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1668 - Riksdag (Swedish parliament made up of nobles, clergy, burghers) approved re-establishment of Stockholms Banco under name Sveriges Rikes Ständers Bank (Bank of the Estates of the Realm; Karl X Gustav, in throes of war with Poland, had granted charter for exchange bank and loan bank to Johan Palmstruch, former Dutch merchant on November 30, 1656; established as Stockholms Banco, Sweden’s first bank; private company strongly regulated by state, issued banknotes; closed in 1664 when general public lost confidence in the banknotes; Palmstruch convicted of of mismanagement in 1668 by Svea Court of Appeal); 1867 - renamed Sveriges Riksbank (National Bank of Sweden); world's oldest central bank.

July 27, 1694 - The Bank of England received royal charter as commercial institution.

April 3, 1721 - Robert Walpole became England's first Lord of the Treasury.

August 1, 1732 - Foundation laid for Bank of England.

May 26, 1781 - Congress approved Robert Morris's proposal for national bank; December 31, 1781 - newly christened Bank of North America received United States first bank charter; modeled after Bank of England, Philadelphia-based bank proved to be fast success, inspired Alexander Hamilton to found Bank of New York in 1791.

January 15, 1782 - Superintendent of Finance, Robert Morris, delivered  report to Congress on young nation's finances;  recommended establishing  national mint, outlined plans for decimal coinage.

December 14, 1790 - Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton proposed Bank of the United States to assume responsibility for easing the nation's debt, to establish a healthy line of credit; bank's distinctly Federalist bent angered planters and states' rights proponents, charged Hamilton with catering to "monied interests," derided his plan as unconstitutional; February 25, 1791 - President Washington signed the bill to charter the bank.

December 12, 1791 - The First Bank of the United States opened;  provided national currency, acted as government's fiscal agent.

1797 - England in Crisis, Bank of England suspended cash payments.

March 4, 1811 - First Bank of the United States lost battle between Federalists and Thomas Jefferson-led states' rights advocates, forced to liquidate; backed by Federal funds, bank was essentially a private company with investors; loud and powerful chorus of critics feared bank would become too potent a central institution, like the Bank of England; merchants hoping to open their own state-based financial institutions carped over the competition from the bank's network of branch offices; bank leaned heavily on foreign investments, mostly from British interests; bank was profitable, paid relatively handsome dividends to investors but critics forced its demise; 1816 - pro-bank forces forged a new charter, Nicholas Biddle in charge; President Andrew Jackson, fiercely opposed the notion of a central bank system, tried to use his executive power to do away with the bank.

March 25, 1814 - Netherlands Bank established.

April 10, 1816 - Second Bank of the United States approved;  1817 - opened in Philadelphia with twenty-year charter, $35 million in federal funding; floundered under first chief, William Jones; later flourished under charge of Nelson Biddle; didn't survive past term of its initial charter: states' rights activists, led by President Andrew Jackson, mounted hotly contested, though ultimately successful, drive to abolish tBank and its network of branch offices; 1832 - Jackson vetoed Congress's re-charter.

1819 - Britain returned to gold standard.

February 15, 1836 - Nicholas Biddle obtained Pennsylvania charter for ever-controversial second Bank of the United States; could not fend off President Andrew Jackson, who bitterly opposed concept of Federal banking system,  marshaled fierce attacks against Biddle's bank, cut off government's flow of deposits, transferred Federal funds to various state banks; February 4, 1841 - closed due to bad investments, mismanagement.

1844 - Bank Charter Act, to regulate money supply in relation to gold in Britain.

August 5, 1861 - Federal government levied an income tax for first time; Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1861, which restored earlier excises taxes, imposed tax on personal incomes (levied at 3% all incomes higher than $800 a year); new direction for Federal tax system based mainly on excise taxes, customs duties; Congress quickly acknowledged certain inadequacies of income tax, collected none until following year;  repealed ten years later.

July 1, 1862 - United States Congress passed Revenue Act: imposed 3% tax on people with incomes between $600 to $10,000; called for 3% tax on incomes between $600 and $10,000, 5% tax on incomes of more than $10,000; created Bureau of Internal Revenue, government agency charged with collecting revenue generated by new taxes; 1868 - main source of Government revenue derived from liquor, tobacco taxes; 1872 - income tax abolished; 1868-1913 - almost 90% of all revenue collected from remaining excises.

May 20, 1895 - Supreme Court ruled, in decision in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., on constitutionality of income tax legislation (unconstitutional); deemed a property-based tax on incomes a "direct tax" (violated Constitution's holding that taxes could only be levied if they raised revenues that were commensurate with each state's population); Court gradually moved away from its consideration of income tax as "direct tax"; came to view it as excise tax "measured by income"; judged income taxes as being "inherently" indirect; "conferred no new power of taxation."

January 12, 1897 - National Monetary Conference convened in Indianapolis, Indiana, to chart nation's fiscal course into next century; resulted in establishment of congressional committee charged with developing financial system based on burgeoning gold standard.

March 29, 1897 - Japan adopted Gold Standard.

1900 - Bank of Japan only central bank outside Europe. 

March 14, 1900 - Congress ratified Gold Standard Act.

May 30, 1908 - Congress passed Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Act (sponsored by financier and conservative legislator, Senator Nelson Aldrich, R-RI); business-friendly bill designed as boon to struggling banks, granted banks  authority to issue currency that was pegged to commercial notes, government bonds.

May 30, 1908 - Theodore Roosevelt named Senator Nelson Aldrich (R-RI) chair of National Monetary Commission; effectively granted the arch-conservative right to monitor, mold nation's finances.

February 3, 1913 - The 16th Amendment to the Constitution ratified;  providing for federal income tax; February 25, 1913 - declared in effect (passed by Congress on July 12, 1909, ratified on February 3, 1913), gave Congress power to levy, collect income taxes; stated: "Congress shall have the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration." Later, Congress adopted a 1% tax on net personal income of more than $3,000 with surtax of 6% on incomes of more than $500,000; repealed 1909 corporate income tax; first Form 1040 introduced.

March 8, 1913 - The Internal Revenue Service began to levy, collect income taxes.

October 3, 1913 - President Wilson signed Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act ( Congressman Oscar W. Underwood of Alabama, Senator Furnifold M. Simmons of North Carolina); drastic lowered high tariff rates of Payne-Aldrich Tariff of 1909 to benefit consumers, stimulate competition (reduced average ad valorem rates from about 40% to about 26%; imposed graduated income tax, first under Sixteenth Amendment, to compensate for lost revenue);  marked significant change in federal economic policy - made manufacturers more efficient, provided consumers with competitive pricing, promoted free trade, boosted nation's industrial efforts; transformed United States from importer of goods and capital into leading manufacturing nation of world, with a surplus of capital and goods that had to be invested, sold abroad.  

December 23, 1913 - President Woodrow Wilson signs Federal Reserve Act (Owen-Glass Act), established central bank, creating the Federal Reserve System - a network of twelve regional banks; called for all national banks to join the federal system via hefty one-time deposits into a pooled account; Federal Reserve banks were charged with serving as resources to aid and stabilize the nation's other banks; resulting network of banks tied together by the Federal Reserve Board, as well as the newly minted Federal Reserve note.

January 24, 1916 - Supreme Court ruled in favor of Sixteenth Amendment (passed in 1909, ratified by states in 1913); granted federal government constitutional authority to levy an income tax.

November 16, 1914 - Federal Reserve Bank opened; initially designed as more or less "passive" institution, focused primarily on staving off any future bank panics; result of 1913 report of National Monetary Commission charged with diagnosing, prescribing remedy for frequent bank panics - found that nation's banks were so "unrelated and independent of each other that the majority of them had simultaneously engaged in a life and death contest with each other." 

March 1, 1917 - First federal land bank chartered.

March 3, 1917 - Congress passed first excess profits tax on corporations.

April 3, 1925 - Great Britain returned to gold standard.

March 1, 1927 - Bank of Italy became a National Bank.

September 21, 1931 - Britain went off gold standard; gold and foreign exchange reserves transferred to the Treasury;  managed by Bank of England.

February 27, 1932 - Congress passed Glass-Steagall Act, expanded powers of Federal Reserve Board to extend credit, enabled agency to "release" some of government's gold to business as response to flood of foreign withdrawals (ran $100 million per week).

June 5, 1933 - The United States went off gold standard.

January 30, 1934 - House passed Gold Reserve Act to halt to volatility of gold prices; nationalized gold; gave President Franklin Roosevelt license to peg value of dollar within range of 50 to 60 cents in terms of gold; January 31, 1934 - Roosevelt announced that dollar would be worth 59.06 cents, gold would be valued at $35 per ounce; paved way for "nationalization" of gold as various Federal Reserve banks handed control of their gold supplies, including all coins, bullion and gold certificates, to U.S. Treasury (shuttled  good chunk of gold to well-protected spot in Fort Knox, Kentucky).

March 11, 1935 - Bank of Canada opened.

July 1, 1943 - ''Pay-as-you-go'' income tax withholding began.

July 1, 1944 - Bretton Woods Conference started; July 22, 1944 - three-week, forty-four nation, Bretton Woods conference ended; delegates voted to create World Bank (to dole out international loans, received much of its fiscal resources from United States), International Monetary Fund (IMF - to stabilize exchange rates, enforce dollar-centric currency standard); these institutions, in minds of some historians, sealed America's role as leader of post-war economic order.

February 14, 1946 - Bank of England nationalized after Second World War; remained Treasury's adviser, agent, debt manager; March 1, 1946 - British Government took control of Bank of England, after 252 years.

March 1, 1947 - International Monetary Fund began operations.

April 16, 1948 - Organization for European Economic Cooperation (EEC) formed in Paris.

March 25, 1957 - France, West Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg signed treaty in Rome, established European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common Market; January 1, 1958 - went into effect.

May 9, 1966 - Andrew F. Brimmer appointed first black member of Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System.

April 1, 1971 - United Kingdom lifted all restrictions on gold ownership.

April 1, 1973 - Japan allowed its citizens to own gold.

1974 - Central Bank Governors of the Group of Ten countries created Basel Committee on Banking Supervision to provide forum for regular cooperation on banking supervisory matters, to enhance understanding of key supervisory issues, improve quality of banking supervision worldwide; formulates broad supervisory standards and guidelines; recommends statements of best practice; members come from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States; represented by central bank, by authority with formal responsibility for prudential supervision of banking business where this is not central bank; 12 member permanent fifteen person Secretariat located at Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland; 1988 - Committee introduced capital measurement system (Basel Capital Accord); provided for implementation of credit risk measurement framework with minimum capital standard of 8% by end-1992; June 1999 - issued proposal for revised Capital Adequacy Framework (minimum capital requirements, supervisory review of an institution's internal assessment process and capital adequacy; effective use of disclosure to strengthen market discipline as complement to supervisory efforts); June 26, 2004 - Basel II (revised framework) issued; rules for measuring bank risk, determining capital adequacy to absorb risk.

March 13, 1979 - European Monetary System established, ECU created.

March 31, 1980 - President Jimmy Carter signed Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 (To facilitate the implementation of monetary policy, to provide for the gradual elimination of all limitations on the rates of interest which are payable on deposits and accounts, and to authorize interest-bearing transaction accounts, and for other purposes); forced all banks to abide by rules of Federal Reserve; allowed banks to merge; removed power of Federal Reserve Board of Governors under Glass-Steagall Act and Regulation Q to set interest rates of savings accounts; raised deposit insurance of US banks, credit unions from $40,000 to $100,000; allowed credit unions, savings and loans to offer checkable deposits; phased out all savings rate ceilings on consumer accounts over six-year period; deregulated banking industry.

April 3, 1986 - U.S. national debt hit $2,000,000,000,000.

June 2, 1987 - President Ronald Reagan announced nomination of economist Alan Greenspan to succeed Paul Volcker as chairman of Federal Reserve Board.

April 27, 1992 - Russia and 12 other former Soviet republics won entry into International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

November 1, 1993 - Maastricht Treaty on European Union (ratified by 12 nations) went into effect, formally established European Union (EU); called for strengthened European parliament, creation of central European bank, common foreign and security policies (on crime, terrorism, immigration issues); laid groundwork for establishment of single European currency, to be known as the "euro."

June 1997 - Bank of England made independent of Government control.

August 17, 1998 - Russia devalued the ruble.

February 4, 2000 - The Senate voted 89-4 to confirm Alan Greenspan for  fourth term as chairman of Federal Reserve.

October 24, 2005 - President George W. Bush nominated Ben S. Bernanke (Princeton University economist, government's chief economic advisor after being elected chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers in June 2005) as new head of US Federal Reserve (14th chairman of Fed); leading advocate of "inflation targeting", an approach widely adopted in Europe in which central banks set target for inflation, stick to it.

January 22, 2008 - Fed's benchmark rate


January 31, 2006 - Alan Greenspan retired; Senate approved Ben Bernanke as chairman of Federal Reserve.

January 19, 2008 - Brief history of federal Reserve: Panic, Depression, Inflation, Boom - and Panic? ( magazine/20bernanketimeline.ready.html)

June 2008 - Evolution of Producer Prices - 12-month increase (ended May 2008) rose to 7.2% (smaller than 7.8% increase reported in year through January 2008, highest overall producer price inflation rate since 1981); producer prices of grains rose  64.8%, producer price for livestock up 1.5%; 45% of American CFOs said their companies had raised prices to offset higher energy costs (source: Duke University/CFO Magazine poll); expect to raise prices by 4.1% over next 12 months (2x rate forecast in September 2007).

  (Source: Bureau of labor Statistics, via Haver Analytics;

November 6, 2008 - Total government borrowing could pass $1.5 trillion in fiscal year (ending September 2009); would increase government's total debt burden by more than 25% in one year; factors - individual income and corporate income-tax receipts slowed by recession; outlays for economic stabilizers rising (unemployment insurance, food stamps, other programs); Treasury is embarking on $700 billion program to buy distressed assets from Wall Street, invest in financial firms (has already increased borrowing in support of Federal Reserve financial rescue efforts); Congress likely to pass new economic stimulus plan that could exceed $150 billion.


November 2008 - Inflation history (below: history of consumer price changes year-by-year since 1914; 1990 - brief price spike put CPI slightly over 5% was result of sharp, short run-up in oil prices during Gulf War; 1970s -  inflation generated by world oil, grain price shocks, not result of overheated economy; late 1960s - bout of inflation ignited by Lyndon Johnson's refusal to raise taxes to pay for Vietnam War; 1950s - fueled by Korean War; 20th century's earliest bouts of inflation products of WWI, WWII. 


December 16, 2008 - Federal Reserve lowered target for overnight Fed Funds rate to range of 0.25% (essentially 0% - similar to zero-rate policies used by Japan in fight against deflation); lowest rate in history - July 1954 (0.80) - June 1981 (19.10) - December 2008 (0.25).


January 8, 2009 - The Bank of England cut official interest rates by half percentage point to 1.5%, lowest level in its 315-year history in attempt to ward off prolonged recession (trimmed 3.5% since beginning of October 2008); bleakest year since early 1990s recession.

(Banco de Mexico), Fernando Menéndez Romero (2005). El Banco de México y la Reserva Federal de Estados Unidos de América, FED. (Mexico, D. F.: Porrúa Hermanos, 178 p.). Banco de México -- History; Banks and banking -- Government policy -- Mexico; Monetary policy -- Mexico; Banks and banking -- Government policy -- United States; Monetary policy -- United States.

(Banco Nacional de Mexico), Luis C. Cerda Gonzalez (1994). Historia Financiera del Banco Nacional de Mexico. (Mexico, D.F.: Fomento Cultural Banamex, 2 vols.). Banco Nacional de Me´xico--History. 

(Bank for International Settlements), Elmar B. Koch (2007). Challenges at the Bank for International Settlements: An Economist’s (Re)view. (Berlin, Germany: Springer, 356 p.). Economist in the Monetary and Economic Department of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Bank for International Settlements; Banks and banking; Monetary policy. Monetary policy, financial crisis, insolvency, collective action clauses, international mediation management of central banks.

(Bank of Canada), Douglas H. Fullerton (1986). Graham Towers and His Times: A Biography. (Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 348 p.). Towers, Graham F., 1897-1975; Bank of Canada--History; Bankers--Canada--Biography. September 8, 1934 - First Governor of the Bank of Canada.

(Bank of Canada), Bruce Muirhead (1999). Against the Odds: The Public Life and Times of Louis Rasminsky. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 380 p.). Rasminsky, L. (Louis), 1908- ; Bank of Canada--History; Bank of Canada--Officials and employees--Biography; Monetary policy--Canada--History; Bankers--Canada--Biography.

(Bank of England), Paul Einzig (1932). Montagu Norman; A Study in Financial Statesmanship. (London, UK: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd., 255 p.). Norman, Montagu, 1871- ; Banks and banking--Great Britain; Finance--Great Britain.

Montagu Norman (Chairman, Bank of England;

(Bank of England), John Hargrave (1942). Montagu Norman. (New York, NY: The Greystone Press, 239 p.). Norman, Montagu, 1871- ; Banks and banking--Great Britain; Finance. Governor of the Bank of England from 1920 to 1944, a tenure of office that broke all tradition.

(Bank of England), John Harold Clapham (1944). The Bank of England, A History. (Cambridge, UK: The University Press, 2 vols.). Bank of England. "The books of the bank from its foundation to the end of the eighteenth century": v. 1, p. 303-305. I. 1694-1797.--II. 1797-1914. With an epilogue: The bank as it is.

(Bank of England), John Guiseppi (1966). The Bank of England, A History from Its Foundation in 1694. (Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co., 224 p.). Bank of England.

(Bank of England), Andreas Michael Andréades ... translated by Christabel Meredith. With a preface by H. S. Foxwell and with a new introd. by Paul Einzig (1966). History of the Bank of England, 1640 to 1903. (New York, N: A. M. Kelley, 455 p. [4th ed.]). Bank of England; Finance--Great Britain--History.

(Bank of England), Andrew Boyle (1968). Montagu Norman; A Biography. (New York, NY: Weybright and Talley, 348 p.). Norman, Montagu Collet Norman, Baron, 1871-1950.

(Bank of England), Sir Henry Clay (1978). Lord Norman. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 495 p. [orig. pub. 1957]). Norman, Montagu Collet Norman, Baron, 1871-1950; Bank of England--History; Bankers--Great Britain--Biography; Banks and banking--Great Britain--History; Currency question--Great Britain--History.

(Bank of England), R.S. Sayers (1976). The Bank of England, 1891-1944: Volume I. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 409 p.. Bank of England--History.

(Bank of England), R.S. Sayers (1976). The Bank of England, 1891-1944: Appendixes. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 411 p.. Bank of England--History.

(Bank of England), R.S. Sayers (1976). The Bank of England, 1891-1944: Pack of 3. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1120 p.. Bank of England--History. 

(Bank of England), Stephen Fay (1987). Portrait of an Old Lady: Turmoil at the Bank of England. (New York, NY: Viking, 208 p.). Bank of England.

(Bank of England), John Fforde (1992). The Bank of England and Public Policy, 1941-1958. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 861 p.). Bank of England--History--20th century; Monetary policy--Great Britain--History--20th century; Banks and banking, Central--Great Britain--History--20th century.

(Bank of England), Elizabeth Hennessy (1992). A Domestic History of the Bank of England, 1930-1960. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 449 p.). Bank of England--History; Banks and Banking, Central--Great Britain--History--20th century.

(Bank of England), Edited by Richard Roberts and David Kynaston (1995). The Bank of England: Money, Power, and Influence 1694-1994. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 315 p.). Bank of England--History; Central banks--England--History.

(Bank of England), Andy Forrester (2004). The Man Who Saw the Future. (New York, NY: Thomson/Texere, 373 p.). Paterson, William, 1658-1719; Businessmen--Great Britain--Biography; Free trade. 

(Bank of England), Daniel M. Abramson (2005). Building the Bank of England: Money, Architecture, Society, 1694-1942. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 282 p.). Associate Professor of Architectural History and Director of Architectural Studies (Tufts University). Bank of England--Buildings; Bank of England--History; Bank buildings--England--London; Architecture and society--England--History; London (England)--Buildings, structures, etc. Architectural history of Bank from 17th through 20th centuries. 

(Bank of England), Forrest Capie (2010). The Bank of England: 1950s to 1979. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 920 p.). Professor of Economic History at Cass Business School (City University, London). Bank of England --History; Banks and banking, Central --Great Britain --History. Probable peak period of Bank's influence, prestige; managed exchange rate, administered all controls that made up monetary policy: 1950s -remarkable degree of freedom; 1970s - economic policy failed: sluggish output, banking instability, rampant inflation; discontinued pegged exchange ratel Bank's freedom of movement was severely constrained, devised, implemented new approaches to policy; lost much of its freedom of movement, took on more formal supervision.

(Bank of Israel), Haim Barkai and Nissan Liviatan (2007). The Bank of Israel: Volume 1: A Monetary History. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 352 p.). Banks and banking--Israel; Money--Israel--History; Monetary policy--Israel. Israel's monetary history, background of developments, difficulties in regaining monetary control in recent years.

(Bank of Israel), Eds. Haim Barkai and Nissan Liviatan (2007). The Bank of Israel: Volume 2: Selected Topics in Israel's Monetary Policy. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 352 p.). Banks and banking--Israel; Money--Israel--History; Monetary policy--Israel. Analytical framework to help understand the monetary developments in the inflationary era, in the disinflation process. 

(Bank of the United States - charter for Second Bank of the U. S. lapses in 1836), Walter Buckingham Smith (1953). Economic Aspects of the Second Bank of the United States. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 314 p.). Bank of the United States (1816-1836); Bank of the United States (Pennsylvania : 1836-1841); Finance -- United States -- History. Series Studies in economic history.

T Nicholas Biddle -Second Bank of the United States ( 498R/doc1/biddle.jpg)

(Bank of the United States - dissolved in 1811), Thomas Payne Govan (1959). Nicholas Biddle, Nationalist and Public Banker, 1786-1844. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 428 p.). Biddle, Nicholas, 1786-1844; Bank of the United States (1816-1836); Bank of the United States (Pennsylvania : 1836-1841); United States -- Economic conditions -- To 1865.

(Bank of the United States), Ralph C.H. Catterall (1960). The Second Bank of the United States. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 538 p. [orig. pub. 1902]). Bank of the United States (1816-1836).

(Bank of the United States), Jean Alexander Wilburn (1967). Biddle's Bank; the Crucial Years. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 149 p.). Bank of the United States (1816-1836).

(Bank of the United States), Edited and with an introd. by George Rogers Taylor (1972). Jackson vs. Biddle's Bank; The Struggle over the Second Bank of the United States. (Lexington, MA: Hearth, 227 p. [2nd ed.]). Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845; Biddle, Nicholas, 1786-1844; Bank of the United States (1816-1836). 

(Bank of the United States), Marion A. Brown (1998). The Second Bank of the United States and Ohio, 1803-1860: A Collision of Interests. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 286 p.). Bank of the United States (1816-1836); Banks and banking -- Ohio -- History -- 19th century; Banks and banking -- United States -- History -- 19th century. Series Studies in American history.

(Bank of the United States), Edward S. Kaplan (1999). The Bank of the United States and the American Economy. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 172 p.). Bank of the United States (1791-1811) -- History; Bank of the United States (1816-1836) -- History; United States -- Economic conditions -- To 1865. Series Contributions in economics and economic history.

(Bank of the United States), David Jack Cowen (2000). The Origins and Economic Impact of the First Bank of the United States, 1791-1797. (New York, NY: Garland, 323 p.). Bank of the United States (1791-1811); Banks and banking--United States--History; United States--Economic conditions--To 1865; United States--Economic policy--To 1933.

(Banque de France), Emile Moreau (1991). The Golden Franc: Memoirs of a Governor of the Bank of France: The Stabilization of the Franc (1926-1928). (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 574 p.). Banks and Banking-Central, Banque de France, Currency. France's central banker remembers.

(Banque de France), Tristan Gaston-Breton; préface de Jean-Claude Trichet (1999). Banque de France: Deux Siècles d'Histoire. (Paris, FR: Cherche Midi, 139 p.). Banque de France -- History.

(Central Bank of Ireland), Leon Ó Broin (1982). No Man's Man: A Biographical Memoir of Joseph Brennan, Civil Servant & First Governor of the Central Bank. (Dublin, IR: Institute of Public Administration, 183 p.). Brennan, Joseph, 1887-1976; Capitalists and financiers -- Ireland -- Biography; Central Bank of Ireland -- Biography; Ireland -- Officials and employees -- Biography.

(Deutsche Bundesbank), Ellen Kennedy (1991). The Bundesbank: Germany's Central Bank in the International Monetary System. (London, UK: Pinter Publishers for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 134 p.). Deutsche Bundesbank; Monetary policy -- Germany; Monetary policy -- European Economic Community countries; International finance.

(Deutsche Bundesbank), David Marsh (1992). The Most Powerful Bank: Inside Germany's Bundesbank. (New York, NY: Times Books, 331 p.). Deutsche Bundesbank; Banks and banking, Central--Germany.

(Deutsche Bundesbank), Edited by Stephen F. Frowen and Robert Pringle; foreword by Hans Tietmeyer (1998). Inside the Bundesbank. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 188 p.). Banks and banking, Central -- Germany; Monetary policy -- Germany.

(Deutsche Bundesbank), With contributions by Ernst Baltensperger ... [et al.]; edited by the Deutsche Bundesbank (1999). Fifty Years of the Deutsche Mark: Central Bank and the Currency in Germany Since 1948. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 836 p.). Deutsche Bundesbank; Mark, German--History; Money--Germany--History; Monetary policy--Germany--History. 

(Deutsche Bundesbank), edited by Jakob de Haan (2000). The History of the Bundesbank: Lessons for the European Central Bank / edited by Jakob de Haan. (New York, NY: Routledge, 161 p.). Deutsche Bundesbank -- History -- Congresses; European Central Bank -- History -- Congresses; Monetary policy -- European Union countries -- Congresses.

(Deutsche Bundesbank), Jeremy Leaman (2001). The Bundesbank Myth: Towards a Critique of Central Bank Independence. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 280 p.). Deutsche Bundesbank -- History; Banks and banking, Central -- Germany; Monetary policy -- Germany. 

(European Coal and Steel Community), John Gillingham (1991). Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: The Germans and French from Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 397 p.). Professor of History (University of Missouri, St. Louis). European Coal and Steel Community; Steel industry and trade--Government policy--Germany (West); Steel industry and trade--Government policy--France; Steel industry and trade--Government policy--European Economic Community countries; Coal trade--Government policy--Germany (West); Coal trade--Government policy--France; Coal trade--Government policy--European Economic Community countries.

(Federal Reserve Board), John A. Griswold. (1936). History of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. (St. Louis, MO: J. Mulligan Print. & Pub. Co., 247 p.). Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago; Federal Reserve banks--History.

(Federal Reserve Board), Parker B. Willis (1937). The Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; A Study in American Central Banking. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 277 p.). Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; Banks and banking--California.

(Federal Reserve Board), Elgin Earl Groseclose (1965). Fifty Years of Managed Money: The Story of the Federal Reserve, 1913-1963. (New York, NY: Books, Inc., 277 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History.

(Federal Reserve Board), Donald A. Elliott (1985). The St. Louis Fed's Monetary Model: When It Came, How It Thrived, 1970-1983. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 292 p.). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; Chicago school of economics; Monetary policy.

(Federal Reserve Board), James Livingston (1986). Origins of the Federal Reserve System: Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 250 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; Capitalism--United States--History; Money--United States--History.

(Federal Reserve Board), William Greider (1989). Secrets of the Temple: How the Federal Reserve Runs the Country. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 798 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Federal Reserve banks; Monetary policy--United States--History--20th century; Banks and banking--United States--History--20th century; Finance--United States--History--20th century.

(Federal Reserve Board), Carl H. Moore (1990). The Federal Reserve System: A History of the First 75 Years. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 266 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; Monetary policy--United States--History.

(Federal Reserve Board), J. Lawrence Broz (1997). The International Origins of the Federal Reserve System. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 269 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; Federal Reserve banks--History; International finance--History; Monetary policy--United States--History.

(Federal Reserve Board), G. Edward Griffin (1998). The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Second Look at the Federal Reserve. (Westlake Village, CA: American Media, 608 p. [3rd ed.]). Capitalists and financiers--History; Monetary policy--United States--History; Banks and banking--United States--History; Federal Reserve banks--History.

(Federal Reserve Board), Martin Mayer (2001). The Fed: The inside Story of How the World's Most Powerful Financial Institution Drives the Markets. (New York, NY: Free Press, 368 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy--United States; Stock exchanges--United States.

(Federal Reserve Board), Allan H. Meltzer with a foreword by Alan Greenspan (2003). A History of the Federal Reserve, Volume I: 1913-1951. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 800 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Federal Reserve banks. Biography of Federal Reserve, people who helped shape it, founding in 1913 through Treasury-Federal Reserve Accord of 1951 (beginning of larger, greatly changed institution; reasoning behind its policy decisions; why Federal Reserve remained passive throughout most of economic decline that led to Great Depression; how Board's actions helped to produce deep recession of 1937 and 1938; impact on institution of individuals; influence on international affairs (attempts to build new international financial system in 1920s to Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944 that established International Monetary Fund and World Bank, failure of London Economic Conference of 1933).

(Federal Reserve Board), Donald R. Wells (2004). The Federal Reserve System: A History. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 215 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Federal Reserve banks. 

(Federal Reserve Board), Elmus Wicker (2005). The Great Debate on Banking Reform: Nelson Aldrich and the Origins of the Fed. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 120 p.). Aldrich, Nelson W. (Nelson Wilmarth), 1841-1915; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; Monetary policy--United States--History; Banking law--United States; Banks and banking--United States--History.  

(FRB - Bernake), Johan Van Overtveldt (2009). Bernanke’s Test: Ben Bernanke, Alan Greenspan, and the Drama of the Central Banker. (Chicago. IL, Agate, 287 p.). Director of VKW Metena (Belgium-based think tank), Former Chief Economist for Trends (Belgian newsmagazine).Bernanke, Ben; Greenspan, Alan, 1926; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Banks and banking, Central --United States; Monetary policy --United States; Financial crises --United States; United States --Economic policy. Greenspan's long record as Fed chairman (generally successful: kept economy vibrant, ameliorated financial shocks; lowered interest rates, opposed financial regulation, fostered growth of housing, credit bubble; 2007 - bubble burst, became liquidity crisis, then solvency crisis); Bernanke's career as economist prior to replacing Greenspan (recognized crisis early cut interest-rates, injected liquidity into system, pushed for greater transparency and regulation); role, reach of central banker; how former Fed chairmen (Benjamin Strong, William McChesney Martin, Arthur Burns, Paul Volcker) dealt with same complex issues Bernanke faces today.

(FRB - Bernake), David Wessel (2009). In Fed We Trust: Ben Bernanke’s War on the Great Panic. (New York, NY, Crown: 323 p.). Economics Editor (Wall Street Journal). Bernanke, Ben; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Banks and banking, Central --United States; Financial crises --United States; Monetary policy --United States. Fed spearheaded the biggest government intervention in more than half century, effectively became fourth branch of government, with no direct accountability to nation’s voters; believed economic catastrophe of 1930s  largely fault of sluggish, wrongheaded Federal Reserve; how Bernanke Fed led desperate effort to prevent world’s financial engine from grinding to halt; most critical questions: 1) what did Bernanke, his team at Fed know, what took them by surprise? which of their actions stretched Fed’s legal authority? which chilling numbers, indicators made them feel they had no choice?; 2) what were they thinking at pivotal moments during race to sell Bear Stearns, unsuccessful quest to save Lehman Brothers, virtual nationalization of AIG, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac? what were they saying to one another when, as Bernanke put it: “We came very close to Depression 2.0”?; 3) how well did Bernanke, former treasury secretary Hank Paulson, then New York Fed president Tim Geithner perform under intense pressure?; 4) how did crisis prompt reappraisal of once-impregnable reputation of Alan Greenspan?

(FRB - Burns), Wyatt C. Wells (1994). Economist in an Uncertain World: Arthur F. Burns and the Federal Reserve, 1970-78. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 334 p.). Distinguished Research Associate Professor of History (Auburn University, Montgomery). Burns, Arthur F. (Arthur Frank), 1904-1987; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; Economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States--History.

Arthur F. Burns ( people/images/burns.gif)

(FRB - Burns), Edited by Robert H. Ferrell (2010). Inside the Nixon Administration: The Secret Diary of Arthur Burns, 1969-1974. (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 140 p.). Emeritus Professor of History (Indiana University). Burns, Arthur F. (Arthur Frank), 1904-1987 --Diaries; Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994 --Political and social views --Sources; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) --History --20th century --Sources; Monetary policy --United States --History --20th century --Sources; United States --Politics and government --1969-1974 --Sources; United States --Economic conditions --1961-1971 --Sources; United States --Economic conditions --1971-1981 --Sources; United States --Economic policy --1961-1971 --Sources; United States --Economic policy --1971-1981 --Sources. Burns joined Nixon administration as an advisor in 1969; his growing awareness of Nixon's behind-the-scenes maneuverings, worrisome behavior; how they undermined his respect, enthusiasm for President; how Nixon exerted political pressure to shape monetary policies that helped to fuel stagflation of 1970s (sought to close so-called gold window, approximate valuation of dollars with gold bullion, by floating dollar - confirms consensus over many years that Nixon arranged this);growing pressure Burns felt to serve needs of Nixon's reelection bid rather than economic welfare of nation; honest, relatively apolitical man surrounded by dishonest, inept (or both) partisans in top administrative positions; evaluations of president's inner circle (including Kissinger ("a brilliant political analyst, but admittedly ignorant of economics"), George Schultz ("a no less confused amateur economist"), John Connally ("a thoroughly confused politician"), vulgarians" H. R. Haldeman, Jhn Ehrlichman (only people Nixon seemed to feel relaxed around).

(FRB - Eccles - Chairman 1934), Marriner S. Eccles; edited by Sidney Hyman (1951). Beckoning Frontiers; Public and Personal Recollections. (New York, NY: Knopf, 499 p.). Federal Reserve Board Chairman. Eccles, Marriner S. (Marriner Stoddard), 1890-1977.

Image Marriner S. Eccles (

(FRB - Eccles), Sidney Hyman; with a foreword by G. L. Bach (1976). Marriner S. Eccles, Private Entrepreneur and Public Servant. (Stanford, CA: Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 456 p.). Eccles, Marriner S. (Marriner Stoddard), 1890-1977; Bankers--United States--Biography. Assistant Secretary of Treasury; Chairman of Federal Reserve Board in 1934-1948.

(FRB - Greenspan), Steven K. Beckner (1996). Back from the Brink: The Greenspan Years. (New York, NY: Wiley, 452 p.). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ;Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States.

Alan Greenspan ( extra/images/july-dec00/greenspan.jpg)

(FRB - Greenspan), David B. Sicilia and Jeffrey L. Cruikshank (2000). The Greenspan Effect: Words That Move the World's Markets. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 273 p.). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States. Social security--United States; Business cycles--United States; Investments--Effect of inflation on--United States; Stocks--United States; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993; United States--Economic policy--1993-. 

(FRB - Greenspan), Bob Woodward (2000). Maestro: Greenspan's Fed and the American Boom. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 270 p.). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy--United States--History--20th century.

(FRB - Greenspan), Justin Martin (2001). Greenspan: The Man Behind Money: With a New Afterword by the Author. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 300 p.). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States.

(FRB - Greenspan), Jerome Tuccille (2002). Alan Shrugged: The Life and Times of Alan Greenspan, the World's Most Powerful Banker. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, p.). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States.

(FRB - Greenspan), E. Ray Canterbery (2006). Alan Greenspan: The Oracle Behind the Curtain. (River Edge, NJ: World Scientific, 220 p.). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993; United States--Economic policy--1993-2001; United States--Economic policy--2001-.

(FRB - Greenspan), Peter Hartcher (2006). Bubble Man: Alan Greenspan and the Missing 7 Trillion Dollars. (New York, NY: Norton, 208 p.). Political Editor (Sydney Morning Herald), Former Washington Correspondent (Australian Financial Review). Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Speculation--United States--History--20th century; Financial crises--United States--History--20th century.; Finance--United States; Monetary policy--United States; United States--Economic policy. Achievements, Greenspan's responsibility for 1990s stock-market bubble.

(FRB - Greenspan), Alan Greenspan (2007). The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World. (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 640 p.). Former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Government economists--United States--Biography; United States--Economic conditions--1945-. New world (global capitalist economy vastly more flexible, resilient, open, self-directing, fast-changing than 20 years ago), how we got here, what we're living through, what's over horizon, for good or ill.

(FRB - Greenspan), Robert D. Auerbach (2008). Deception and Abuse at the Fed: Henry B. Gonzalez Battles Alan Greenspan’s Bank. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 288 p.). Professor of Public Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs (University of Texas at Austin), former economist with the U.S. House of Representatives Financial Services Committee. Greenspan, Alan, 1926-; Gonzalez, Henry B. (Henry Barbosa), 1916-2000; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Governmental investigations --United States --Case studies. Major instances of Fed mismanagement, abuse of power exposed by Rep. Gonzalez; no government agency should be allowed to operate with secrecy, independence in which Federal Reserve has shrouded itself.

(FRB - Greenspan), William A. Fleckenstein with Frederick Sheehan (2008). Greenspan’s Bubbles: The Age of Ignorance at the Federal Reserve. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 208 p.). Column "Contrarian Chronicles" for MSN Money; Director of Asset Allocation Services at John Hancock Financial Services. Greenspan, Alan, 1926- ; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists--United States--Biography; Monetary policy--United States--History--20th century; Stock Market Bubble, 1995-2000; United States--Economic policy. Timeline of devastating mistakes: stock market crash of 1987, Savings & Loan crisis, collapse of Long Term Capital Management, tech bubble of 2000, feared Y2K disaster, credit bubble and real estate crisis of 2007; damning evidence that contradicts former Fed chief's public naivete concerning shifts in market and economy; made same mistakes repeatedly.

(Greenspan),Frederick Sheehan (2009). Panderer to Power: The Untold Story of How Alan Greenspan Enriched Wall Street and Left a Legacy of Recession. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 400 p.). Former Director of Asset Allocation Services at John Hancock Financial Services. Greenspan, Alan, 1926-; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Government economists --United States --Biography; Monetary policy --United States --History --20th century; Stock Market Bubble, 1995-2000; United States --Economic policy. Shameless media hound who ferociously promoted his image as straight-laced numbers cruncher, Machiavelli whose political skills far surpassed his skills as an economist; either the "economic genius of our time" was oblivious to hazards of his irresponsible policy decisions or he knew full well what he was doing, but chose, as he had throughout his career, to put self-interest above public good.

(FRB - Martin), Robert P. Bremmer (2004). Chairman of the Fed: William McChesney Martin Jr. and the Creation of the Modern Federal Reserve System. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 368 p.). Martin, William McChesney; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--Officials and employees--Biography; Government economists--United States--Biography; United States--Economic policy--1945-1960; United States--Economic policy--1961-1971. 

William McChesney Martin, Jr., Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System William McChesney Martin, Jr. (

(FRB - McAdoo), Dale N. Shook (1987). William G. McAdoo and the Development of National Economic Policy, 1913-1918. (New York, NY: Garland, 327 p.). McAdoo, William Gibbs, 1863-1941; United States. Dept. of the Treasury.--History--20th century; Industrial policy--United States--History--20th century; United States--Economic policy--To 1933.

(FRB - Strong), Lester V. Chandler (1978). Benjamin Strong, Central Banker. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 495 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Strong, Benjamin, 1872-1928; Bankers--United States--Biography; Federal Reserve banks--History; International finance--History; Banks and banking, Central--History.

Benjamin Strong (

(FRB - Strong), Silvano A. Wueschner; foreword by Ellis W. Hawley (1999). Charting Twentieth-Century Monetary Policy: Herbert Hoover and Benjamin Strong, 1917-1927. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 178 p.). Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964; Strong, Benjamin, 1872-1928; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy -- United States -- History -- 20th century; Banks and banking -- United States -- History -- 20th century. Series Contributions in economics and economic history.

(FRB - Volcker), William R. Neikirk (1987). Volcker, Portrait of the Money Man. (New York, NY: Congdon & Weed, 222 p.). Volcker, Paul A.; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--Officials and employees--Biography; Economists--United States--Biography; United States--Economic policy--1971-1981; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993.

Paul Volcker ( /energy/_photos/2002-02-04-volcker.jpg)

(FRB - Volcker), Joseph B. Treaster (2004). Paul Volcker: The Making of a Financial Legend. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 244 p.). Reporter (New York Times). Volcker, Paul A.; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--Officials and employees--Biography; Economists--United States--Biography; United States--Economic policy--1971-1981; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993. 

(National Bank of Fiji), Roman Grynberg, Doug Munro and Michael White; foreward by Savenaca Siwatibau (2002). Crisis: The Collapse of the National Bank of Fiji. (Suva, Fiji: University of South Pacific Book Centre, 183 p.). National Bank of Fiji; Banks and banking, Central--Fiji; Bank failures--Fiji.

(Reserve Bank of India), S. L. N. Simha (1970). History of the Reserve Bank of India, 1935-51: Volume 1. (Bombay, India: Reserve Bank of India, 878 p.). Reserve Bank of India--History.

(Reserve Bank of India), S. L. N. Simha (1975). All the Bank’s Men: Management of the Reserve Bank of India. (Madras, India: Institute for Financial Management and Research, 140 p.). Reserve Bank of India--History; Bank management--India--History.

(Reserve Bank of India), E.P.W. da Costa (1985). Reserve Bank of India: Fifty Years, 1935-85. (Bombay, India: Reserve Bank of India, 161 p.). Reserve Bank of India--History.

(Reserve Bank of India), G. Balachandran (1998). The Reserve Bank of India, 1951-1967: Volume 2. (Mumbai : Reserve Bank of India: Mumbai : Reserve Bank of India, 1,190 p.). Reserve Bank of India--History; Banks and banking, Central--India--History.

(Reserve Bank of India), The Bank (2005). The Reserve Bank of India, 1967-1981: Volume 3. (Mumbai, India: Central Office, Reserve Bank of India, 1,197 p.). Reserve Bank of India--History; Banks and banking, Central--India--History; Banks and banking, Central--India--Archival resources. "The first volume of the bank’s history, published in 1970, covered the ... era of 1935-51; the second volume, published in 1998, covering the period upto 1967, focused upon ... public policy and institution-building; the period of 1967-81 [is] covered by the present third volume".

(Reserve Bank of New Zealand), John Singleton with Arthur Grimes, Gary Hawke and Frank Holmes (2006). Innovation and Independence: The Reserve Bank of New Zealand, 1973 -2002. (Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press, 352 p.). Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Senior Member of the School of Economics and Finance (Victoria University of Wellington); Senior Research Associate at Motu Economic & Public Policy Research, Adjunct Professor of Economics (University of Waikato), Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand; Professor of Economic History, Head of the School of Government (Victoria University of Wellington); Former Director of the National Bank of New Zealand and of Lloyds Bank NZA. How small central bank took opportunities created by the political changes of 1980s to design unique institutional policy framework, rather than merely adapt an off-the-shelf overseas package. 

(Sveriges Riksbank), Torgny Lindgren (1968). Riksbankens Sedelhistoria 1668-1968. (Stockholm, Sweden: Raben & Sjogren, 239, p.). Sveriges riksbank; Bank notes --Sweden --History..

(Sveriges Riksbank), Torgny Lindgren (1975). Banko- och Riksgaldsrevisionerna 1782-1807. (Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 202 p.). Sveriges riksbank; Debts, Public --Sweden; Monetary policy --Sweden; Banks and banking --Sweden; Match industry --Sweden; International finance; Sweden --Politics and government --1905-1950.

(Sveriges Riksbank), Gunnar Wetterberg (2009). Money and Power: From Stockholms Banco 1656 to Sveriges Riksbank Today. (Stockholm, Sweden: Bokförlaget Atlantis AB, p.). Head of the Policy Department Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations. Sveriges riksbank; Sweden --Politics and government --1668-2008. History of Riksbank from 1668 to present day; political power game, economic developments over 350 years; why bank looks as it does now.

(State Bank of India), Amiya Kumar Bagchi (1987-2003). The Evolution of the State Bank of India, The Roots, 1806-1876. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 Vols.). State Bank of India; State Bank of India--History; Finance--India--History; India--Economic conditions. Contents: [1], pt. 1. The Early Years, 1806-1860. pt. 2. Diversity and Regrouping, 1860-1876 -- v. 3 The Era of the Imperial Bank of India, 1921-1955.

Kim Abildgren (2010). Monetary History of Denmark, 1990-2005. (Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Nationalbank, 302 p.). Monetary policy -- Denmark -- History.

Liquat Ahamed (2009). Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World. (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 576 p.). Board member of the Rohatyn Group, Board of Trustees at the Brookings Institution; former head World Bank's investment division; former Chief Executive Officer of Fischer Francis Trees & Watts, Inc., subsidiary of BNP Paribas specializing in institutional single and multi-currency fixed income investment portfolios. Capitalists and financiers --Biography; Bankers --Biography. Four dominant central bankers of inter-war period (Bank of England, Banque de France, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, German Reichsbank); July 1914 - great liquidity crisis hit global financial system; paralyzed wholesale money market, closed world’s stock markets for months, necessitated unprecedented government intervention in banking system; failed to reach optimal resolution of world’s financial problems.

Eds. Anthony B. Atkinson and Thomas Piketty (2007). Top Incomes Over the Twentieth Century: A Contrast Between Continental European and English-Speaking Countries. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 585 p.). Warden of Nuffield College (Oxford); Professor of Economics at PSE and EHESS (Paris). Income distribution--History--20th century. Studies from 10 OECD countries of top segment of income distribution; dramatic changes have occurred at top of income scale throughout 20th century; why top incomes shares fell markedly in first half of 20th century, why, more recently, there has been striking difference in top income distribution between continental Europe and English-speaking OECD countries, like the UK, USA, and Australia.

Stephen H. Axilrod (2009). Inside the Fed: Monetary Policy and Its Management, Martin through Greenspan to Bernanke. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 216 p.). Former Staff Director for Monetary and Financial Policy, Staff Director and Secretary of the Federal Open Market Committee. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy --United States; Banks and banking, Central --United States; Federal Reserve banks. Inner workings of Federal Reserve System during last fifty years; how personalities of various chairmen affected their capacity for leadership; unintended effects of Fed's newfound "garrulousness" under Greenspan;  problems (subprime mess) inherited by current chairman, Ben Bernanke; great leadership in monetary policy determined by ability to push through political, social barriers to achieve paradigm shift in policy.

Andrew Baker (2005). The Group of Seven: Finance Ministries, Central Banks and Global Financial Governance. (New York, NY: Routledge, 295 p.). Group of Seven (Organization); International finance; Monetary policy--Group of Seven countries--International cooperation; Banks and banking, Central--Group of Seven countries. Study of collaboration between G7 finance ministries, central banks over last decade. 

Harold Barger (1964). The Management of Money; A Survey of American Experience. (Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 422 p.). Monetary policy -- United States; Federal Reserve banks.

Peter Bernholz (2003). Monetary Regimes and Inflation: History, Economic and Political Relationships. (Northampton, MA: E. Elgar, 210 p.). Professor Emeritus of Economics (University of Basel). Inflation (Finance)--History; Monetary policy--History; Economic stabilization. 28 episodes of hyperinflation in national economies in 20th century, 20 occurred after 1980; 12 largest episodes of hyperinflation caused by financing huge public deficits through monetary creation; hyperinflation occurs when government’s deficit exceeds 40% of its expenditures.

Michael A. Bernstein (2001). A Perilous Progress: Economists and Public Purpose in Twentieth-Century America. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p.). Council of Economic Advisers (U.S.)--History; Economists--United States--History--20th century; Economics--United States--History--20th century; United States--Economic policy--20th century.

Albert Sidney Bolles (1891). The Financial History of the United States, from 1789 to 1860 (New York, NY: D. Appleton, 621 p.). Finance--History.

Roger Bootle (1996). The Death of Inflation: Surviving and Thriving in the Zero Era. (Sonoma, CA: Nicholas Brealey Pub. Chief Economist of Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corp. Inflation (Finance); Cost and standard of living; Interest rates; Finance, Personal. 

--- (2004). Money for Nothing: Real Wealth, Financial Fantasies, and the Economy of the Future. (Yarmouth, ME: Nicholas Brealey Pub., 380 p.). Chief Economist of Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corp. Economic forecasting--United States; Business cycles--United States; Deflation (Finance)--United States; Money--United States; United States--Economic policy--2001-; United States--Economic conditions--2001-.

Eds. Michael D. Bordo, Roberto Cortés-Conde (2001). Transferring Wealth and Power from the Old to the New World: Monetary and Fiscal Institutions in the 17th through the 19th Century. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 482 p.). Rutgers University, Universidad de San Andres. Economic history; Fiscal policy--Europe--History; Monetary policy--Europe--History; International economic relations--History; Europe--Economic conditions. 

Scott Bittle and Jean Johnson (2008). Where Does the Money Go?: Your Guided Tour to the Federal Budget Crisis. (New York, NY: Collins, 336 p.). Executive Editor of Public Agenda Online; Executive Vice President of Public Agenda. Budget deficits--United States; Public welfare--United States--Finance; Budget--United States; United States--Appropriations and expenditures. Guide to deciphering jargon of U. S. budget problem - from $9 trillion and growing debt to fact that government has spent more on programs, services than it has collected in taxes for 31/35 years; why elected leader have failed to effectively address this issue, what to do to protect the future.

Anthony S. Campagna (1987). U.S. National Economic Policy, 1917-1985. (New York, NY: Praeger, 642 p.). United States -- Economic policy.

Maxwell A. Cameron and Brian W. Tomlin (2000). The Making of Nafta: How the Deal Was Done (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 264 p.). Canada. Treaties, etc. 1992 Oct. 7 --History; Free trade--North America; Free trade--United States; Free trade--Canada; Free trade--Mexico; North America--Commercial treaties--History.

W. Stansbury Carnes and Stephen D. Slifer (1991). The Atlas of Economic Indicators: A Visual Guide to Market Forces and the Federal Reserve (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 232 p.). Senior Economist and chief financial market economist for Shearson Lehman Brothers. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Economic indicators. 

Filippo Cesarano (2006). Monetary Theory and Bretton Woods: The Construction of an International Monetary Order. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 256 p.). Head of the Historical Research Office of the Bank of Italy. United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (1944 : Bretton Woods, N.H.)--History; International finance--History; Monetary policy--History. Bretton Woods system suffered from latent inconsistencies which fatally undermined the foundations of the postwar monetary architecture, brought about epochal transition from commodity money to fiat money. 

Ed. David C. Colander and Dewey Daane with a foreword by William E. Simon; Richard V. Adams ... [et al] (1994). The Art of Monetary Policy. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 216 p.). Monetary policy -- United States; Monetary policy.

Robert A. Degen (1987). The American Monetary System: A Concise Survey of Its Evolution Since 1896. (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 242 p.). Money--United States--History; Monetary policy--United States--History; Banks and banking--United States--History.

Davis Rich Dewey (1968). Financial History of the United States (New York, NY: A.M. Kelley, 600 p.). Finance, Public--History; Finance, Public--Bibliography; Tariff--History.

Armand van Dormael (1978). Bretton Woods: Birth of a Monetary System. (New York, NY: Holmes & Meier, 322 p.). United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (1944 : Bretton Woods, N.H.)--History; International finance--History.

Ed. Kenneth H. F Dyson (2008). The Euro at 10: Europeanization, Power, and Convergence. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 472 p.). Research Professor in European Politics in the School of European Studies (Cardiff University, Wales). Economic and Monetary Union; Euro; Euro area; Europe --Economic integration; European Union countries --Economic policy. January 2009 - 10th anniversary of Euro Area; how, in what ways, has euro Europeanized states (members and non-members), their institutions, policies,  politics? three key sectors (financial markets, wages collective bargaining, welfare reform).

Barry Eichengreen (1996). Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 223 p.). John L. Simpson Professor of Economics and Political Science (University of California, Berkeley). International finance--History; Gold standard--History.

--- (2006). Global Imbalances and the Lessons of Bretton Woods. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 187 p.). George C. Pardee and Helen N. Pardee Professor of Economics and Political Science (University of California, Berkeley). United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (1944 : Bretton Woods, N.H.); International finance.  Two most salient differences between Bretton Woods System (1958-1973) and now: 1) twin deficits, 2) low savings rate do not augur well for sustainability of U. S. international position; current constellation of exchange rates, payments imbalances unlikely to last as long as original Bretton Woods System.

Anthony M. Endres (2005). Great Architects of International Finance: The Bretton Woods Era. (New York, NY: Routledge, 257 p.). United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (1944 : Bretton Woods, N.H.); International finance--History--20th century; Monetary reformers. 

Gerald D. Feldman (1993). The Great Disorder: Politics, Economics, and Society in the German Inflation, 1914-1924. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1,011 p.). Institute of European Studies (University of California, Berkeley). Inflation (Finance)--Germany--History--20th century; Monetary policy--Germany--History--20th century; Economic stabilization--Germany; Germany--Economic policy--1918-1933; Germany--Economic conditions--1918-1945. Most famous, spectacular instance of inflation in modern industrial society (Germany during, following World War I). Author studies inflation as a strategy of social pacification, economic reconstruction, mechanism for escaping domestic, international indebtedness; studies German society under tension of inflation and hyperinflation; explores ways in which Germany's hyperinflation, stabilization were linked to Great Depression, rise of National Socialism; sets German inflation within broader issues of maintaining economic stability, social peace, democracy.

Edited and with an Introductory Essay by Martin Feldstein (1994). American Economic Policy in the 1980s. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 823 p.). United States--Economic policy--1981-1993. 

Eds. Robert M. Fishman and Anthony M. Messina (2006). The Year of the Euro: The Cultural, Social, and Political import of Europe’s Common Currency. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 328 p.). professor of sociology and a fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and the Nanovic Institute for European Studies (University of Notre Dame); associate professor of political science and a fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and Nanovic Institute for European Studies (University of Notre Dame). Euro--Social aspects--Congresses; Euro--Political aspects--Congresses. Whether new common currency will reshape Europe's cultures, societies, political systems and, if so, in what ways.  

Marc Flandreau; translated by Owen Leeming; revised and enlarged by the author (2004). The Glitter of Gold: France, Bimetallism, and the Emergence of the International Gold Standard, 1848-1873. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 319 p.). Professor of International Economic Relations (Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris). Bimetallism--History--19th century; Bimetallism--France--History--19th century; International finance--History--19th century; International liquidity--History--19th century; Currency convertibility--History--19th century; Gold standard--History--19th century; Monetary policy--France--History--19th century. 

Robert P. Flood and Peter M. Garber (1994). Speculative Bubbles, Speculative Attacks, and Policy Switching. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 493 p.). Monetary policy--United States; Foreign exchange rates--United States; Speculation--United States.

Eds. Jeffrey Frankel, Peter Orszag (2002). American Economic Policy in the 1990s. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1119 p.). Kennedy School of Government, Brookings Institution, respectively. United States--Economic policy--1993-2001; United States--Economic conditions--1981-2001. 

Milton Friedman (1992). Money Mischief: Episodes in Monetary History. (New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 274 p.). Monetary policy--History; Monetary policy--United States--History; Money--History.

Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz (1963). A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 860 p.). Money--United States--History; Currency question--United States--History; Monetary policy--United States-- History. Massive historical data, sharp analytics support claim that monetary policy--steady control of the money supply--matters profoundly in management of nation's economy, especially in navigating serious economic fluctuations.

James K. Galbraith (2000). Created Unequal: The Crisis in American Pay. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, [orig. pub. 1998]). Liberal Economist (son of John Galbraith). Wages--United States; Income distribution--United States; Labor market--United States; Social conflict--United States; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993; United States--Economic policy--1993-2001. Issue of the day - monetary policy and its impact on economic growth and income around the world.

John Gillingham (2006). Design for a New Europe. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 298 p.). Professor of History (University of Missouri, St. Louis). European Union; Europe--Politics and government--1945-. European Union after the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty. Author maps out a route to save the Union.

Charles A.E. Goodhart (1988). The Evolution of Central Banks. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 205 p.). Banks and banking, Central--History; Banks and banking, Central; Free banking.

Peter Hartcher (1998). The Ministry: How Japan's Most Powerful Institution Endangers World Markets. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 310 p.). Political Editor (Sydney Morning Herald), Former Asia-Pacific Editor (The Australian Financial Review). Japan. O¯kurasho¯; Finance, Public--Japan; Japan--Economic policy--1945-. IRS, SEC, FED, U.S. Treasury - in one agency; most powerful and the least scrutinized ministry in Japan.

Thomas Havrilesky (1995). The Pressures on American Monetary Policy. (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 381 p. [2nd ed.]). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy--United States.

Robert Heilbroner and Peter Bernstein (1989). The Debt and the Deficit: False Alarms/Real Possibilities. (New York, NY: Norton, 144 p.). Debts, Public--United States; Budget deficits--United States.

Robert L. Hetzel (2008). The Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve: A History. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 390 p.). Senior Economist and Research Advisor in the Research Department (Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond). United States. Federal Reserve Board; Monetary policy --United States; Banks and banking, Central --United States. Emergence, nature of modern, inflation-targeting central bank; evolution of monetary standard from start of Federal Reserve through end of Greenspan era in context of intellectual, political environment of the time.

Eds. Michael M. Hutchison and Frank Westermann (2006). Japan’s Great Stagnation: Financial and Monetary Policy Lessons for Advanced Economies. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 290 p.). Professor of Economics (University of California, Santa Cruz); Chair for International Economic Policy in the Department of Economics and Business Administration (University of Osnabrueck, Germany). Recessions--Japan; Monetary policy--Japan; Finance--Japan; Japan--Economic policy--20th century; Japan--Economic conditions--20th century. Importance of a sound financial sector in fostering robust growth and healthy economies--and the enormous economic costs of a dysfunctional financial system.

Karl Kaltenthaler (2006). Policy-Making in the European Central Bank: The Masters of Europe’s Money. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 208 p.). European Central Bank; Monetary policy--European Union countries. ECB decision-makers have created model that attempts to replicate Bundesbank's success at  European level and to lend credibility to their own policies.

Paul Krugman (1997). The Age of Diminished Expectations: U.S. Economic Policy in the 1990s (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 232 p. [3rd ed.]). Economic forecasting--United States; United States--Economic policy--1981-.

Diane B. Kunz (1987). The Battle for Britain’s Gold Standard in 1931. (New York, NY: Croom Helm, 207 p.). Monetary policy--Great Britain--History; Gold standard--History.

David Kynaston (1980). The Chancellor of the Exchequer. (Lavenham, UK: T. Dalton, 160 p.). Great Britain. Treasury--History.

Susan Lee (1996). Hands Off: Why the Government Is a Menace to Economic Health. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 252 p.). United States--Economic policy--1993-2001; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993; United States--Economic policy. 

Nathan Lewis (2007). Gold: The Once and Future Money. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 447 p.). Formerly the Chief International Economist at Polyconomics, Inc. Monetary policy; Business cycles; Gold standard. Case for worldwide return to gold standard; gold has been adopted as money because it works;  gold standard produced decades, centuries of stable money and economic abundance.  

David Marsh (2009). The Euro: The Politics of the New Global Currency. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 352 p.). Former Financial Times journalist, Chairman of London & Oxford Capital Markets. Money --European Union countries --History; Euro --History; Monetary policy --European Union countries --History. First comprehensive political, economic account of birth, development of Euro (supranational currency for 15 European countries, world’s second-largest reserve currency); rivalries, intrigues, deal making that brought about currency for Europe; achievements and shortcomings of its first decade of existence; remarkable triumph of political will, Euro’s importance for global economy.

Matt Marshall (1999). The Bank: The Birth of Europe's Central Bank and the Rebirth of Europe's Power (London, UK: Random House Business Books, 434 p.). Bonn Correspondent for the Wall Street Journal Europe. European Central Bank; Europe--Economic integration. 

Thomas Mayer (1999). Monetary Policy and the Great Inflation in the United States: The Federal Reserve and the Failure of Macroeconomic Policy, 1965-1979. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 151 p.). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy--United States--History; Inflation (Finance)--United States--History; United States--Economic policy--1961-1971; United States--Economic policy--1971-1981. 

Mark Metzler (2006). Lever of Empire: The International Gold Standard and the Crisis of Liberalism in Prewar Japan. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 370 p.). Assistant Professor of History and Asian Studies (University of Texas, Austin). Inoue, Junnosuke, 1869-1932; Takahashi, Korekiyo, 1854-1936; Money--Japan--History; Currency question--Japan--History; Gold standard--History; Monetary policy--Japan--History; Liberalism--Japan--History. Complex dynamics of money, empire, and global hegemony. 

Laurence H. Meyer (2004). A Term at the Fed: An Insider's View. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 288 p.). Federal Reserve Board (1996 - 2002). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); United States. Federal Open Market Committee; Federal Reserve banks; Monetary policy--United States. 

Iwan W. Morgan (1995). Deficit Government: Taxing and Spending in Modern America. (Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, 212 p.). Principal Politics and Modern History Lecturer (London Guildhall University). Budget deficits--United States; Government spending policy--United States; Fiscal policy--United States. entury of success."

Irwin L. Morris (2000). Congress, the President, and the Federal Reserve: The Politics of American Monetary Policy-Making. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 165 p.). Assistant Professor of Political Science (University of Maryland). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Monetary policy--United States. 

Peter G. Peterson; foreword by Warren B. Rudman and Paul E. Tsongas (1993). Facing Up: How To Rescue the Economy from Crushing Debt and Restore the American Dream. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 411 p.). Debts, Public--United States; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993; United States--Economic conditions--1981-.

Robert Rubin with Jacob Weisberg (2003). Dealing with an Uncertain World: Making Decisions on Wall Street and in Washington. (New York, NY: Random House, 427 p.). Rubin, Robert Edward, 1938- ; United States. Dept. of the Treasury--Officials and employees--Biography; Finance ministers--United States--Biography; Fiscal policy--United States; United States--Economic policy--1993-2001.

Jonathan A. Rodden (2005). Hamilton’s Paradox: The Promise and Peril of Fiscal Federalism. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 313 p.). Ford Career Development Associate Professor of Political Science (MIT). Intergovernmental fiscal relations; Central-local government relations; Revenue sharing. Why different countries have had dramatically different experiences with sub-national fiscal discipline. 

Robert J. Samuelson (2008). The Great Inflation and Its Aftermath: The Transformation of America's Economy, Politics, and Society. (New York, NY: Random House, 336 p.). Columnist for Newsweek and The Washington Post. Inflation (Finance) --United States; United States --Economic policy; United States --Economic conditions. 1960-1979 - inflation rose from barely more than 1% to nearly 14%; greatest peacetime inflationary spike in  nation’s history, massive repercussions (Ronald Reagan’s election to presidency in 1980, stagnation in living standards, growing belief–both in America, abroad–that the great-power status of United States was ending); origins, rise of double-digit inflation, its fall in brutal 1981-82 recession, engineered by Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker, with staunch backing of Reagan (end of high inflation triggered economic, social changes - stock market, housing booms; American business became more productive, much less protective of workers; globalization encouraged).

James D. Savage (1988). Balanced Budgets & American Politics. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 350 p.). Budget--United States--History; Budget deficits--United States--History; Deficit financing--United States--History; United States--Politics and government.

James D. Savage (2005). Making the EMU: The Politics of Budgetary Surveillance and the Enforcement of Maastricht. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 239 p.). Economic and Monetary Union; Treaty on European Union (1992); European Union countries--Economic integration.

Karl Schriftgiesser (1960). Business Comes of Age; The Story of the Committee for Economic Development and Its Impact Upon the Economic Policies of the United States, 1942-1960. (New York, NY: Harper, 248 p.). Committee for Economic Development.

Bernard Shull (2005). The Fourth Branch: The Federal Reserve's Unlikely Rise to Power and Influence. (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 272 p.). Professor Emeritus in the Department of Economics (Hunter College). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; United States--Economic policy--20th century. 

Pierre L. Siklos (2002). The Changing Face of Central Banking : Evolutionary Trends Since World War II. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 347 p.). Professor (Wilfrid Laurier University). Banks and banking, Central--History; Monetary policy--History. 

John Singleton (2010). Central Banking in the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 337 p.). Reader in Economic History (Victoria University of Wellington). Banks and banking, Central -- History. How central banks, profession of central banking have evolved, spread across globe during 20th century; central banking world has experienced two revolutions in thinking and practice: 1) after depression of early 1930s, 2) response to high inflation of 1970s, 1980s; radical change in central banking profession: 1900 - specialised type of banker; 2011 - also sophisticated economist, public official; explain role of central banks during recent global financial crisis.

Robert Solomon (1982). The International Monetary System, 1945-1981. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 432 p. [updated and expanded ed.]). Former Chief International Economist for the Federal Reserve Board. International finance.

--- (1999). Money on the Move: The Revolution in International Finance Since 1980. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 210 p.). Former Chief International Economist for the Federal Reserve Board. International finance. 

Steven Solomon (1995). The Confidence Game: How Unelected Central Bankers Are Governing the Changed Global Economy. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 606 p.). Banks and banking, Central; Money supply; International finance; Bankers; Government executives.

Roger W. Spencer, John H. Huston (2006). The Federal Reserve and the Bull Markets: From Benjamin Strong to Alan Greenspan. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 251 p.). United States. Federal Reserve Board; Bull markets--United States; Stock exchanges--United States. Relationship of Federal Reserve policy to stock market activity; monetary policy responses of Benjamin Strong, William McChesney Martin Jr., Alan Greenspan to three major bull markets that occurred during their respective tenures.

Beryl W. Sprinkel (1964). Money and Stock Prices. (Homewood, IL: R.D. Irwin, 201 p.). Stocks; Monetary policy; Liquidity (Economics).

--- (1971). Money and Markets; A Monetarist View. (Homewood, IL: R.D. Irwin, 305 p.). Money; Business cycles.

Donald R. Stabile and Jeffrey A. Cantor (1991). The Public Debt of the United States: An Historical Perspective, 1775-1990 (New York, NY: Praeger, 243 p.). Debts, Public--United States--History.

--- (1998). The Origins of American Public Finance: Debates Over Money, Debt, and Taxes in the Constitutional Era, 1776-1836. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 208 p.). Professor of the College at St. Mary's College of Maryland. Finance, Public--United States--History--18th century; Finance, Public--United States--History--19th century.

Benn Steil and Robert E. Litan (2006). Financial Statecraft: The Role of Financial Markets in American Foreign Policy. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 208 p.). Director of International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations; Vice President of Research and Policy at the Kauffman Foundation and Senior Fellow in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. Financial institutions--United States; Capital movements--Government policy--United States; International finance; International relations; United States--Foreign relations. From trade in goods and services to purchase and sale of financial assets across borders. From power over imports and exports to influence the behavior of other countries to power to influence international capital flows. 

Herbert Stein (1969). The Fiscal Revolution in America. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 526 p.). Served on Nixon's Council of Economic Advisers (1969-72), Chairman of CEA until 1974; Professor of Economics (University of Virginia), American Enterprise Institute (conservative research organization). Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy.

--- (1989). Governing the $5 Trillion Economy. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 145 p.). Fiscal Policy, Budget.

Paul Krooss Studenski, Herman Edward (1963). Financial History of the United States: Fiscal, Monetary, Banking, and Tariff, Including Financial Administration and State and Local Finance (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 605 p.). Finance--History.

Peter Temin (1976). Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression? (New York, NY: Norton, 201 p.). Depressions--1929--United States; Money supply--United States; Monetary policy--United States.

Richard H. Timberlake (1978). The Origins of Central Banking in the United States. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 272 p.). Monetary policy--United States--History; Banks and banking, Central--United States--History.

--- (1993). Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 502 p.). Monetary policy--United States--History.

Richard von Glahn (1996). Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000-1700. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 338 p.). Professor of History (University of California, Los Angeles). Money -- China -- History; Monetary policy -- China -- History.

Kenneth Weiher (1992). America's Search for Economic Stability: Monetary and Fiscal Policy since 1913 (New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 241 p.). Monetary policy--United States--History--20th century; Fiscal policy--United States--History--20th century.

Steven R. Weisman (2002). The Great Tax Wars: Lincoln to Wilson - The Fierce Battles Over Money and Power that Transformed the Nation. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 419 p.). Editorial Writer (New York Times). Income tax--United States--History; Taxation--United States--History. 

Richard Werner (2003). Princes of the Yen: Japan's Central Bankers and the Transformation of the Economy. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 362 p.). Banks and banking, Central--Japan; Monetary policy--Japan; Japan--Economic policy--1945-.  

David C. Wheelock (1991). The Strategy and Consistency of Federal Reserve Monetary Policy, 1924-1933. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 126 p.). Assistant Vice President and Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Federal Reserve banks; Monetary policy--United States--History--20th century.

Ted Wilson (2000). Battles for the Standard: Bimetallism and the Spread of the Gold Standard in the Nineteenth Century. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 200 p.). Gold standard--History; Bimetallism--History. 

John H. Wood (2005). A History of Central Banking in Great Britain and the United States. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 439 p.). R. J. Reynolds Professor of Economics (Wake Forest University). Bank of England--History; Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)--History; Banks and banking, Central--Great Britain--History; Monetary policy--Great Britain--History; Banks and banking, Central--United States--History; Monetary policy--United States--History. Monetary changes in the lives of these British and American institutions; central banking history credits Englishmen with developing central-bank crisis management theory; 1797 - Sir Francis Baring, English merchant banker, applied the term "dernier resort" to the Bank of England.

David Woodruff (1999). Money Unmade: Barter and the Fate of Russian Capitalism. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 228 p.). Monetary policy--Russia (Federation); Barter--Russia (Federation); Financial crises--Russia (Federation); Russia (Federation)--Economic conditions--1991-.

Robert E. Wright (2002). The Wealth of Nations Rediscovered: Integration and Expansion in American Financial Markets, 1780-1850. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 240 p.). Finance--United States--History; Wealth--United States--History; United States--Economic policy; United States--Economic conditions.



Bank of England Museum                                                                                                               Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom. Sometimes known as the 'Old Lady' of Threadneedle Street, the Bank was founded in 1694, nationalised on 1 March 1946, and gained independence in 1997. Standing at the centre of the UK's financial system, the Bank is committed to promoting and maintaining monetary and financial stability as its contribution to a healthy economy.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System [pdf]                                                                          Those users who are looking for all things related to the Federal Reserve System will need to look no further than this well-designed and thorough website. Visitors will find a number of links on the left-hand side of the homepage that will take them directly to information about monetary policy, payment systems, economic research and data, and basic consumer information. One rather fine feature is the Beige Book, which is a report published eight times per year. In the Beige Book, users will find a collection of anecdotal reports on current economic conditions culled from interviews with key business contacts, economists, and market experts. A great deal of additional information can be obtained on the homepage, including a complete listing of recent statistical releases and information about job opportunities at the Fed.

Death and Taxes                                                                                                                       A visual analysis of the US budget, scaled proportionally to budget allocations.  

Fed 101: The Federal Reserve Today                                                                                                    Information of the Federal Reserve System and economic education.

The Fed Challenge: An Economics Competition for High Students                                                  The Fed Challenge is an academic competition designed to expand the community's understanding of the Federal Reserve System's unique role in the economy and the importance of Federal Open Market Committee decisions. This endeavor also promotes the study of economics as a possible future career choice for high school students. Further, the competition is framed to assist in the development of students' research, group dynamics, presentation, and critical thinking skills.

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston: Public Policy Discussion Papers [pdf]                                                        Begun in 2004, visitors can view an archive of previously published works. Recent titles in the have included "Social Dynamics of Obesity", "Managing the Risk in Pension Plans and Recent Pension Reforms", and "The Theory of Life-Cycle Saving and Investing". If visitors are interested in other related topics, they should also look at the "Related Links" section, which features direct links to their policy brief archives and other Boston Federal Reserve publications.                                                                                                                OMBWatch and the Sunlight Foundation have organized federal spending data into a database "to give journalists, analysts, government officials, and regular citizens easy access to information on federal spending." Browsable by contractor name or grant recipient, top 100 contractors/grant recipients, contracting or grant-awarding agency, state or congressional district where service is rendered, competition type, or product/service/type of assistance. The site includes tutorials, an FAQ file, and a glossary.

Finance: History and Policy                                                                                                                           This blog will show that financial history is both intrinsically interesting and of crucial importance to many aspects of public policy, ranging from Social Security to construction to macroeconomic stability.

Frequently Asked Questions: The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)                                        Questions and answers about the "monetary policymaking body of the Federal Reserve System," which consists of the members of the Federal Reserve System Board of Governors and the Federal Reserve Bank presidents. Includes links to meeting statements and minutes, a meeting calendar, a list of committee members, and information about the structure and monetary policy of the committee. Subjects: Federal Reserve banks; Monetary policy; Open market operations; United States. Federal Open Market Committee.

History of the US Income Tax                                                                                                               "If, in the midst of sorting receipts and studying the latest changes in the US income tax laws, you suddenly wonder 'What is the origin this annual ritual in the weeks leading up to April 15th?' here are some places you can go for answers." Features links to information from the Internal Revenue Service and other resources, images from Library of Congress collections, and reading suggestions. From Ellen Terrell, Library of Congress Business Reference Services. Subjects: Income tax.

Important Dates in U. S. Treasury History                                    

National Debt Graph                                                                                                                                                    Graph of the gross national debt as a percent of the nation's annual income for 1950 through the most recent federal budget projections. "The data plotted here were taken directly from the White House web site and plotted without modification." Includes links to related material about contributions to the public debt from the presidential terms of George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan. From an author and economist who consults for electricity markets.

The Research Library of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis                                                                                   Maintained by the staff at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, this website provides a host of thoughtful papers on economic policy, along with offering links to a wide variety of related resources, such as those dealing with the state of global economic affairs and economic history and price indices. From the homepage, visitors can browse through international, national, and regional research papers that include works titled "Income Taxes: Who Pays and How Much?" and "The United States: Still the Growth Engine for the World Economy?" Moving down the homepage, visitors will come to a brief listing of helpful economic indicators, such as the consumer price index and new housing starts. Finally, visitors can read issues of the "Regional Economist", a quarterly publication which addresses national and regional economic trends.

Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research [Windows Media Player, iTunes, pdf]                                                                                                                             The Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR), founded 1982. Podcasts include conversations about the long-term impacts of the events of 9/11 and inflation in both China and the United States. Along with these podcasts, visitors will also find webcasts of related conferences, symposia, and seminars on a wide range of topics in economics. The site is rounded out by a calendar of events and a place where interested parties can provide feedback to staff members at SIEPR.

Tax History Project                                                                                                  Established "to provide scholars, policymakers, students, the media and citizens with information about the history of American taxation." Site draws documents from files at the National Archives, Roosevelt and Truman Presidential Libraries, the White House, Congress, and the U.S. Treasury, and includes tax returns for former presidents Clinton, Bush, Reagan, Carter, Nixon, and Franklin Roosevelt; posters about bonds and filing taxes; a tax history virtual museum; and cartoons about paying taxes. Subjects: Taxation -- United States -- History.

U.S. Monetary Policy: An Introduction                                                                   Understanding the activities and operations of the U.S. Federal Reserve and its monetary policies (created by Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco): brief overview of U.S. monetary policy, five sections (address questions like "How is the Federal Reserve structured?", "What are the tools of U.S. monetary policy?"); Site includes a glossary of terms, covers everything from "absolute advantage" to "zero-coupon mortgage", list of suggested readings, search engine, place to sign up for the Bank's RSS feed.

U.S. National Debt Clock                                                                                                                                  Up-to-the-second display of the outstanding public debt and each citizen's share of the debt. Also provides links to news and a FAQ. Information comes from the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the U.S. Bureau of the Census' Population Clock.

What Fuels the National Debt?                                                                                                            Brief overview of the factors involved in the creation of the national debt. Discusses the roles of Congress and the Treasury Department, and how part of this debt may be financed during wartime through war bonds issued by the U.S. government. From a company that provides investment advice.

What Was the Price of Gold Then?                                                                                                                                       Find the price of gold for a specific year or time period. Includes options for British and U.S. official prices, New York market price, gold/silver price ratio, and London market price. Dates vary for each section and range from 1257 through 2001. Includes related essays on the history and importance of gold prices. From Economic History Services, based at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.


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