619 p.). Ragnar Nurkse Professor of Economics (Columbia University); Professor of Economics (Trinity College, Dublin). International trade --History; International economic relations --History; Globalization --History. History of international trade in last millennium; interaction between patterns, evolution of inter-regional trade, long-term global economic, political developments; geography in explaining interactions between seven regions with very different physical features, endowments; 1) first half of millennium - two key events: Pax Mongolica, Black Death; Mongols encouraged trade, made routes across Eurasia safer, busier (first episode of globalization in history); 2) second half of millennium - rise of international economy, its contribution to Industrial Revolution; unprecedented expansion of international trade during last two centuries, based on the "Great Specialization" (manufactures vs. agriculture) that emerged in aftermath of Industrial Revolution, remained in place until recently.

Elizabeth Fones-Wolf (1994). Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945-60. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 307 p.). Free enterprise--United States--Public opinion; Public opinion--United States; Political culture--United States; Corporate image--United States; Labor unions--United States; Industrial relations--United States.

Tony Freyer (1992). Regulating Big Business: Antitrust in Great Britain and America, 1880-1990. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 399 p.). Trade regulation--Great Britain--History; Trade regulation--United States--History; Trusts, Industrial--Great Britain--History; Trusts, Industrial--United States--History; Antitrust law--Great Britain--History; Antitrust law--United States--History.

Martin S. Fridson (2006). Unwarranted Intrusions: The Case Against Government Intervention in the Marketplace. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 309 p.). Trade regulation--United States; Restraint of trade--United States; Intervention (Federal government)--United States; Economics--Political aspects--United States; Industrial policy--United States; United States--Politics and government--2001-Economic reality of some of popular, financially draining subsidies; debunks programs that claim to provide jobs, encourage savings, provide affordable housing, preserve family farms.

Thomas L. Friedman (2000). The Lexus and the Olive Tree. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 469 p. [rev. ed.]). International economic relations; Free trade; Capitalism--Social aspects; Technological innovations--Economic aspects; Technological innovations--Social aspects; Intercultural communication; Globalization; United States--Foreign economic relations.

--- (2005). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. (New York: NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 496 p.). Three-time Winner of the Pulitzer Prize and Foreign Affairs Columnist (The New York Times). Diffusion of innovations.; Information society.; Globalization--Economic aspects; Globalization--Social aspects. 

Eds. Hubert Gabrisch and Jens Ho¨lscher (2006). The Successes and Failures of Economic Transition: The European Experience. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 256 p.). Free enterprise--Europe, Eastern; Post-communism--Europe, Eastern; Europe, Eastern--Economic policy--1989-. Transformation of former socialist countries of Europe to market economy as political concept (with start and end), analyzed from perspective of end (EU membership), not of inherited burdens from socialist system; results of transformation, ability to improve social standards, income, growth.

Peter Gallagher (2005). The First Ten Years of the WTO: 1995-2005. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 244 p.). University of Adelaide. World Trade Organization. Principal activities of WTO as successor to GATT, steps taken to establish global trading system.

Andrea Goldstein; foreword by Louis T. Wells (2007). Multinational Companies from Emerging Economies: Composition, Conceptualization and Direction in the Global Economy. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 208 p.). Senior Economist at the OECD Development Centre,. International business enterprises--Developing countries. Basis for success of of multinational corporations from emerging economies: 1) need to compete internationally, 2) drive to invest abroad at early stage of their history.

David Singh Grewal (2008). Network Power: The Social Dynamics of Globalization. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 405 p.). Doctoral Student in the Department of Government (Harvard University). Globalization --Social aspects; Globalization --Economic aspects; Social networks; Business networks; Communication, International; Cosmopolitanism. How globalization is best understood in terms of power inherent in social relations; how standards of social coordination gain in value more they are used, undermine viability of alternative forms of cooperation; how global standards arise, falter; processes of globalization as free, forced.

Mauro F. Guillén (2005). The Rise of Spanish Multinationals: European Business in the Global Economy. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 288 p.). Dr Felix Zandman Endowed Professorship in International Management at the Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania). International business enterprises--Spain; Spain--Foreign economic relations. Why Spain has become one of world's ten largest foreign direct investors. 

Sheryllynne Haggerty (2006). The British-Atlantic Trading Community,1760-1810: Men, Women, and the Distribution of Goods. (Boston, MA: Brill, 304 p.). Lecturer in Early Modern British History (University of Nottingham). Merchants--Great Britain--History; Women merchants--Great Britain--History; Great Britain--Commerce--History. Case studies of Liverpool and Philadelphia to investigate nature of British-Atlantic trading community between 1760 and 1810.

Bernard E. Harcourt (2011). The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 328 p.). Julius Kreeger Professor of Law & Criminology and Chair and Professor of Political Science (University of Chicago Law School). Chicago Board of Trade; Punishment --United States; Free enterprise --United States; Chicago school of economics. 1) Even supposedly free markets are saturated with arbitrary, biased regulation; 2) influential concept of marketplace as "natural order" that should remain outside government control implies its obverse:  "neoliberal penality" of harsh state-supervised punishment for criminals who defy market's ethos; attack on association of markets with freedom and government with repression.

Michael Hart, with Bill Dymond and Colin Robertson; foreword by Donald Macdonald (1994). Decision at Midnight: Inside the Canada-US Free Trade Negotiations. (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 456 p.). Canada. Treaties, etc. United States, 1988 Jan. 2; Free trade--Canada; Free trade--United States; Libre-e´change--Canada; Libre-e´change--E´tats-Unis; Canada--Commerce--United States; United States--Commerce--Canada; Canada--Accords commerciaux; E´tats-Unis--Accords commerciaux.

Glenn Hubbard, Peter Navarro (2010). Seeds of Destruction: Why the Path to Economic Ruin Runs through Washington, and How To Reclaim American Prosperity. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press, 288 p.). Dean of Columbia Business School; Business Professor (UC Irvine). Free enterprise --United States; United States --Economic policy --2009-. Why Obama’s economic policies are failing; commonsense blueprint for re-igniting long-term growth, prosperity for Americans; how government policy planted seeds of destruction, how change in government policy can root them out, plant seeds of prosperity; how to overhaul tax system, increase business investment, slash government spending, control entitlements, rebuild American manufacturing.

Douglas A. Irwin (1996). Against the Tide: An Intellectual History of Free Trade. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 265 p.). Professor of Economics (Dartmouth). Free Trade. Author covers the thinking on free trade from ancient times to the present. Presents major intellectual arguments against free trade while arguing they are fatally flawed.

--- (2005). Free Trade Under Fire. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 304 p. [2nd ed.]). Free trade--United States; Globalization; United States--Commercial policy.

--- (2011). Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 250 p.). Robert E. Maxwell '23 Professor of Arts and Sciences in the Department of Economics (Dartmouth College). United States. Tariff Act of 1930; Tariff --United States --History --20th century; Protectionism --United States; Depressions --1929 --United States; United States --Commercial policy --History --20th century; United States --Economic conditions --20th century. America's most infamous trade law; why it largely deserves reputation for combining bad politics, bad economics and harming U.S. and world economies during Depression; politics behind Smoot-Hawley, its economic consequences, foreign reaction it provoked, aftermath and legacy; started as Republican ploy to win farm vote in 1928 election by increasing duties on agricultural imports; tariff quickly grew into logrolling, pork barrel free-for-all (increased duties all around, regardless of interests of consumers and exporters); after Herbert Hoover signed bill, U.S. imports fell sharply, other countries retaliated, increased tariffs on American goods (U.S. exports shriveled); contributed to decline in world trade, rovoked discrimination against U.S. exports that lasted decades.

Harold James (2001). The End of Globalization: Lessons from the Great Depression. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 260 p.). Professor of History and International Affairs (Princeton University). International economic relations; International trade; International finance Depressions--1929; Financial crises; National state; Globalization--Economic aspects.

--- (2009). The Creation and Destruction of Value: The Globalization Cycle. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 336 p.). Professor of History and International Affairs (Princeton University). Globalization --Economic aspects; Financial crises; International economic relations. Vulnerability, fragility of processes of globalization; lessons from past breakdowns of globalization (Great Depression) show how financial crises provoke backlashes against: 1) global integration, 2) mobility of capital or goods, 3) flows of migration; how banking, monetary collapses suddenly, radically alter rules of engagement for every other type of economic activity; increased calls for state action in countercyclical fiscal policy: 1) bring demands for trade protection, 2) swing toward tariffs and trade wars, anti-immigrant backlashes, authoritarian government; conflicts of interest paralyze international community, challenge international institutions; looming psychological, material consequences of interconnected world for people, institutions they create.

Ed. Geoffrey Jones (1986). British Multinationals: Origins, Management, and Performance. (Brookfield, VT: Gower, 212 p.). International business enterprises--History; Corporations, British--History. 

--- (1994). The Making of Global Enterprise. (Portland, OR: F. Cass, 209 p.). International business enterprises--History; International business enterprises--Case studies. Two main themes: 1) How has global business developed over the last century? 2) What has been its impact on host economies?

Geoffrey Jones (2000). Merchants to Multinationals: British Trading Companies in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 404 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). Trading companies--Great Britain--History; International business enterprises--Great Britain--History; Investments, British--History; International trade--History.

--- (2005). Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 340 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School). International business enterprises--History--19th century; International business enterprises--History--20th century; Capitalism--History--19th century; Capitalism--History--20th century; Globalization--Economic aspects--History--19th century; Globalization--Economic aspects--History--20th century.

Edward S. Kaplan and Thomas W. Ryley (1994). Prelude to Trade Wars: American Tariff Policy, 1890-1922. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 144 p.). Professor with the Social Science Department at New York City Technical College (City University of New York); Professor Emeritus from New York City Technical College (City University of New York). Tariff--United States--History.

Edward S. Kaplan (1996). American Trade Policy: 1923-1995. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 176 p.). Canada. Treaties, etc. 1992 Oct. 7; Free trade--United States--History--20th century; United States--Commercial policy--History--20th century.

John Kay (2004). Culture and Prosperity: The Truth about Markets: Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor. (New york, NY: HarperBusiness, 420 p.). Free enterprise; Capitalism; Economic policy; Economic development; Culture.

Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries with Elizabeth Florent-Treacy (1999). The New Global Leaders: Richard Branson, Percy Barnevik, and David Simon. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 188 p.). Richard Branson; Barnevik, Percy; David Simon; Virgin Group; British Petroleum Company; ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.; International business enterprises--Management--Case studies; Organizational change--Case studies.

Archanun Kohpaiboon (2006). Multinational Enterprises and Industrial Transformation: Evidence from Thailand. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 285 p.). Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics (Thammasat University, Thailand). International business enterprises--Thailand; Industrialization--Thailand. Gains from MNE involvement are conditioned by policy environment of host country.

David C. Korten (2001). When Corporations Rule the World. (San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 384 p. [2nd ed.]). Corporations--Political aspects; Industries--Environmental aspects; Industrialization--Social aspects; Big business; Power (Social sciences); Business and politics; International business enterprises; International economic relations; Sustainable development.

Melvyn B. Krauss (1978). The New Protectionism: The Welfare State and International Trade. (New York, Ny: New York University Press, 119 p.). Senior Fellow (Hoover Institution). Protectionism; Welfare state; Commerce. Published for International Center for Economic Policy Studies. Author examines how inflexibility of welfare-state economies breed new dangers to free trade.

--- (1997). How Nations Grow Rich: The Case for Free Trade. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 140 p.). Senior Fellow (Hoover Institution). Protectionism; Welfare state; International trade. 

James Kynge  (2006). China Shakes the World: A Titan’s Breakneck Rise and Troubled Future and the Challenge for America. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 288 p.). Former Beijing Bureau Chief of the Financial Times. China--Economic conditions--2000- ; China--Foreign economic relations. China's hunger for jobs, raw materials, energy, food and its export of goods, workers, investments drastically reshape world trade and politics.

Deepak Lal (2004). In Praise of Empires: Globalization and Order. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 270 p.). James S. Coleman Professor of International Development Studies (UCLA) and Professor Emeritus of Political Economy (University College of London). Imperialism; Imperialism--History; International relations; Globalization; International economic relations; United States--Foreign relations--2001---Forecasting. Empires and globalization,  place of US in current world order.

Paul A. Laudicina (2005). World Out of Balance: Navigating Global Risks To Seize Competitive Advantages. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 236 p.). Vice President and Managing Director of the Global Business Policy Council at A.T. Kearney (named managing officer, chairman of the board in 2006). Business; Globalization; Business planning; Risk management. Five factors that are shaping tomorrow's business environment: 1) Globalization; 2) Demographics; 3) Consumption Patterns; 4) Natural Resources and Environment; 5) Regulation and Activism.

Charles Paul Lewis (2005). How the East Was Won: The Impact of Multinational Companies on Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 222 p.). Managing Editor in Economist Intelligence Unit. International business enterprises--Europe, Eastern; Post-communism--Europe, Eastern; International business enterprises--Former Soviet republics; Post-communism--Former Soviet republics; Europe, Eastern--Economic conditions--1989-; Europe, Eastern--Politics and government--1989-; Former Soviet republics--Economic conditions; Former Soviet republics--Politics and government. 

Richard C. Longworth (2007). Caught in the Middle: America's Heartland in the Age of Globalism. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 320 p.). Former Foreign Correspondent and Senior Writer (Chicago Tribune). Globalization; Manufacturing; midwest. Reality in heartland - manufacturing collapse has crippled Midwest, biofuels revolution may save it, school districts struggle with new immigrants, Iowa meatpacking town can’t survive without them; portrait of Midwesterners as sluggish, unskilled, risk-averse mediocrities, obsolete industrial-age dreams of job security, allergic to change, indifferent to education, unfit for global age.

Barry C. Lynn (2005). End of the Line: The Rise and Coming Fall of the Global Corporation. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 312 p.). Fellow at the New American Foundation, Former Executive Editor of Global Business magazine. International business enterprises; Contracting out; Globalization--Economic aspects; Globalization--Social aspects; International economic relations; International business enterprises--United States; Contracting out--United States; Globalization--Economic aspects--United States; Globalization--Social aspects--United States; United States--Foreign economic relations. 

John R. MacArthur (2000). The Selling of "Free Trade": Nafta, Washington, and the Subversion of American Democracy (New York, NY: Hill & Wang, 388 p.). President and Publisher of Harper's Magazine. Canada. Treaties, etc. 1992 Oct. 7; Free trade--United States; International economic relations; United States--Commercial policy. 

Ira C. Magaziner and Mark Patinkin (1989). The Silent War: Inside the Global Business Battles Shaping America's Future. (New York, NY: Random House, 415 p.). Competition, International--Case studies; Corporations--United States--Case studies.

Gary B. Magee and Andrew S. Thompson (2010). Empire and Globalisation: Networks of People, Goods and Capital in the British World, c.1850-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 291 p.). Professor of Economics and Head of the School of Economics and Finance (La Trobe University); Professor of Commonwealth and Imperial History at the School of History (University of Leeds). British --Foreign countries --History; Great Britain --Emigration and immigration --History; Great Britain --Commerce --History. Great population movement of British emigrants before 1914, relationship between empire and globalisation; how distinct structures of economic opportunity developed around people who settled across wider British World through co-ethnic networks they created (could also limit, distort economic growth); ethnic identification often made trade, investment with racial ’outsiders’ less appealing, skewed economic activities toward communities perceived to be ’British’; importance of networks to migration, finance and trade; how networks upon which era of modern globalisation was built quickly turned in on themselves after 1918, converted racial, ethnic, class tensions into protectionism, nationalism, xenophobia.

Peter T. Marsh (1999). Bargaining on Europe: Britain and the First Common Market, 1860-1892. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 246 p.). Free trade--Europe--History--19th century; Free trade--Great Britain--History--19th century; Protectionism--Europe--History--19th century; Protectionism--Europe--History--19th century; Great Britain--Commercial policy--History--19th century; Great Britain--Commercial treaties--History--19th century.

Thomas K. McCraw (1984). Prophets of Regulation: Charles Francis Adams, Louis D. Brandeis, James M. Landis, Alfred E. Kahn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 387 p.).

Brian McDonald (1998). The World Trading System: The Uruguay Round and Beyond. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 319 p.). Deputy Head of European Commission Office in Hong Kong. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Organization); World Trade Organization; Uruguay Round (1987-1994); Tariff; Industrial policy; International trade. 

Serge Michel and Michel Beuret; photography by Paolo Woods (2009). China Safari: On the Trail of China’s Expansion in Africa. (New York, NY: Nation Books, 336 p.). Former West Africa Correspondent (Le Mond); Foreign Editor (L’Hebdo). Africa --Foreign economic relations --China; China --Foreign economic relations --Africa. China’s economic ventures in Africa; Africa’s third largest business partner (replaced Great Britain); bringing investment, needed infrastructure to continent largely ignored by Western companies, nations; geopolitical earthquake.

John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge (2000). A Future Perfect: The Challenge and Hidden Promise of Globalization. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 386 p.). Former New York Bureau Chief and Business Editor (The Economiist); West Coast Bureau Chief, Washington Correspondent (The Economist). Globalization; International economic relations. Defense of globalization.

Karl Moore & David Lewis (2000). Foundations of Corporate Empire: A Complete History of the Rise and Rise of the Multinational Enterprise. (New York, NY: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 319 p.). International business enterprises History.

Karl Moore and David Lewis (2009). The Origins of Globalization. (New York, NY: Routledge, 292 p.). Associate Professor of Management (McGill University); Teaches World History (Cal State, Long Beach). Globalization --History; Economic history; Capitalism --History; Commerce --History. Concept of "known world" globalization - mixed economy existed in variety of forms throughout ancient world; business practices of ancient world; historical interpretation of contemporary globalizing economy.

Moises Naím (2005). Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers and Copycats Are Hijacking the Global Economy. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 352 p.). Editor of Foreign Policy (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace), Former Minister of Industry and Trade in Venezuela, Former Executive Director of the World Bank. Transnational crime; Drug traffic; Illegal arms transfers; Intellectual property infringement; Illegal aliens; Money laundering; Globalization--Economic aspects. How traffickers are changing globalized world.

John V. C. Nye (2007). War, Wine, and Taxes: The Political Economy of Anglo-French Trade, 1689-1900. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 192 p.). Frederic Bastiat Chair in Political Economy (George Mason University). Tariff on wine--Great Britain--History; Great Britain--Commercial policy--History; Great Britain--Foreign economic relations--France; France--Foreign economic relations--Great Britain. Britain was not free-trade nation during, after industrial revolution; used tariffs, notably on French wine, as mercantilist tool to politically weaken France, to respond to pressure from local brewers and others.

Kenichi Ohmae (1999). The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 248 p. [rev. ed.]). International economic integration; International business enterprises; International trade; International economic relations; Economic development; Economic history--1990-

Kevin H. O’Rourke and Jeffrey G. Williamson (1999). Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Economy. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 343 p.). Professor of Economics (Trinity College, Dublin); Laird Bell Professor of Economics (Harvard University). Free trade--North Atlantic Region--History; Capital movements--North Atlantic Region--History; North Atlantic Region--Economic integration--History; North Atlantic Region--Emigration and immigration--History. Trade, migration and international capital flows in Atlantic economy in century prior to 1914.

Seymour Patterson (2006). The Development of Free Trade in the 1990s and the New Rhetoric of Protectionism. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 245 p.). Professor of Economics (Truman State University). Free trade--United States; Protectionism--United States; United States--Commercial policy; United States--Foreign economic relations. Disparity among economists and politicians of free trade as paradigm for economic efficiency, in contrast to practice of trade restrictions around world.

Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik (1999). The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 1400-the Present. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 256 p.). Commerce--History; Commerce--Social aspects--History; Culture--History; Industrialization--Social aspects--History; International economic relations--History; Economic history.

Clyde Prestowitz (2005). Three Billion New Capitalists: The Great Shift of Wealth and Rower to the East. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 416 p.). President of the Economic Strategy Institute. Globalization--Economic aspects; Globalization--Social aspects. 

Joseph P. Quinlan (2010). The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do About It. (New York, NY McGraw-Hill 304 p.). Managing Director and the Chief Market Strategist of Bank of America. International economic relations; International trade; International finance; Economic history --20th century; Economic history --21st century; United States --Economic policy; United States --Foreign economic relations. Governmental, business reactions to recent recession; globalization, free-market capitalism are in retreat; to avoid economic "cold war": 1) major alterations to present strategies, 2) cooperative effort on part of United States with emerging countries (China) to shape new economy that promotes world-wide economic growth, reduces risks of wars and cross-border conflicts.

Niranjan Rajadhyaksha (2006). The Rise of India: Its Transformation from Poverty to Prosperity. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 176 p.). Deputy Editor (Business World). India -- Economic policy -- 1991-; India -- Economic conditions -- 1947-; India -- Commerce; India -- Social conditions -- 21st century; India -- Politics and government -- 21st century. Development of India since economic reforms of 1991,  through prism of demographics, outsourcing, globalization, finance, aspirations, reforms for the poor; effects of these reforms on lives of people, their organizations.

Shereen Ratnagar (2004). Trading Encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 408 p. [2nd ed.]). Indus civilization; South Asia--Commerce--History; Middle East--Commerce--History. 

John J. Reardon (1992). America and the Multinational Corporation: The History of a Troubled Partnership. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 185 p.). International business enterprises -- United States -- History.

Gordon Ritchie (1997). Wrestling with the Elephant: The Inside Story of the Canada-US Trade Wars. (Toronto, ON: Macfarlane Walter & Ross, 290 p.). Canada's Chief NAFTA Negotiator. Canada. Treaties, etc. United States, 1988 Jan. 2; Free trade--Canada; Free trade--United States; Canada--Commerce--United States; United States--Commerce--Canada.

Pietra Rivoli (2005). The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy: An Economist Examines the Markets, Power and Politics of World Trade. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 254 p.). Associate Professor at   McDonough School of Business (Georgetown University). T-shirt industry; International trade; Free trade; International economic relations.

Dan Rodrik (2007). One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 278 p.). Professor of International Political Economy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University). International economic relations. Success usually requires following policies tailored to local economic, political realities rather than obeying dictates of international globalization establishment; poor countries get rich by overcoming their own highly specific constraints.

--- (2011). The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Rafiq Hariri Professor of International Political Economy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University). Globalization --Economic aspects; International economic integration; International economic relations. Customizable globalization supported by light frame of international rules; nations of world have struggled to realize globalization's promise; economic narratives (gold standard, Bretton Woods regime, "Washington Consensus") brought great success, great failure; cannot simultaneously pursue democracy, national self-determination, economic globalization: social arrangements of democracies clash with international demands of globalization; national priorities should take precedence en route to balanced prosperity.

Alex Rubner (1990). The Might of the Multinationals: The Rise and Fall of the Corporate Legend. (New York, NY: Praeger, 292 p.). International business enterprises.

Stephen Todd Rudman (2006). The Multinational Corporation in China: Controlling Interests. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 264 p.). International business enterprises--China--Management; International business enterprises--China--Management--Case studies; International business enterprises--United States--Management; International business enterprises--United States--Management--Case studies. How multinational corporations control, coordinate their worldwide affiliates, inside story on contemporary China. 

Eds. Margrit Schulte Beerbuhl, Jorg Vogele (2004). Spinning the Commercial Web: International Trade, Merchants, and Commercial Cities, c. 1640-1939. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 395 p.). International trade--History--Congresses; Trading companies--History--Congresses; Merchants--History--Congresses; Commerce--History--Congresses.

Butler D. Shaffer (1997). In Restraint of Trade: The Business Campaign Against Competition, 1918-1938. (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 284 p.). Industrial policy--United States--History--20th century; Competition--United States--History--20th century; Competition--United States--Case studies; Trade regulation--United States--History--20th century; Business and politics--United States--History--20th century; Businesspeople--United States--Attitudes; United States--Economic conditions--1918-1945.

Harold L. Sirkin, James W. Hemerling, and Arindam K. Bhattacharya (2008). Globality: Competing with Everyone from Everywhere for Everything. (New York, NY: Business Plus, 304 p.). Senior Partner, Leads Boston Consulting Group Global Operations Practice; Senior Partner, Former Managing Director of BCG Greater China; BCG Partner in New Delhi. Competition, International; International trade; Globalization --Economic aspects. Study of more than 3,000 companies operating in emerging market economies: compete with U.S. head to head; how they came to power; what's necessary to compete against them; economic climate will change in unprecedented ways.

Roy C. Smith (2002). Adam Smith and the Origins of American Enterprise: How America's Industrial Success Was Forged by the Timely Ideas of a Brilliant Scots Economist. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 224 p.). Smith, Adam, 1723-1790; Free enterprise--United States--History; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865.

Brian Snowdon (2007). Globalisation, Development and Transition: Conversations with Eminent Economists. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 537 p.). International economic relations; Globalization; Economic history--20th century.  

Guy Sorman (2009). Economics Does Not Lie: A Defense of the Free Market in a Time of Crisis. (New York, NY: Encounter Books, 250 p.). French author, philosopher, economist, and journalist. Free enterprise; Free trade; Economic policy; Economics. Unprecedented growth (privatization, market capitalism have reconstructed Eastern Europe, lifted 800 million people - in China, Brazil, and India - out of poverty in 20th century); collapse of state socialism, scientific revolution in economics.

Benn Steil and Manuel Manuel Hinds (2009). Money, Markets, and Sovereignty. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 304 p.). Senior Fellow and Director of International Economics; Former Salvadoran Finance Minister. Money; Globalization --Economic aspects; Monetary policy. Defense of economic liberalism; intellectual history of monetary nationalism from ancient world to present; why it represents single greatest threat to globalization; liberal global trade regime operates side by side with most extreme doctrine of monetary nationalism, bound to trigger periodic crises. 

Gabor Steingart (2008). The War for Wealth: The True Story of Globalization, or Why the Flat World is Broken. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 304 p.). Senior Correspondent for Der Spiegel in Washington DC. Globalization--Economic aspects; International economic relations; Free trade; Capitalism; Infrastructure (Economics); Globalization. How globalization has affected state of world's economy; Western prosperity, wealth, political power, democratic ideals are disappearing faster than ever; three potential scenarios the world faces.

Joseph E. Stiglitz (2002). Globalization and Its Discontents. (New York, NY: Norton, 282 p.). Joint Professorships at Economics Department, the School of International and Public Affairs, and the Business School (Columbia University). International Monetary Fund--Developing countries; International economic integration; Foreign trade regulation; International finance; Globalization--Economic aspects--Developing countries; United States--Commercial policy. 1) functions and powers of main institutions that govern globalization (International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization); 2) ramifications, both good and bad, of their policies.

--- (2006). Making Globalization Work. (New York, NY: Norton, 320 p.). Winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Economics. Globalization--Economic aspects. New thinking about questions that shape globalization debate: global financial system, environment, 3) framework for free and fair global trade, more.

Joseph Stiglitz and Andrew Charlton (2006). Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 304 p.). World Trade Organization; Developing countries--Commerce; International trade; Commercial policy; Economic development. How globalization can help Third World countries to develop and prosper. 

Gita Sud de Surie (2008). Knowledge, Organizational Evolution, and Market Creation: The Globalization of Indian Firms from Steel to Software. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 213 p.). Senior Fellow at the Wharton School, Assistant Professor (Adelphi University School of Business). Globalization --India; Business enterprises --India; Technological innovations --India; East Indian business enterprises. Behavioral, organizational, developmental process involved in transforming India, world's second largest population, into workforce for information, biotech age.

Frank Trentmann (2008). Free Trade Nation: Commerce, Consumption, and Civil Society in Modern Britain. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 450 p.). Professor of History at Birkbeck College (University of London), Fernand Braudel Senior Fellow at the European University Institute, Florence. Free trade --Great Britain --History --19th century; Great Britain --Commerce --History --19th century. How doctrine of Free Trade contributed to growth of democratic culture in Britain, how it fell apart; creation of popular culture in 19th-century Britain; unraveled in First World War, depression of 1930s; culture, ethics, popular communication matter just as much as sound economics; Free Trade, not Fair Trade, seen to stand for values such as democracy, justice, and peace in past.

Kellee S. Tsai (2007). Capitalism Without Democracy: The Private Sector in Contemporary China. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 268 p.). Professor of Political Science (Johns Hopkins University). Free enterprise--China; Entrepreneurship--Political aspects--China; Businessmen--China--Political activity; Informal sector (Economics)--China; China--Economic policy--2000- ; China--Economic policy--1976-2000. Relationship between economic liberalism (privatization), political freedom (democratization); China's entrepreneurs are unlikely by themselves to push for democratic change. 

Louis Turner (1970). Invisible Empires; Multinational Companies and the Modern World. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 228 p.). International business enterprises.

Raymond Vernon (1972). The Economic and Political Consequences of Multinational Enterprise: An Anthology. (Boston, MA: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 236 p.). Clarence Dillon Professor of International Affairs Emeritus at the Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University). International business enterprises--Addresses, essays, lectures. 

--- (1977). Storm over Multinationals: The Real Issues. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 260 p.). Clarence Dillon Professor of International Affairs Emeritus at the Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University). International Enterprises.

--- (1989). Beyond Globalism: Remaking American Foreign Economic Policy. (New York, NY: Free Press, 246 p.). Clarence Dillon Professor of International Affairs Emeritus at the Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University). U.S. Foreign Economic Relations, Commercial Policy.

Richard H.K. Vietor (1994). Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 439 p.). Trade regulation--United States--Case studies; Deregulation--United States--Case studies.

Robert Went (2002). The Enigma of Globalization: A Journey to a New Stage of Capitalism. (New York, NY: Routledge, 149 p.). International economic relations; Free trade; Capitalism; Infrastructure (Economics); Globalization.

Frederick F. Wherry (2008). Global Markets and Local Crafts: Thailand and Costa Rica Compared. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 208 p.). Assistant Professor of Sociology (University of Michigan). Handicraft industries--Thailand; Handicraft industries--Costa Rica; Export marketing--Management; International business enterprises--Marketing. Comparison of  handicraft industries of Thailand and Costa Rica shows how local cultural industries break into global markets, how global markets affect how artisans understand, adapt, utilize cultural traditions.

Mira Wilkins (1974). The Maturing of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from 1914 to 1970. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 590 p.). Corporations, American; International business enterprises.

--- (1981). The Emergence of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from the Colonial Era to 1914. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 310 p. [orig. pub. 1970]). Corporations, American; International business enterprises.

Ed. Mira Wilkins (1991). The Growth of Multinationals. (Brookfield, VT: E. Elgar, 608 p.). International business enterprises.

Richard C. Williams; with preface by George Cheney (2007). The Cooperative Movement: Globalization from Below. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 230 p.). Cooperation -- History; Cooperation -- Case studies. History of cooperative movement from origins in 18th century; theory of cooperation, contrasted with "Standard Economic Model", based on competition.

Martin Wolf (2004). Why Globalization Works. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 416 p.). Associate Editor (London Financial Times). Globalization--Economic aspects; International economic relations. 

Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw (2002). The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 488 p. [rev. ed.]). Economic policy; Capitalism History 20th century; Markets; Privatization; Deregulation; Economic history 1945-; Competition, International. 

M. Y. Yoshino (1976). Japan's Multinational Enterprises. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 191 p.). Corporations, Japanese; International business enterprises.

Thomas W. Zeiler (1999). Free Trade, Free World: The Advent of GATT. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 267 p.). General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Organization)--History; International trade--History; Cold War.


Business History Links

The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy                  

Created in 1982, The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE) is an interdisciplinary research project that focuses on "…international economic competition and the development and application of advanced technologies". Moving between the worlds of the private sector to interactions with fellow scholars and policymakers, BRIE has created a number of thought-provoking documents for the web-browsing public and placed them on this site. Visitors who require a bit more background material may want to first visit the "About BRIE" area which includes information on their objectives and research mission. After taking a look at the materials there, interested parties should proceed to the "Publications" area, which contains a very nice working papers area. Here visitors can download such intriguing titles as "Transforming Politics in a Digital Era" and "Boom Boxes: Shipping Containers and Terrorists".

Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (Duke University)                                                                                                                               

The Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (CGGC), an affiliate of the Social Science Research Institute at Duke University, is built around the use of global value chains methodology to study the effects of globalization on various topics of interest including: industrial upgrading, international competitiveness, the environment, global health, engineering and entrepreneurship, and innovation in the global knowledge economy. Through our research, in which we seek to engage a network of researchers and educators from around the world, we strive to link global, national and local levels of analysis to shed light on the effects of globalization on governments, institutions and corporations.

Jerome A. Chazen Institute for International Business                              

Founded in 1991, represents the crossroads of internationalism at Columbia Business School. The Chazen Institute offers events, initiatives and resources to help students, faculty members and the greater business community better meet the challenges of the global landscape.

Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy                                       Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy is a three-part, six-hour documentary series and Web site. Providing a comprehensive history of the ideas, events, and values that have shaped the present global economy, the Commanding Heights Web site examines the history of the global economy and demonstrates how key economic theories have evolved in the context of historical events. The three-part television series includes: Part One -- "The Battle of Ideas" -- which aired last Wednesday, April 3rd at 9pm; Part Two -- "The Agony of Reform" -- which airs this Wednesday, April 10th at 9pm; and Part Three -- "The New Rules of the Game" -- which airs Wednesday, April 17th at 9pm. Internet users not able to view the television series will have the opportunity to watch streaming online videos of all three programs. The Commanding Heights Web site is available in both high and low bandwidth versions, offering a time map, an interactive atlas of economic history that allows users to track changes in political boundaries and major shifts in economic policies in more than thirty nations from 1910 to the present, and an online forum for users to discuss contemporary economic issues raised by the broadcast. Forthcoming is an online teachers' guide that will provide suggestions for applications of the Web site in classroom
instruction. This guide will be available in versions for both high school and post-secondary educators.

Economy in Latin America                                                                      

Started in 1992 (Latin American Network Information Center - and affiliated with the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) is designed to "facilitate access to Internet-based information to, from, or on Latin America." Various directories contain over 12,000 unique URLs for use by the general public. Links can be browsed by subject headings or by country, and visitors can look into more discrete topical headings like "food", "political science", and "social work". Visitors can click on "Digital Initiatives" area to find digital collections that cover documents from the New Mexican Revolution and the full-text Fidel Castro Speech database. Many of the site's resources are available in Spanish and Portuguese.

GATT Digital Library: 1947-1994                                                                           

"This site provides access to documents and information of and about the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), an organization that promoted international commerce and the reduction of trade barriers among member states from 1947-1994." Searchable, or browse by issuing body and date. Includes bibliographies, research guides, and links to sites about GATT and the World Trade Organization (WTO, the successor to GATT). From Stanford University Libraries.

Global 3.0                                                                                       

Often the word "globalization" is thrown around rather carelessly, and many people just associate it with the expansion of such familiar icons as Starbucks and McDonalds into the far-flung corners of the world. Fortunately, there are programs such as this one from American Radioworks, which is sponsored by Minnesota Public Radio, with significant assistance from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This program explores the broad concept of globalization in three parts, beginning with a look at the transformation of the famed "Rust Belt" region in the United States. The hosts for the program are reporters Chris Farrell and John Biewen, and visitors can listen to the program in its entirety and follow along with the transcript provided on the site. The site is rounded out by a selection of helpful resources and online links.


Created by the Center for International Business Education and Research at Michigan State University (MSU-CIBER), globalEDGE™ is a knowledge web-portal that connects international business professionals worldwide to a wealth of information, insights, and learning resources on global business activities. Partially funded by a U.S. Department of Education Title VI B grant, globalEDGE™ is source for global business knowledge. The site offers: Global Resources - more than 5,000 online resources; Country Insights - a wealth of information on all countries; News & Views - latest issues in international business; Academy - extensive research and teaching resources; Diagnostic Tools - decision-support tools for managers.

World Bank: Globalization                                               

The word globalization is thrown around with reckless abandon by numerous parties these days, and as a result, the very notion of such a force is somewhat elusive. While this website from the World Bank may not end all of the fierce academic and pragmatic debates that rage on about globalization, it does offers some perspective from this organization on this wide-ranging phenomenon. The site itself contains audio and video selections, issue briefs, a data and statistics section, and an area dedicated to current research on the subject underway by the World Bank. The issue briefs are definitely worth a look as they address such questions as What is Globalization? and Does More International Trade Openness Increase World Poverty? The selection of videos is also quite nice, particularly a recent talk by Michael Moore (the former director-general of the World Trade Organization) entitled Globalization & Development: Its Implications & Institutions.

Yale center for the Study of Globalization                                                                  

Launched in the fall of 2001 to enrich the debate about globalization on campus and to promote the flow of ideas between Yale and the policy world. The programs and activities of the Center share a common purpose and aim toward one or more goals, all serving to stimulate discussion and examination of the core issues and to connect individuals and institutions whose work contributes to the debate on globalization. Central to YCSG’s goals is to link academia and the policy world.




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