December 31, 1600 - Queen Elizabeth I of England
granted formal charter to London merchants trading to East
Indies, hoped to break Dutch monopoly of spice trade in what is
now Indonesia; 1813 - parliamentary acts ended
East India Company's trade monopoly; 1834 -
transformed into a managing agency for British government of
India; 1873 - East India Company dissolved as
British government assumed direct control over India.
February 13, 1601
- John Lancaster led first East India Company voyage from
March 20, 1602
- The Dutch government founded Dutch East India Company.
June 3, 1621
- The Dutch West India Company received charter for New
Netherlands, present-day New York City.
- Masatomo Sumitomo opened book,
medicine shop in Kyoto; grew into Sumitomo Corporation.
April 27, 1773
- The British Parliament passed the Tea Act, a bill designed to
save East India Company, grant it monopoly on American tea
trade; low tax allowed East India Company to undercut even tea
smuggled into America by Dutch traders.
May 7, 1821 -
The Africa Company dissolved because of heavy expenses incurred;
Sierra Leone, Gambia, Gold Coast taken over by British
government to form British West Africa.
July 1, 1832
- Willaim Jardine (48), former East India Company merchant ship surgeon,
formally registered Jardine, Matheson & Company in
Canton, China as
(agency) house involved in trading, banking, shipping,
insurance, cotton, mines, railways; largest of private traders
('risk-brokers') in Canton trading district; offered "agency
services" (banker, bill broker, ship owner, freighter, insurance
agent, purveyor); 1832 - four products traded:
1)and 2) tea and silk from China (sold to Great Britain and
India, 3) cotton textiles from Great Britain and Europe (sold to
China), 4) opium from India (sold to China); 1834
- sent first private shipments of tea to England (East India
Company lost monopoly on trade with China); 1836 -
promoted founding of Hong Kong; 1844 - first
trading firm to buy land in Hong Kong, move headquarters there;
1870 - focused on Japan; 1876 - set
up first railroad in China from Shanghai to Woosung; 1885
- primarily interested in railway contracts; 1898
- jointly created British and Chinese Corporation with
Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation, linked Yangtze River to
interior by rail to facilitate transport of goods; helped
establish The Star Ferry Company; 1885 - established
Co. (investment division) became
investment manager, financier;
- Matheson & Co. incorporated; 1979 - one of first
companies to re-establish relations with China, opened
representative office in Beijing.
October 1, 1847 -
Werner von Siemens, Johann Georg Halske formed Siemens and
Halske Telegraph Construction Company in small workshop in back
building at 19 Schoneberger Strasse in Berlin;
1848 - built 370
mile underground telegraph line between Berlin and Frankfurt am
Main for Prussian army (first electrical long-distance telegraph
line in Europe, proved decisive in German revolution of 1848,
facilitated rapid communication between Prussian monarch in
Berlin, General Assembly in Frankfurt);
1853 - began building telegraph network
in Russia, from Finland to Crimea, covered distance of around
6,000 miles; 1866
- discovered dynamo-electric principle, allowed economic
generation of electrical energy in large quantities, started new
era of electricity, established Siemens as household name
throughout world (received German, British patents on it in
1867); contracted to build large sections of 6,600- mile line
between London and Calcutta; 1890
- Carl (brother), Arnold and Wilhelm (sons) took control;
1897 - went
public; 1903 -
acquired Elektrizitts-Aktiengesellschaft vorm. Schuckert & Co.,
formed Siemens-Schuckertwerke GmbH;
1914 - worldwide workforce of 82,000,
quarter outside Germany, 1919
- Carl Friedrich von Siemens became head of company;
Siemens-Schuckertwerke GmbH received contract to build power
plant on Shannon River to electrify whole of Irish Free State;
largest foreign contract awarded to any German company since
turn of century; 1941
- Hermann von Siemens took control;
1944 - total workforce of 244,000
(included some 50,000 people put to work against their will);
April 20, 1945 -
Siemens's plants in Berlin closed due to Germany's political,
military economic collapse; lost 80% of total assets as result
of World War II; 1957
- Siemens-Electrogerte AG (electrical appliances) founcded;
1965 - introduced
Europe's first mass-produced integrated circuit;
October 1966 -
Siemens & Halske AG, Siemens-Schuckertwerke AG,
Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG merged, formed Siemens AG; regained
former standing in world markets (over 270,000 employees
worldwide, annual sales of more than DM 10 billion);
Siemens-Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG (SNI) created, largest
European company in computer industry (became part of Fujitsu
Siemens Computers AG in 1999);
1990s - changed from company dealing mainly with
public customers in regulated markets to global competitor under
pressure from shareholders; March
12, 2001 - listed on
Chance meeting with British glassmaker “Gaffer” Teasdale
inspired Amory Houghton to see his future in glass; owned small
glass companies Cate & Phillip (later called Bay State Glass),
Union Glass Works, Brooklyn Flint Glass Works; 1868
- moved company to Corning, NY, name changed to Corning
1851 - Antti
Ahlstrom (24) took over a business with grain mill, rag paper
mill, ceramics work shop, share in sawmill; 1860s
- moved into shipping; 1873 - acquired Kauttua
ironworks; 1890s - one of Finland's largest shipping fleets;
1896 - Walter Ahlstrom (son) took over; 1907
- converted Kauttua ironworks into wood pulp, paper production;
1930s - Finland's largest industrial conglomerate;
1982 - Krister Ahlstrom (fourth-generation)
brought in as CEO; sold money-losing bulk paper operation
(company's symbolic core); end of 1980s -
operations focused on engineering, specialty papers; 1999
- Juha Rantanen (fifth generation) made CEO; 2001
- split into three companies (FiberComposites, LabelPack,
Specialties); March 2006 - went public; 2008
- global leader in development, manufacture, marketing of high
performance fiber-based materials.
- A. Ahlstrom Corporation
William Russell Grace founded W. R. Grace & Co. in Peru;
1860 - established merchant steamship line to serve
Americas; 1865 - relocated to New York; 1872
- formally chartered; 1880 - elected mayor of New
York City for two terms; 1885 - accepted Statue of
Liberty from people of France; 1899 - W. R. Grace
& Co. incorporated; 1907 - Joseph P. Grace became
president; 1914 - established Grace National Bank,
forerunner of Marine Midland Bank; 1945 - J. Peter
Grace (320 became president; 1953 - listed on New
York Stock Exchange; 1954 - acquired Davison
Chemical Company, Dewey & Almy Chemical Company, established
basis for Company's catalysts, packaging, silicas, construction
product lines; 1984 - introduced Cryovac® cook-in
bags for institutional-sized quantities of foods; 1992
- J. Peter Grace retired as CEO after 48 years (longest reigning
CEO of public company); April 2, 2001 -
voluntarily filed for reorganization in response to sharply
increasing number of asbestos claims (includes 62 domestic
entities, no foreign subsidiaries).
William Russell Grace
- founder W. R Grace & Co.
1857 - James
Richardson established James Richardson & Sons, Limited (grain
merchandising business); 1882
- built first grain elevator; 1883
- first company to ship western Canadian grain overseas (via
Great Lakes); 1892
- George and Henry Richardson (sons) took over;
1918 - James A.
Richardson (grandson) named fourth president;
1922 - Canada =
largest wheat exporting nation in world;
1920 - established Richardson Securities
of Canada Limited; 1926
- established Western Canada Airways Limited; pioneered
provincial radio (in Winnipeg);
1930 - formed Canadian Airways Limited, Canada's
first national airline; 1939
- Muriel Sprague Richardson (widow) named fifth president (more
than 800 employees); 1944
- introduced pension plan, first Group Life Insurance Plan for
employees; 1950s -
launched Marine Pipeline Construction of canada Limited (built
first commerciasl pipeline north of 60th parallel);
1966 - James and
George Richardson (great grandsons) took over;
1968 - George
Taylor Richardson named President;
1982 - Richardson Securities of Canada
Limited merged with Greenshields Inc.; renamed Richardson
Greenshields of Canada Ltd. (largest privately-owned,
independent investment, commodity contracts dealer in Canada,
400,000 customers, $18 billion under management);
1993 - Hartley
Richardson (great great grandson) named President;
August 1996 -
acquired by RBC Dominion Securities Ltd.;
2011 - operations in agriculture and
food processing, financial services, oil and gas exploration,
August 2, 1858 -
Rule of East India Company transferred to British government.
October 31, 1865
- George Westinghouse, Jr. of Schenectady, NY, received first
patent for a "Rotary Steam Engine" ("novel construction of a
rotary engine, the cylinder of which is annular and contained in
a disk which is made to revolve about a hollow stationary shaft,
through the opposite ends of which the steam is admitted and
exhausted. The engine is made in the form of a disk whose weight
and thickness will or may be made sufficient to make it serve
for a balance-wheel"); converted steam power directly into
rotary motion (vs. reciprocating type of engine) to turn
steamboat’s paddle wheels or spin long drive shafts that ran
Jamsetji Tata (29) started trading company with capital of Rs
21,000; 1869 - acquired dilapidated, bankrupt oil
mill in Chinchpokli in the industrial heart of Bombay, renamed
property Alexandra Mill, converted it into a cotton mill;
1871 - sold mill for significant profit to local cotton
merchant; 1874 - established Central India
Spinning, Weaving and Manufacturing Company with seed capital of
Rs 1.5 lakh; January 1, 1877 - Empress Mills
opened in Nagpur; 1892 -established JN Tata
Endowment (enabled Indian students, regardless of caste or
creed, to pursue higher studies in England); 1907
- The Tata Iron and Steel Company went public; December 2,
1911 - first cast of pig-iron produced; February
16, 1912 - first steel made; 1932 - Tata
Aviation Service, forerunner to Tata Airlines and Air India,
began service (1953 - government of Jawaharlal
Nehru nationalized Air India).
April 13, 1869 - George
Westinghouse, Jr., of Schenectady, NY, received a patent for a
"Improvement in Steam-Power Brake Devices" ("construction of a
power car-brake for railway-cars or other like vehicles to be
operated by compressed air or other elastic compressible
fluid"); demonstrated first straight air brake systems to
railroad industry on experimental train carrying officials of
The Panhandle Railroad (Steubenville division of Pittsburgh,
Columbus, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad); not entirely
successful (took longer for air to reach last cars of train, so
each car stopped at different time); July 1869 -
formed Westinghouse Air Brake Company (WABC); March
5, 1872 - (of Pittsburgh, PA) received 3 patents: for
"Improvement in Relief-Valves for Steam Air-Brake Cylinders";
for "Improvement in Steam-Power for Air-Brakes and Signals"; for
"Improvement in Steam Air-Brakes" (steam-power air-brakes for
railway use"); January 8, 1886 - granted charter
for Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) by Governor
Pattison of Pennsylvania;
- invented an automatic brake; 1890 - moved
Westinghouse Air Brake works to Wilmerding, PA (in Turtle Creek
Valley, about 14 miles east of Pittsburgh); 1889 -
WEC renamed Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company
(WEMC); 1890 - installed over 300 central power
stations, annual sales of $4 million; 1895 -
installed hydropower AC generators at Niagara Falls, supplied
power to Buffalo, NY; 1907 - Westinghouse lost
control of his companies (financial panic of 1907); 1909
- removed as chairman of WEMC during bankruptcy reorganization;
1911 - severed all
contact with companies;
1919 - one of founding owners of Radio Corporation
of America (owned 20% of National Broadcasting Company,
established by RCA in 1926); November 2, 1920 -
entered broadcasting industry, KDKA in Pittsburgh (founded 1916)
went on-air; October 1921 - launched WBZ (AM) in
Springfield, MA (moved to Boston in 1931); November 8,
1932 - WEMC registered "Westinghouse" trademark first
used in 1888 (ammeters, volt-meters, wattmeters, and integrating
watt hour meters); 1945 - renamed Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, made first automatic elevator; June
9, 1948 - entered television industry, WBZ-TV in Boston
went on the air; 1950s - entered consumer finance,
created Westinghouse Credit Corporation; 1962 -
acquired WINS in New York; 1970s - home appliance
division acquired by White Consolidated Industries (became
White-Westinghouse); 1981 - acquired cable TV
system operator TelePrompTer, renamed Group W Cable (exited
cable in 1986); August 1, 1995 - acquired CBS for
$5.4 billion; 1996 - acquired Infinity
Broadcasting; 1997 - sold most non-broadcast
operations; renamed CBS Corporation; 1998 - CBS
created Westinghouse Electric Corporation subsidiary to manage
Westinghouse brand; 1999 - acquired by Viacom,
Inc.; November 1999
- Westinghouse Air Brake merged with Motive Power Industries,
Inc.; 2005 - renamed CBS Corporation.
- Yataro Iwasaki established shipping company, Tsukumo Shokai,
with three steamships chartered from Tosa Clan (island of
Shikoku, Nagasaki); 1872 - company name changed to
Mitsukawa Shokai; 1874 - name changed to
Mitsubishi Shokai ("mitsu" - "three", "hishi" - "water chestnut,
diamond shape"); corporate emblem combined three oak
leaves of Tosa crest, three stacked diamonds of Iwasaki family
crest; 1875 - name changed to Mitsubishi Mail
Steamship (inherited employees, facilities of mail service
disbanded by government); 1881 - acquired Yoshioka
copper mine in Akita, Takashima coal mine in Nagasaki;
1884 - leased Nagasaki Shipbuilding Yard from the
government, built Japan's first domestically produced steel
steamship; 1885 - succeeded by his brother
Yanosuke; merged with government-sponsored competitor; formed
Nippon Yusen (NYK Line); 1886 - name changed to
Mitsubishi Company; 1893 - Hisaya (Yataro's son,
graduate of University of Pennsylvania) assumed presidency; set
up divisions for banking, real estate, marketing,
administration, original mining and shipbuilding businesses;
acquired Kobe Paper Mill (today's Mitsubishi Paper Mills);
backed founding of Kirin Brewery; cousin, Toshiya, founded Asahi
Glass, Japan's first successful manufacturer of plate glass;
1916 - Koyata (Yanosuke's son, graduate of Cambridge
University) assumed presidency; incorporated divisions as
semiautonomous companies; established leadership positions in
machinery, electrical equipment, chemicals; 1917 -
Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. established; 1919
- Mitsubishi Bank founded; 1921 - Mitsubishi
Electric Corporation founded (Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co. spun
off its marine electric motor factory in Kobe); became a leader
in electrical machinery and in home appliances; 1934
- Mitsubishi Shipbuilding renamed Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,
Ltd.; September 30, 1946 - Mitsubishi Headquarters
disbanded; 1950 - Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan's
largest trading company; 1970 - MHI's automobile
department became independent; Mitsubishi Motors began
manufacturing, marketing automobiles.
- founder of Mitsubishi
- 2nd President of Mistubishi
October 15, 1878
- Thomas Edison opened Edison Electric Company in New York
City; syndicate of leading financiers (J.P. Morgan, the
Vanderbilts) advanced $30,000 for research and development;
created the first incandescent lamp; 1880 -
patented the electricity distribution system which connected
lights in a parallel circuit (vs. series circuit in arc lights)
by subdividing the current (failure of one light bulb would not
cause a whole circuit to fail); company flush with profits, and
competitors; J. P. Morgan advised Edison to adopt aggressive
tactics of vertical integration, to buy his rivals, to transform
his company into a modern enterprise; re-christened the General
Electric Company, dominated the field with just one major
competitor, Westinghouse Company.
1885 - William
Hesketh Lever, James D'Arcy Lever purchased soap factory of
Winser & Co in Warrington, UK; established Lever Brothers;
manufactured soap from vegetable oils (had introduced Lever's
Pure Honey soap in 1874); first product was Sunlight, world's
first packaged branded laundry soap;
1887 - acquired 56 acres in Wirral
peninsula, between railway line and Mersey;
1889 - began
production at factory named Port Sunlight (model community
designed to house, support workers of Lever Brothers);
1894 - launched
Lifebuoy, desinfectant soap; 1899
- introduced Sunlight Flakes;
January 15, 1895 - Lever Brothers, Limited
registered "Lifebuoy" trademark first used December 7, 1888
(fancy and perfumed soaps [and oils and greases for toilet use); 1906
- established monopoly soap trust, with Joseph Watson of Leeds
and several other large soap manufacturers;
1914 - formed
Planter's Margarine Co., joint venture with its major
competitor, Watson, for production of margarine (governemnt had
anticipated warime syupply disruption);
1915 Lever assumed full control of
company; margarine sales boomed during waryears, declined when
Netherlands, Denmark resumed production;
September 2, 1929 - merged with
Margarine Unie NV - Margarine Union Limited in Britain (formed
in 1927, by union of Antonius Johannes Jurgens's Jurgens &
Prince Margarine Works in Goch and Samuel van den Bergh's Van
den Bergh Margarine Works in Kleve - both in northwest of North
Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near Dutch border and River Rhine;
formed large group of European businesses involved in production
of almost all goods created from oils and fats);
January 1, 1930 -
Unilever officially established;
September 22, 1955 - aired first advertisement
on UK commercial TV (for Gibbs SR toothpaste);
May 22, 1956
- Lever Brothers Company registered "Wisk" trademark first
used September 23, 1955 (detergent for laundry use); America's first liquid
1959 - introduced
margarine in tub, replaced traditional block wrapped in
greaseproof paper; 1961
- acquired Good Humor ice cream in U.S.;
1969 - aired UK's first color TV
commercial (for Birds Eye peas);
1971 - acquired Lipton International;
1977 - nearly
177,000 employees in 200 offices, factories;
1978 - acquired
National Starch, leading U.S. producer of adhesives, starch,
speciality organic chemicals; 1986
- acquired Naarden International (doubled business in
fragrances, food flavours); Chesebrough-Pond's (Pond's and
Vaseline); 1989 -
acquired Calvin Klein and Elizabeth Arden/Fabergé;
1993 - acquired
Breyers ice cream; 1996
- acquired Helene Curtis hair care business in U.S.; merged
Hindustan Lever, Brooke Bond Lipton India, created India’s
largest private sector company;
2000 - acquired Bestfoods, Ben & Jerry's;
2001 - 900 brands
(down from 1,600); 2005
- Unilever Cosmetics International, global prestige fragrance
business, acquired by Coty Inc.;
January 1, 2009 - Paul Polman named Chief
Executive Officer (first external candidate).
April 23, 1886 -
Albert M. Butz
formed Butz Thermo-Electric Regulator Co. in Minneapolis,
MN; May 4, 1886 - received a patent for a
"Thermo-Electric Damper-Regulator and Alarm" ("designed to
operate the dampers of valves of a furnace or stove as the
temperature rises or falls in the rooms whose temperature is to
be regulated"); August 24, 1886 - received second
patent for "Thermo-Electric Damper-Regulator and Alarm";
August 20, 1889 - received a
patent for a "Thermostat" ("designed especially for use with
electric-heat regulators"); sold patent rights to
Consolidated Temperature Controlling Co.; 1893 -
name changed to Electric Heat Regulator Co.; 1898
- acquired by William R. Sweatt; 1916 - name
changed to Minneapolis Heat Regulator Company, expanded product
line, patented first electric motor approved by Underwriters
1906 - Mark Honeywell formed the Honeywell Heating
Specialty Co., Inc.; specialized in hot water heat generators;
1927 - Minneapolis Heat Regulator Company and
(Wabash, IN-based) Honeywell Heating Specialty Co. merged to
form the Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., became the largest
producer of high-quality jeweled clocks (W. R. Sweatt, chairman;
Mark Honeywell, president); 1963 - name changed to
Honeywell Inc.; 1999 - acquired by AlliedSignal
July 10, 1886 -
George Goldie received charter for Royal Niger Company; given
political, economic control over hinterland of
July 1887 -
Torakusu Yamaha repaired reed organ at Hamamatsu's Jinjo
elementary school in Japan; 1888
- established Yamaha Organ Works in Hamamatsu;
October 12, 1897 -
established Nippon Gakki Co., Ltd.; January 1900 - began making
upright pianos; January 1902
- produced first grand piano;
April 1914 - introduced first harmonica, began
exporting harmonicas worldwide;
January 1922 - began production of high-quality
hand-wound phonographs; February
1932 - began production of pipe organs;
October 1942 -
created first acoustic guitar;
August 1954 - produced first motorcycle, YA-1;
first-year production: 125; manufactured first Hi-Fi Player;
July 1955 -
founded Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.;
May 12, 1959 - Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki
Kaisha Corporation registered Yamaha trademark ([pianos, reed
and pipe organs, electronic organs, accordions, saxophones,
clarinets, bugles, trumpets, cornets, trombones, etc...);
November 17, 1959
- registered trademark (motorcycles);
June 1960 - established U.S. subsidiary;
May 1962 - formed
Yamaha Recreation Co., Ltd.; June
1968 - produced first line of hi-fi stereo
equipment; April 1971
- began semiconductor production;
October 1974 - introduced CSY-1 synthesizer;
June 1976 - began
production of electric, electronic pianos;
April 1982 - developed line of carbon
composite golf clubs; October 1982
- introduced compact disk player;
October 1, 1987 - name changed to 'Yamaha
Corporation'; April 1991
- production of pianos, wind instruments both surpassed 5
million; May 1991
- created world's first forged titanium golf clubs;
April 2000 -
founded record company, Yamaha Music Communications Co., Ltd.;
February 2003 -
withdrew from CD-R/RW business; January 2005 - acquired
Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, Germany;
May 2005 - 10
millionth wind instrument produced;
July 2008 - acquired NEXO S.A.
April 15, 1892
- General Electric Co., formed by the merger of Edison General
Electric Co. (Schenectady, NY; founded 1878 as
Light Co.) and Thomson-Houston Company (formed in
1883 to produce dynamos and arc lighting, succeeded American
Electric Company), incorporated in New York State.
January 22, 1895
- Unilever registered "Lifebuoy" soap trademark.
- Henry S. Bryan, Hermon W. Cable, John Dwan, William A.
McGonagle, Dr. J. Danley Budd founded Minnesota Mining and
Manufacturing Co. in Two Harbors, MN to mine what they thought
was corundum (a mineral) ideal for making sandpaper and
- Mr. Fung Pak-liu and Mr. Li To-ming established business in
Guangzhou, China; one of first companies financed solely by
Chinese capital to engage directly in exports from China; traded
largely in porcelain and silk, diversified into bamboo,
rattan ware, jade, ivory, handicrafts, fireworks.
December 28, 1937
- formally established Li & Fung (1937) Limited, privately
held, limited company in
Hong Kong; controlling shareholder of Li & Fung Group of
companies; after WW II
- Li To-ming, silent partner, retired, sold his shares to
Fung Family; began to export garments, toys, electronics,
plastic flowers beyond original product lines; one of Hong
Kong's biggest exporters in dollar terms;
1970s - third generation of Fung family,
Victor and William, joined business;
1973 - went public;
1985 - formed Li &
Fung (Retailing) Limited (wholly-owned by Li & Fung (1937)
Limited; two chains under retailing: Circle K, Toys "R" Us;
1989 - went
private in one of first management buyouts in Hong Kong;
restructured in two core businesses - export trading, retail;
1992 - export
trading business went public; 1995
-acquired Inchcape Buying Services (Dodwell), almost doubled in
size, further expanded customer base in Europe to complement
existing strength in USA; 1999
-acquired Swire & Maclaine Limited, Camberley Enterprises
Limited; diversified into distribution business through
formation of privately held IDS Group;
2000 - acquired Colby Group Holdings
Limited; 2002 -
acquired Janco Overseas Limited;
2007 - multinational group engaged in export
trading (Li & Fung Limited),
retailing (Convenience Retail Asia
Limited, other privately held entities), distribution (Integrated
Distribution Services Group Limited; total staff of over
34,000 across 40 economies worldwide, total revenue of close to
October 17, 1910
- William Middleton Sime (37), Henry Darby (50) founded Sime,
Darby & Co., Ltd. to manage 500 acres of rubber plantations land
in Malacca, Malaysia; 1958
- incorporated in United Kingdom as Sime Darby Holdings Ltd.;
1976 - Malaysian
government gained control of the company through its state
trading corporation, PERNAS;
December 1979 - Sime Darby Berhad (SDB),
Consolidated Plantations Berhad (CPB) incorporated in Kuala
Lampur, Malaysia; 1981
- acquired B.F. Goodrich Philippines;
1990 - control of company acquired by
Pemodalan Nasional Berhad; renamed GHPB;
1993 - merged with Consolidated
- acquired controlling stake in United Malayan Banking
Corporation; renamed Sime Bank and SimeSecurities;
January 2007 -
merged with Golden Hope Plantations Berhad (established in 1844
as Harrison and Crossfield, by Daniel and Smith Harrison and
Joseph Crosfield, as trading business dealing in tea and coffee)
and Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad (founded in Singapore in 1821, by
Alexander Guthrie, as first British trading company in South
East Asia); named Synergy Drive;
November 27, 2007 - renamed Sime Darby Berhad;
2010 - world's
biggest oil palm plantation company; largest conglomerate in
Malaysia, one of largest in southeast Asia.
William Middleton Sime
- Sime, Darby & Co., Ltd
- Sime, Darby & Co., Ltd.
- Portuguese immigrant Antonio Pereira Ignacio took over Fábrica
de Fiação e Tecelagem (Spinning and Weaving Mill), in Votorantim
in interior of State of São Paulo, Brazil; renamed Sociedade
Anonyma Fabrica Votorantim (harbinger of Brazilian
- José Ermírio de Moraes (son-in-law) took over;
1950s - began
producing aluminium, hydroelectric power, refining sugar;
1960 - control
transferred to three sons, son-in-law;
1970s-80s - entered zinc, nickel mining
and smelting, plastics and film wrapping markets;
1990 - Brazilian
President Collor introduced major market reforms, eliminated or
significantly reduced almost all import tariffs;
2001 - 23 members
of third generation broke with eight decades of tradition in
response to changing circumstances; 13 cousins removed
themselves from direct management positions; places taken by
non-family managers; created family board to oversee family
matters, social investment; executive board oversees day-to-day
business operations (under Votorantim Participações SA); third
generation of Ermírio de Moraes family; Brazilian corporate
group with global operation in industrial, financial, new
businesses services; one of largest private economic
conglomerates in Brazil; 2004
- elected by IMD Business School and Lombard Odier Darier
Hentsch Bank as best family company in world.
March 7, 1918
- Konosuke Matsushita (23) established Matsushita Electric
Manufacturing Works in rented two-story home; company on first
floor, staff of 3; expanded production to include innovative attachment
plug, two-way socket (designed himself); developed reputation
for high quality at low prices; 1922 - built new
factory, office to house growing business; 1931 -
began printing English instructions for products; 1932
- set up Export Trading Department to conduct research, market
development for international sales; August 1935 -
incorporated Export Trading Department as Matsushita Electric
Trading Company; December 1935 - incorporated the
company (had been sole proprietorship), renamed Matsushita
Electric Industrial Company; divisions reorganized as nine
subsidiaries, four associated companies, with Matsushita
Electric functioning as a holding company; WW II -
lost 32 factories, office facilities in Japan (mainly Tokyo,
Osaka); 39 overseas factories, sales outlets confiscated;
1952 - made technical, capital cooperation agreement
with Philips (Netherlands), set up Matsushita Electronics
Corporation as joint venture; 1955 - created
Panasonic name ("pan" meaning "all" combined with "sonic"
meaning "sound") for brand for audio speakers; February 5,
1957 - registered Panasonic trademark; 1959
- established Matsushita Electric Corporation of America in New
York as first post-war overseas sales company; 1962
- established National Panasonic G.m.b.H. in West Germany as
first European sales company; April 1965 - Japan's
first major manufacturer to introduce five-day work week;
March 22, 1974 - acquired Motorola's TV operations in
the U.S.A. and Canada; April 1988 - Matsushita
Electric Industrial merged with Matsushita Electric Trading Co.;
November 1990 - acquired MCA Inc.; June 1995
- transferred 80% share of equity interest in MCA Inc. to
Seagram Company Ltd., Canadian liquor manufacturer;
October 1, 2008 - renamed Panasonic Corporation.
- Hernand and Lt. Col. Louis Richard Sosthenes Behn, former
sugar brokers in Puerto Rico, founded International
Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) to create world's first
system of interconnected phone lines; started with
South Puerto Rico Telephone
Company (owned since 1905) and Cuban Telephone Company (owned
since 1916); July 31, 1924 - won Spanish telephone
service contract, Compania Telefonica Nacional de Espana SA
(CTNE) established; September 30, 1925 - acquired
International Western Electric for $30 million (AT&T's
European-based manufacturer of telephonic equipment); renamed it
International Standard Electric Corp.; October 13, 1928
- international telephone service between Spain and United
States officially inaugurated; 1928 - added two
cable companies (All-American Cables, Inc., Commercial Cable
Co.), telegraph company (Postal Telegraph and Cable Corp.),
radio company (Mackay Radio and Telegraph Co.); entered five
markets in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico,
Uruguay); 1929 - acquired U. S. & Haiti Cable Co.,
opened line between New York and West Indies; 1933
- Sosthenes took sole control after his brother's death;
1959 - Harold Sydney Geneen took over as head of ITT
(acquired 350 companies by 1979); 1978 - Rand
Vincent Araskog replaced Geneen; 1995 - split into
three companies: ITT corp. (hotel, gaming); ITT Hartford
(stand-alone insurance business), ITT Industries (defense,
electronics, auto parts).
- Yoshisuke Ayukawa established Nissan Holding Company, one
of Japan's largest prewar conglomerates; 1945 -
Japan's largest corporate group, seventy-four firms in metals,
machinery, chemicals (Hitachi, Nippon Mining, Nissan Motor,
September 2, 1929
- Unilever formed by merger of Margarine Union (founded in 1927
in England and in the Netherlands by Jurgens family and the Van
den Bergh family to sell newly invented substitute for butter)
and Lever Bros.; name changed to Unilever Limited and Unilever
March 1, 1938
- Byung-Chull Lee started business
in Taegu, Korea with 30,000 won; primarily in trade export, sold
dried Korean fish, vegetables, fruit to Manchuria and Beijing;
January 1951 - established SAMSUNG
(Samsung - "three stars" in Korean:
1) To Serve the nation
throughout business, 2) To Put the Human Resource over the
material resources, 3) Efficient Management Activity);
after Korean War - rebuilt company into
high-technology manufacturer, South Korea's first major trading
company; one of fathers of modern industrial South Korea;
expanded from sugar refinery, textiles into electronics,
aircraft, semiconductors, shipbuilding, machinery, food
January 1969 - SAMSUNG Electronics
Manufacturing incorporated; February 1984 -
renamed SAMSUNG Electronics;
26 subsidiaries, about 75,000 employees; 2005 - world's
largest, most profitable consumer electronics company, 123,000
oldest and largest trading company.
- founder SAMSUNG
June 1, 1947
- Corning Glass Works announced development of photosensitive
glass (first made in November 1937); crystal clear,
but exposure to ultraviolet light followed by heat treatment
formed submicroscopic metal particles, created image within the
glass; believed to be the most durable form of photographic
medium (as permanent as glass itself).
December 16, 1954
- GE Super Pressure Project research team created first
diamonds, began GE's man-made industrial diamond business;
February 15, 1955 - General Electric Company
announced successful synthesis of 1/16" diamonds using first
process that was reproducible (manufactured diamonds used as
abrasives in masonry saws, mining drill bits, polishing
machinery, cutting tools).
May 22, 1956
- Lever Brothers Company registered "Wisk" trademark first
used September 23, 1955 (detergent for laundry use); America's first liquid
February 11, 1957
- General Electric Company announced that Robert H. Wentorf,
Jr., a physical chemist for the company, had made a synthetic
crystal material hard enough to scratch diamonds; 1969
- trademarked the name Borazon; used for abrasive tools for such
industries as metalworking, stone, and mining.
- Dhirubhai H. Ambani founded Reliance Commercial Corporation, a
commodity trading and export firm with investment of about $375;
imported, exported nylon, rayon, and polyester; 1966
- opened first textile mill, launched Vimal fabric brand;
1977 - Reliance Textile Industries IPO - 2.8 million
shares, raised $1.8 million; pioneer financing channels in
India, circumvented traditional reliance on state for capital
investment; 1986 - built first plant for
production of purified terephtalic acid; 1991 -
new subsidiary, Reliance Refineries Private Ltd. (Reliance
Petroleum Limited); 2006 - borken into two roughly
equal components: 1) petroleum, petrochemical, textiles
operations; 2) telecommunications, energy, capital finance,
other operations; India's largest private sector enterprise,
businesses in energy, materials value chain; annual revenues
exceed of $22 billion; Reliance Industries Limited is Fortune
Global 500 company, largest private sector company in India.
- Kim Woo Choong borrowed $10,000 to establish Daewoo Industrial
Co., Ltd., a textiles trading business; 1976 -
South Korean government introduced state-led economic policies,
Kim asked to take over a debt-ridden heavy industry company;
1977 - company making a profit; 1978 -
took over shipyard company; 1983 - took over
home appliance business; 1988 - 320,000 employees
worldwide and $44 billion in assets, ranked 18th on Fortune
magazine's Global 500 List of the world's largest corporations;
1998 - Kim Woo Choong, founder and chairman of the
Daewoo Group, among the four largest conglomerates in South
Korea; once produced 10% of South Korea's gross domestic
product; accused of: asset-swapping between Daewoo entities to
create fictitious profits; cover-ups of failed ventures; and a
London-based slush fund that diverted money from Daewoo's
trading arm, Daewoo Corp.; November 2000 - Daewoo
Motors filed for bankruptcy - Kim faced criminal and civil fraud
charges related to the bankruptcy, fled the country.
September 19, 1985
- Allied Corporation merged with Signal Companies; company named
Allied-Signal; 1993 - renamed AlliedSignal.
August 1, 1995
- Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired CBS for $5.4
billion; moved from primarily power company to media power.
July 3, 2001
- General Electric's $41 billion purchase of Honeywell
International vetoed by the European Union.
(Allied-Signal Inc.), James D. Best (1997).
The Digital Organization: AlliedSignal's Success with Business
Technology. (New York, NY: Wiley, 234 p.). Former Vice
President of AlliedSignal's Computing and Network Operations.
Allied-Signal Inc.--Management; High technology
industries--United States--Management--Case studies;
International business enterprises--United
States--Management--Case studies; Management information
(Amfac), Frederick Simpich, Jr. (1974).
Dynasty in the Pacific. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 270
p.). Amfac, inc.
(Berkshire Hathaway), Janet Lowe (2000).
Damn Right!: Behind the Scenes with Berkshire Hathaway
Billionaire Charlie Munger (New York, NY: Wiley, 294
p.). Journalist. Munger, Charles T., 1924- ; Berkshire Hathaway
Inc.--History; Capitalists and financiers--United
(Bird and Company), Godfrey Harrison (1964).
Bird and Company of Calcutta: A History Produced To Mark the
Firm's Centenary, 1864-1964. (Calcutta, India: Anna Art
Press Private, 340 p.). Bird and Company; Agency
(C. K. Birla Group - founded 1857), P.
Chentsal Rao; foreword by L.K. Jha (1983). B.M. Birla: His
Deeds & Dreams. (New Delhi, India: Arnold Heinemann, 152
p.). Birla, B. M. (Braj Mohan), 1905-1982;
(C. K. Birla Group - founded 1857), D.K.
B.M. Birla: A Great Visionary. (New Delhi, India:
Indus., 188 p.). Birla, B. M. (Braj Mohan), 1905-1982;
Industrialists--India--Biography. With annual sales of A$3
billion = one of the top 3 Indian business houses.
(Borneo Company Limited), Henry Longhurst
The Borneo Story; The History of the First 100 Years of Trading
in the Far East by the Borneo Company Limited. (London,
UK: Newman Neame, 120 p.). Borneo Company Limited;
Sarawak--Commerce; Southeast Asia--Commerce.
(House of Chettinad), K. Nagarajan (1989).
Dr. Rajah Sir Muthiah Chettiar: A Biography.
(Annamalainagar, India: Annamalai University, 311 p.). Muthiah
Chettiar, Sir, 1905- ; Businesspeople--India--Biography;
(Organización Cisneros), Pablo Bachelet;
foreword byCarlos Fuentes; translated by Edith Grossman (2004).
Gustavo Cisneros: Pioneer. (Barcelona, Spain: Planeta,
311 p.). Cisneros, Gustavo; Organización Cisneros--History;
(Corning), Davis Dyer, Daniel Gross (2001).
The Generations of Corning: The Life and Times of a Global
Corporation. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 507
p.). Corning Incorporated; Conglomerate corporations--United
Amory Houghton Sr. -
founder Corning Glass
(Daewoo), Kim Woo-Choong; introduction by
Louis Kraar (1992).
Every Street Is Paved with Gold: The Road to Real Success.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 254 p.). Founder, Daewoo Group. Kim,
U-jung; Taeu Group; Success in business--Korea (South);
Industrial management--Korea (South).
(Dutch East India Company -1602-1798), C. R.
Boxer (1979). Jan Compagnie in War and Peace, 1602-1799: A
Short History of the Dutch East-India Company. (Hong Kong:
Heinemann Asia, 115 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische
(Dutch East India Company), Om Prakash
(1984). The Dutch Factories in India,
1617-1623: A Collection of Dutch East India Company Documents
Pertaining to India. (New Delhi, India: Munshiram
Manoharlal, 332 p.). Head of the Department of Economics (Delhi
School of Economics). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie;
Dutch -- India -- History -- Sources; India -- History --
1500-1765 -- Sources.
(Dutch East India Company), Om Prakash (1985).
The Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal,
1630-1720. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
291 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie; Bengal
(Dutch East India Company), John Landwehr
(1991). VOC: A Bibliography of Publications Relating to the
Dutch East India Company, 1602-1800. (Utrecht, NE: HES
Publishers, 840 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische
(Dutch East India Company), Reinout Vos;
translated by Beverly Jackson. (1993).
Gentle Janus, Merchant Prince: The VOC and the Tightrope of
Diplomacy in the Malay World, 1740-1800. (Leiden, NE: KITLV,
252 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History;
Malacca, Strait of--Commerce--History--18th century.
(Dutch East India Company), Dianne Lewis
Jan Compagnie in the Straits of Malacca, 1641-1795.
(Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies,
160 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie--History;
Malaya--History--18th century; Malacca, Strait of--History--18th
century; Malaya--History--17th century; Malacca, Strait
(Dutch East India Company), Gerrit Knaap
Shallow Waters, Rising Tide: Shipping and Trade in Java Around
1775. (Leiden, NE: KITLV Press, 255 p.). Nederlandsche
Oost-Indische Compagnie--History--18th century;
Shipping--Indonesia--Java--History--18th century; Java
(Dutch East India Company), Giles Milton
Nathaniel's Nutmeg: Or, The True and Incredible Adventures of
the Spice Trader Who Changed the Course of History. (New
York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 388 p.). Courthope,
Nathaniel; Coen, Jan Pieterszoon, 1587-1629; Nederlandsche
Oost-Indische Compagnie -- History; Spice trade -- Indonesia --
Maluku -- History -- 17th century; Nutmeg industry -- Indonesia
-- Maluku -- History -- 17th century; Maluku (Indonesia) --
History; Indonesia -- History -- 1478-1798.
(Dutch East India Company), Ryuto Shimada
The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India
Company During the Eightenth Century. (Boston, MA:
Brill, 225 p.). Nederlandsche Oost-Indische
Compagnie--History--18th century; Copper industry and
trade--Japan--History--18th century; Copper mines and
mining--Japan--History--18th century; Copper industry and
(East India Company - formed 1600), R. H.
Traders' Dream; The Romance of the East India Company.
(New York, NY: Appleton-Century, 322 p.). East India Company;
India--History--British occupation, 1765-1947.
(East India Company), Lucy S. Sutherland
(1952). The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century Politics.
(Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 430 p.). East India Company; Great
Britain--Politics and government--18th century.
(East India Company), C. H. (Cyril Henry)
The East India Company, 1784-1834. (Manchester, UK:
Manchester University Press, 374 p.). East India Company.
(East India Company), Lucy S. Sutherland
A London Merchant, 1695-1774. (London, UK: F. Cass, 164
p.). Braund, William, 1695-1774; East India Company; Great
(East India Company), K.N. Chaudhuri. (1965).
The English East India Company; The Study of an Early
Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640. (LOndon, UK: F. Cass,
245 p.). East India Company.
(East India Company), C. Northcote Parkinson
Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1813. (New York, NY: A.
M. Kelley, 434 p. [orig. pub. 1937]). East India Company;
Merchant marine--Great Britain--History; East
Indies--Commerce--Great Britain; Great Britain--Commerce--East
(East India Company), P. J. Marshall (1968).
Problems of Empire: Britain and India 1757-1813. (New
York, NY: Barnes & Noble, 239 p.). East India Company;
India--History--18th century; Great Britain--Politics and
(East India Company), Brian Gardner (1972).
The East India Company: A History. (New York, NY: McCall
Pub. Co., 319 p.). East India Company--History;
India--History--18th century; India--History--19th century.
(East India Company), Ramkrishna Mukherjee
The Rise and Fall of the East India Company; A Sociological
Appraisal. (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 445 p.).
East India Company--History.
(East India Company), D. C. Coleman (1975).
Sir John Banks, Baronet and Businessman: A Study of Business,
Politics, and Society in Later Stuart England.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 215 p, [orig. pub. 1963]).
Banks, John, Sir, bart., 1627-1699; Businessmen--Great
Britain--Biography; Great Britain--History--Stuarts,
1603-1714--Biography. Banks - executive with East India Company.
(East India Company), P. J. Marshall (1976).
East Indian Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth
Century. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 284 p.). East India
Company; Merchants--Great Britain--History--18th century;
British--India--Bengal--History--18th century; Bengal
(East India Company), K. N. Chaudhuri (1978).
The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company,
1660-1760. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
628 p.). East India Company--History;
Asia--Commerce--Europe--History. One of the most significant
works of the twentieth century.
(East India Company), Hoh-cheung Mui and Lorna
H. Mui (1984).
The Management of Monopoly: A Study of the English East India
Company's Conduct of Its Tea Trade, 1784-1833.
(Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 192 p.).
East India Company--History; Tea trade--Great Britain--History.
(East India Company), Hameeda Hossain (1988).
The Company Weavers of Bengal: The East India Company and the
Organization of Textile Production in Bengal, 1750-1813.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 211 p.). East India
Company--History; Cotton textile
industry--India--Bengal--History; Bengal (India)--Economic
(East India Company), Anthony Farrington
The English Factory in Japan, 1613-1623. (London, UK:
British Library, 1658 p.). East India Company--History--17th
century--Sources; Great Britain--Commerce--Japan--History--17th
century--Sources; Japan--Commerce--Great Britain--History--17th
(East India Company), Philip Lawson (1993).
The East India Company: A History. (New York, NY:
Longman, 188 p.). East India Company--Histor; Great
(East India Company), John Keay (1994).
The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India
Company. (New York, NY: Macmillan, 474 p.). East India
Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--India--History;
(East India Company), Ed. Patrick Tuck
The East India Company, 1600-1858. (New York, NY:
Routledge, 6 vols.). East India Company; India --History --18th
century; Great Britain --Politics and government --18th century;
Great Britain --Commerce --History; India --Relations --Great
Britain; Great Britain --Relations --India. Functions beyond
trading: merged military force, government, colonization
with economic expansion.
(East India Company), James H. Thomas (1999).
The East India Company and Provinces in the Eighteenth Century.
(Lewiston, ME: Edwin Mellen Press, 1 vol.). East India
Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--History.
(East India Company), Antony Wild (1999).
The East India Company: Trade and Conquest from 1600.
(New Delhi, India: HarperCollins, 191 p.). East India
(East India Company), Jean Sutton (2000).
Lords of the East: the East India Company and Its Ships
(1600-1874). (London, UK: Conway Maritime Press, 160
p. [2nd ed.]). East India Company; Merchant marine --Great
Britain --History. Social, maritime history of East India
Company, its contributions to expansion of British Empire;
1600-1863 - East India Company prevailed against rival European
companies and almost continual warfare to gradually win control
of India, spearhead Western penetration of China.
(East India Company), Anthony Farrington
Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia 1600-1834.
(London, UK: British Library, 128 p.). East India
Company--History; Great Britain--Commerce--Asia--History;
Asia--Commerce--Great Britain--History. Published on occasion of exhibition
at British Library, 24 May-15
(East India Company), H.V. Bowen (2005).
The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial
Britain, 1756-1833. (New York, NY: Cambridge University
Press, 304 p.). Senior Lecturer in Economic and Social History
(University of Leicester). East India Company; Great
Britain--Colonies--Asia; Great Britain--Commerce--Asia--History;
Asia--Commerce--Great Britain--History. What happened in Britain when East India Company acquired vast territorial empire in South
(East India Company), S. Babu (2006).
Merchants of Politics: East India Company and Dawn of the Raj.
(New Delhi, IN: Dominant Publishers and Distributors, 18o p.).
East India Company--History; Great
(East India Company), Eds. H. V. Bowen,
Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby (2006).
The Worlds of the East India Company. (Woodbridge,
Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 264 p.). Senior Lecturer in Economic
and Social History (University of Leicester); Research
Department of the National Maritime Museum, London. East India
Company --History --Congresses; Great Britain --Commerce --India
--History --Congresses; India --Commerce --Great Britain
--History --Congresses; Great Britain --Commerce --Asia
--History --Congresses; Asia --Commerce --Great Britain
--History --Congresses. Laid foundations of British empire in
South Asia, at very heart of interlinked histories of
Britain and Asia; multi-disciplinary history (art,
culture, cartography, empire, politics, sea, trade) of Company: origins, operation,
influence as organisation that remained firmly
engaged in maritime commercial activity in many different
spheres, even as it acted as powerful agent of territorial
expansion on Indian subcontinent.
(East India Company), George K. McGilvary
Guardian of the East India Company: The Life of Laurence Sulivan.
(London, UK: Tauris Academic Studies, 328 p.). Sulivan,
Laurence, d. 1786; East India Company -- History -- 18th
century; Businessmen -- Great Britain -- Biography; Businessmen
-- India -- Biography; Great Britain -- Colonies -- Commerce.
who controlled most powerful private company of his day.
(East India Company), Nick Robins (2006).
The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India
Company Shaped the Modern Multinational. (Ann Arbor, MI:
Pluto Press, 218 p.). East India Company--History; International
business enterprises--Great Britain--History; International
business enterprises--Government policy--Great Britain;
International business enterprises; International trade;
Company), Anthony Webster (2009).
The Twilight of the East India Company: The Evolution of
Anglo-Asian Commerce and Politics, 1790-1860.
(Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 205 p.). Head of the History
Department (Liverpool John Moores University). East India
Company --History; Great Britain --Commerce --India --History;
India --Commerce --Great Britain --History; Great Britain
--Commerce --Asia --History; Asia --Commerce --Great Britain
--History; Great Britain --Foreign relations --India; India
--Foreign relations --Great Britain; Great Britain --Foreign
relations --Asia; Asia --Foreign relations --Great
Britain. Development of British commercial, financial, political
relations with India, Far East during final period of East
India Company's reign as sovereign power in India: began with
renewal of East India Company's Charter, its component
monopolies of trade with India and China; followed by outbreak
of Napoleonic Wars (spread to east, saw completion of Britain's
assertion of power over India, much of Southeast Asia,
strengthened political forces in Britain against Company's
monopolies of trade with India and China - abolished under
Charter Acts of 1813 and 1833); rebellion of 1857 spelt death
knell for Company, ushered in new phase of Anglo-Indian economic
relations (British foreign investment grew substantially).
(East India Company), Jean Sutton (2010).
The East India Company's Maritime Service 1746-1834: Masters of
the Eastern Seas. (Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 311
p.). Maritime Historian. East India Company -- History.
India Company's trade during final century of its commercial
life as focus moved eastwards, driven by Britain's thirst for China tea (seen through careers of three
generations of Larkins, important East India shipping
(East India Company), Philip J. Stern (2011).
The Company-State: Corporate Sovereignty and the Early Modern
Foundation of the British Empire in India. (New York, NY: Oxford
University Press, 300 p.). Assistant Professor of History (Duke
University). Corporations, British -- India; India -- History --
British occupation, 1765-1947; East India Company -- History.
History of corporation concerned with bottom line, science of
colonial governance; how Company leadership wrestled with
typical early modern problems of political authority (mutual
obligations of subjects and rulers; relationships among law,
economy, sound civil and colonial society; constitution of civic
institutions ranging from tax collection and religious practice
to diplomacy and warmaking; nature of jurisdiction and
sovereignty over people, territory, sea); ideas emerged from
abstract ideological, historical, philosophical principles, from
real-world entanglements of East India Company employees,
governors with host of allies, rivals, polyglot populations in
overseas plantations; Company shaped colonial polity, confronted
shifting definitions of state and sovereignty across Eurasia
that ultimately laid groundwork for Company's incorporation into
British empire, state through 18th century.
(Eaton), Donald N. Scobel (1981).
Creative Worklife. (Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 244 p.).
Eaton Corporation; Industrial relations--United States--Case
studies; Machinery industry--United States--Personnel
(Eaton), The Company (1985). The History of
Eaton Corporation, 1911-1985. (Cleveland, OH: Eaton, 94 p.).
Eaton Corporation--History; Truck industry--United
States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United
(Elders IXL Ltd. - dates to 1840's partnership
between Alexander Elder and T.E. Barr Smith), Bruce Brown;
foreword by Tim Bowden (1991). I Excel!: The Life and Times
of Sir Henry Jones. (Hobart, AU: Libra, 207 p.). Jones,
Henry, Sir, 1862-1926;
(Elders IXL Ltd.), Peter Denton (1986).
Elliott: A Biography of John D. Elliott. (Bedford, UK:
Little Hills Press, 266 p.). Elliott, John D. (John Dorman),
1941- ; Businesspeople--Australia--Biography.
(Ethyl Corporation), Joseph C. Robert (1983).
Ethyl: A History of the Corporation and the People Who Made It.
(Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 448 p.).
Ethyl Corporation -- History; Conglomerate corporations --
United States -- History.
(Federal Paperboard), Richard Blodgett (1991).
Federal Paper Board at Seventy-Five: The Intimate History of an
American Enterprise (Essex, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group,
223 p.). Federal Paper Board Company--History; Paperboard
industry--United States--History; Paper box industry--United
States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United
(French East India Companies),,Donald C.
French East India Companies: A Historical Account and Record of
Trade. (Lanham, MD: Hamilton Books, 241 p.). Compagnie
des Indes; Compagnie des Indes orientales; France --Commerce
--India --History --18th century; India --Commerce --France
--History --18th century. Historical narrative, economic statistical analysis of France's
import trade with Far East during 17th and 18th centuries.
(Fuqua Industries), J.B. Fuqua; Foreword by
Tom Johnson (2001).
Fuqua: A Memoir: How I Made My Fortune Using Other People's
Money. (Atlanta, GA: Longstreet Press, 328 p.). Founder,
Fuqua Industries; Endowed Duke University School of Business.
Fuqua, J.B.; Fuqua Industries; Conglomerate corporations--United
(GE - company traces its beginnings to Thomas
A. Edison's Edison Electric Light Company in 1878), John T.
Forty Years with General Electric. (Albany, NY: Fort
Orange Press, 218 p.). General Electric Company.
Thomas A. Edison
Elihu Thomson (in
1892 merged his company with Edison's to form GE)
Owen D. Young (GE
chairman, 1922-1940, 1942-1945)
Jack Welch - GE
(GE), Ida M. Tarbell (1932).
Owen D. Young, A New Type of Industrial Leader. (New
York, NY: Macmillan, 353 p.). Young, Owen D., 1874-.
(GE), John Winthrop Hammond and Arthur Pound
Men and Volts; The Story of General Electric.
(Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 436 p.). General Electric
Company; Electric engineering--United States.
(GE), John Anderson Miller (1947).
Men and Volts at War; The Story of General Electric in World War
II. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 272 p.). General
Electric Company; Munitions.
(GE), David Loth (1976). Swope of G.E.
(New York, NY: Arno Press, 309 p. [orig. pub. 1958]). Swope,
Gerard, 1872-1957; General Electric Company.
(GE), Josephine Young Case, Everett Needham
Owen D. Young and American Enterprise: A Biography.
(Boston, MA: D.R. Godine, 964 p.). Young, Owen D., 1874- ;
Electric household appliances industry--United States--History;
(GE), David E. Nye (1985).
Image Worlds: Corporate Identities at General Electric,
1890-1930. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 188 p.). General
Electric Company; Photography, Industrial--United States.
(GE), W. Bernard Carlson
Innovation as a Social Process: Elihu Thomson and the Rise of
General Electric, 1870-1900 (New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press, 377 p.). Thomson, Elihu, 1853-1937; General
Electric Company -- History; Inventors -- United States --
Biography; Electric industries -- United States -- History --
19th century; Electric power systems -- United States -- History
-- 19th century; Industrial organization -- United States --
History -- 19th century.
(GE), Edward J. Covington (1994). Franklin
S. Terry (1862-1926), Industrialist: Paragon of Organization,
Harmony, and Generosity. (Highland Heights, OH: E.J.
Covington, 101 p.). Terry, Franklin S., 1862-1926; Terry family;
General Electric Company--History; Industrialists--United
States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography;
Electric lamp industry--United States--History; Blind--United
States--Printing and writing systems--History; Deaf--Means of
communication--United States--History; Ansonia
(GE), Stephen Aris (1998).
Arnold Weinstock and the Making of GEC. (London, UK:
Aurum, 244 p.). Weinstock, Arnold, Baron, 1924- ; General
Electric Company (Great Britain)--History; Electric
industries--Great Britain--History; Jewish businesspeople--Great
(GE), Alex Brummer and Roger Cowe. (1998).
Weinstock: The Life and Times of Britain’s Premier Industrialist.
(London, UK: HarperCollinsBusiness, 343 p.). Weinstock, Arnold
Weinstock, Baron, 1924- ; Industrialists -- Great Britain --
Biography; Jewish businesspeople -- Great Britain -- Biography;
General Electric Company (Great Britain)--History; Electric
industries--Great Britain--History. Managing Director, GE, UK
(30 years); religious, cultural influences which shaped Weinstock philosophy; central themes of political influence,
financial management, industrial policy; from son of immigrant Polish-Jewish tailor to Whitehall,
property world, electronics, defense industry.
(GE), Max H. Kirsch (1998).
In the Wake of the Giant: Multinational Restructuring and Uneven
Development in a New England Community. (Albany, NY:
State University of New York Press, 146 p.). General Electric
Company; Downsizing of organizations--Social
(Mass.)--Economic conditions; Pittsfield (Mass.)--Social
(GE), Thomas F.O'Boyle (1998).
At Any Cost: Jack Welch, General Electric, and the Pursuit of
Profit (New York, NY: Knopf, 449 p.). Welch, Jack (John
Francis), 1935- ; General Electric Company--Management; Electric
industries--United States--Management--Case studies.
(GE), Jerome T. Coe (2000).
Unlikely Victory: How General Electric Succeeded in the Chemical
Industry. (New York, NY: American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 219 p.). General Electric Company; Chemical
industry--United States; Conglomerate corporations--United
States; International business enterprises--United States.
(GE), Janet Lowe (2001).
Welch: An American Icon. (New York, NY: Wiley, 304 p.).
Welch, Jack (John Francis), 1935- ; General Electric
Company--Management; Electric industries--United States; Chief
executive officers--United States--Biography; Leadership--United
(GE), Jack Welch, John A. Byrne (2001).
Jack: Straight from the Gut. (New York, NY: Warner
Books, 479 p.). Chairman (20 years) of GE, Business Week
Journalist. Welch, Jack, 1935- ; General Electric
Company--Management; Chief executive officers--United
States--Biography; Electric industries--United
States--Management; Industrial management--United States.
(GE), Noel Tichy and Stratford Sherman (2001).
Control Your Destiny or Someone Else Will. (New York,
NY: HarperBusiness, p. [orig. pub. 1993]). Welch, Jack, 1935- ;
General Electric Company--History; Electric industries--United
States--Management--Case studies; Industrial management--United
(GE), Jack Welch with Suzy Welch (2005).
Winning. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 384 p.). Former
CEO (GE). Success in business; Strategic planning; Negotiation
(GE), William E. Rothschild (2007).
The Secret to GE’s Success. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,
293 p.). General Electric Company--History; General Electric
Company--Management; Electric industries--United
States--Management--Case studies. 5 keys that made GE a global
phenomenon; GE Code (hallmark of all GE leadership teams);
prescriptive plan for strategizing the GE way.
(GE), Bill Lane (2008).
Jacked Up: The Inside Story of How Jack Welch Talked GE into
Becoming the World's Greatest Company. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Welch's speechwriter of 20 years. Business presentations; General Electric
Company; Welch, Jack, 1935-. Welch's
ability as a master communicator; simple, often brutally
enforced guidelines for making a great pitch; zero-tolerance of
(GE), David Magee (2009).
Jeff Immelt and the New GE Way: Innovation, Transformation and
Winning in the 21st Century. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill,
272 p.). Immelt, Jeff; General Electric Company--History;
General Electric Company--Management. How Immelt defied skeptics,
successfully reengineered one of world's oldest, largest global
conglomerates to meet challenges of 21st century; trendsetting
innovations; October 2008 - persuaded Warren Buffett to invest
$3 billion in GE.
(Globe Corporation), Dean Smith (1993).
Tall Shadows: The Story of the Getz Family and Globe Corporation.
(Scottsdale, AZ: Globe, 225 p.). Getz family; --History; Coal
trade--United States--History; Conglomerate corporations--United
States--History. Founded in 1901, managed by fourth generation
of Getz family members (Bert and his older brother George).
(Grace), Eugene Willard Burgess (1980).
Casa Grace in Peru. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 111 p.).
W.R. Grace & Co.--History; International business
J. Peter Grace
(Grace), Lawrence A. Clayton (1985).
Grace: W.R. Grace & Co., The Formative Years, 1850-1930.
(Ottawa, IL: Jameson Books, 403 p.). W.R. Grace & Co.--History;
International business enterprises--Peru--History; International
business enterprises--Latin America--History; United
States--Foreign economic relations--Latin America; Latin
America--Foreign economic relations--United States.
(Grace), Marquis James with an introduction by
Lawrence A. Clayton (1993).
Merchant Adventurer: The Story of W.R. Grace.
(Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 385 p.). Grace, William Russell
1832-1904; Businesspeople--United States--Biography;
Merchants--United States--Biography; Mayors--New York
(State)--New York--Biography; Judges--New York (State)--New
York--Biography; United States--Relations--Latin America; Latin
(Honeywell), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1995).
The Legend of Honeywell. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write
Stuff Syndicate, 208 p.). Honeywell Inc.--History; High
technology industries--United States--History; International
business enterprises--United States--History.
(Honeywell), Larry Bossidy & Ram Charan; with
Charles Burck (2002).
Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done. (New
York, NY: Crown Business, p.). CEO (Honeywell); Former CEO
(Allied Signal), Former Vice Chairman (General Electric).
Management; Performance; Achievement motivation.
(Immsi S.p.A.), Roberto Colaninno; con Rinaldo
Gianola (2006). Primo Tempo: Olivetti, Telecom, Piaggio, Una
Storia Privata di 10 Anni di Capitalismo Italiano. (Milano,
IT: Rizzoli, 224 p.). Chairman of the Board. Colaninno, Roberto,
1943- --Interviews; Businessmen--Italy--Interviews;
Italy--Economic conditions--20th century; Italy--Economic
(Imperial British East Africa Company), John
S. Galbraith (1972).
Mackinnon and East Africa 1878-1895: A Study in the 'New
Imperialism'. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
253 p.). Imperial British East Africa Company; Africa, East --
History; Mackinnon, William Henry, Sir, 1852-1929.
(Ingram Industries), Martha Rivers Ingram (2001).
E. Bronson Ingram: Complete These Unfinished Tasks of Mine.
(Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press, 306 p.). Chairman, Ingram
Industries. Ingram, Erskine Bronson, 1931-1995; Ingram
Corporation; Ingram Industries; Businessmen --United States
(ITT), Anthony Sampson (1973).
The Sovereign State of ITT. (New York, NY: Stein & Day,
323 p.). International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation;
Business and politics -- Case studies.
Harold Geneen - ITT
Rand Araskog - ITT
(ITT), Thomas S. Burns (1974).
Tales of ITT; An Insider's Report. (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin, 246 p.). International Telephone and Telegraph
Corporation; Business and politics--United States.
(ITT), Maurice Deloraine (1976).
When Telecom and ITT Were Young. (New York, NY: Lehigh
Books, 161 p.). International Telephone and Telegraph
(ITT), Robert Sobel (1982).
I.T.T.: The Management of Opportunity. (New York, NY:
Times Books, 421 p.). Academic (Hofstra University).
International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation-History.
(ITT), Harold Geneen with Alvin Moscow (1984).
Managing. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 297 p.). Former
CEO, Journalist. Management; International business
enterprises--Management; Management--United States.
(ITT), Robert J. Schoenberg (1985).
Geneen. (New York, NY: Norton, 429 p.). Geneen, Harold;
International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation--Biography;
(ITT), Rand V. Araskog (1989).
The ITT Wars. (New York, NY: Holt, 241 p.). Former CEO
(ITT). International Telephone and Telegraph
(ITT), Harold Geneen with Brent Bowers (1997).
The Synergy Myth and Other Ailments of Business Today.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 248 p.). Industrial
(Jardine Matheson - formed in Canton, China in
1832), Edward Le Fevour (1968).
Western Enterprise in Late Ch`ing China; A Selective Survey of
Jardine, Matheson and Company's Operations, 1842-1895.
(Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University;
distributed by Harvard University Press, 215 p.). Jardine,
Matheson & Co.; China--Foreign economic relations.
William Jardine, James Matheson
(Jardine Matheson), W. E. Cheong (1979).
Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine, Matheson, & Co., A China
Agency of the Early Nineteenth Century. (London, UK:
Curzon Press, 298 p.). Jardine, Matheson & Co.; China--Commerce.
(Jardine Matheson), edited by Maggie Keswick
The Thistle and the Jade: A Celebration of 150 years of Jardine,
Matheson & Co. (London, UK: Octopus Books, 272 p.).
Jardine, Matheson & Co.--History; China--Commerce--History.
(Jardine Matheson), Alain Le Pichon (1998).
Aux Origines de Hong Kong: Apects de la Civilisation Commerciale
à Canton: Le Fonds de Commerce de Jardine, Matheson & Co,
1827-1839. (Paris, FR: Harmattan, 602 p.). Jardine,
Matheson & Co.--History; Corporations, British--China--Hong
Kong--History--19th century; Hong Kong
(Jardine Matheson), Robert Blake (1999).
Jardine Matheson: Traders of the Far East. (London, UK:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 280 p.). Jardine Matheson Holdings --
History; China -- Commerce -- History; Hong Kong (China) --
Commerce -- History.
(Jardine Matheson), Carol Matheson Connell
A Business in Risk: Jardine Matheson and the Hong Kong Trading
Industry. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 188 p.). Jardine,
Matheson & Co. History; Corporations, British China Hong Kong
History; Trading companies China Hong Kong History;
Consolidation and merger of corporations China Hong Kong
History; Risk management China Hong Kong; Globalization Economic
aspects China Hong Kong; Competition, International; Hong Kong
(China) Commerce History.
(Koch Industries), Charles G. Koch (2007).
The Science of Success: How Market Based Management Built the
World's Largest Private Company. (San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass, 208 p.). Chairman of the Board and CEO of Koch
Industries, Inc. Organizational change; Industrial management;
Organizational behavior. World's largest privately held company - 2,000-fold growth since
1967, 80,000 employees in 60 countries, $90 billion in revenues
in 2006; Market-Based Management for continuous transformation
and positive growth: 1) Vision, 2) Virtue and Talents, 3)
Knowledge Processes, 4) Decision Rights, 5) Incentives.
Charles G. Koch -
(Li & Fung Group), Feng Bang-yan (2006).
100 Years of Li & Fung: Rise From Family Business to
Multinational. (Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, 376 p.).
Dean of College of Economics, Jinan University, Guangzhou,
China. Li & Fung. Rise, success of one of oldest Chinese trading
companies in Hong Kong through generations of entrepreneurship, perseverance,
ingenuity, coupled with Chinese values, modern management
practices; evolved into leading global supply chain management
(Matsushita), John P. Kotter (1997).
Matsushita Leadership: Lessons from the 20th Century's Most
Remarkable Entrepreneur. (New York, NY: Free Press, 302
p.). Professor (Harvard Business School). Matsushita, K¯onosuke,
1894-; Matsushita Denki Sangy¯o--History;
industries--Japan--History. Winner of 1997 Global Business Book
Awards sponsored by The Financial Times and Booz-Allen &
(Mitsubishi), Yasuo Mishima; translated by
Emiko Yamaguchi (1989).
The Mitsubishi: Its Challenge and Strategy. (Greenwich,
CT: JAI Press, 349 p.). Mitsubishi Zaibatsu--History.
Hisaya Iwasaki -
Mitsubishi's 3rd President (22 years)
Koyata Iwasaki - 4th,
last President of 'unified' Mitsubishi
(Mitsubishi), Sol Sanders (1996).
Mitsubishi Electric: The Challenge of Globalization.
(New York, NY: Penguin, 176 p.). Mitsubishi Electric; Electronic
industries--Japan--History. Examines how companies like
Mitsubishi Electric must change to stay in front in the global
(Mitsubishi), Pernille Rudlin (2000).
The History of Mitsubishi Corporation in London: 1915 to Present
Day. (New York, NY: Routledge, 245 p.). Mitsubishi
Sh¯oji Kabushiki Kaisha--History; Mitsubishi Corporation;
(Mitsubishi), Niall Murtagh (2005).
The Blue-eyed Salaryman: From World Traveller to Lifer at
Mitsubishi. (London, UK: Profile Books, 288 p.).
Murtagh, Niall; Mitsubishi Sh¯oji Kabushiki Kaisha--History.
Corporate life in Japan;
author promoted to manager class, first westerner to reach
position in company inside Japan.
(Mitsubishi), Michael Gardiner (2007). At
the Edge of Empire: The Life of Thomas Blake Glover.
(Edinburgh, Scotland: Birlinn, 256 p.). Formerly Assistant
Professor in the Faculty of Letters (Chiba University, Chiba,
Japan), Research Fellow (University of Aberdeen). Glover, Thomas
century--Sources; Mitsubishi Sh¯oji Kabushiki Kaisha--History;
Kirin Brewery. Widely-traveled merchant,
key figure in industrialization of Japan; central to modern
system of Japanese government, Japanese Imperial Navy, growth of
Mitsubishi, Kirin beer, communications between Japan and
(Mitsui), Oland D. Russell (1970).
The House of Mitsui. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
Reprint of 1939 ed., 328 p.). Mitsui Family.
(Mitsui), John G. Roberts (1973).
Mitsui ; Three Centuries of Japanese Business. (New
York, NY: Weatherhill, 564 p.). Mitsui Zaibatsu, Business and
(Mitsui), Mitsui & Co. (1977). The 100 Year
History of Mitsui & Co., Ltd., 1876-1976. (Tokyo: The
Company). Corporate Conglomerates-Japan, Business
(MMM), Virginia Huck (1955).
Brand of the Tartan; The 3M Story. (New York, NY:
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 260 p.). Minnesota Mining and
Bryan - MMM
Hermon W. Cable
Dwan - MMM
McGonagle - MMM
J. Danley Budd - MMM
William M. McKnight
- 1st 3M
(MMM), Mildred Houghton Comfort (1962).
William L. McKnight, Industrialist; A Biographical Sketch of
the Chairman of the Board, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing
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McKnight, William L. (William Lester), 1887-1957; Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing Company.
(MMM), Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing
Our Story So Far: Notes from the First 75 Years of 3M Company.
(St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, 130
p.). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company--History.
(MMM), Ernest Gundling (2000).
The 3M Way to Innovation: Balancing People and Profit.
(Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha Intl., 240 p.). Minnesota Mining and
Manufacturing Company--History; Management.
(Norton Simon), David Mahoney with Richard
Conarroe; introduction by William Safire (1988).
Confessions of a Street-Smart Manager. (New York, NY:
Simon & Schuster, 191 p.). Former CEO (Norton Simon, Inc.).
Success in business.
(Jim Pattison Group), Russell Kelly (1986).
Pattison: Portrait of a Capitalist Superstar. (Vancouver
, BC: New Star Books, 263 p.). Businessmen -- British Columbia
-- Biography. 1961 - Jim Pattison acquired a Pontiac Buick
dealership in Vancouver, BC; started Jim Pattison Lease;
employees: 51 Sales: $2.2 million; 2005 - employees: 28,000;
sales: $6.1 billion.
(Pentair Inc.), Murray J. Harpole (1992).
Living the American Dream: Pentair, Inc., the First Twenty-Five
Years. (St. Paul, MN: St. Thomas Technology Press, 252
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Minn.)--History; Conglomerate corporations--United
States--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography.
(Peruzzi Company), Edwin S.
The Medieval Super-Companies: A Study of the Peruzzi Company of
Florence. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 291
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(Power Corporation), Dave Greber (1987).
Rising to Power: Paul Desmarais & Power Corporation.
(Toronto, ON: Methuen, 299 p.). Desmarais, Paul, 1927- ; Power
Corporation of Canada; Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography.
(Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas), Roland
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in the History of Spanish Monopolistic Trade. (New York, NY:
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de Caracas; Spain--Commerce--Venezuela--History;
(Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas),
Vicente de Amezaga]; prologo, por Pedro Grases (1979).
Hombres de la Compania Guipuzcoana. (Bilbao, SP: Editorial
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(Real Compania Guipuzcoana de Caracas),
Gerardo Vivas Pineda (1998). La Aventura Naval de la Compania
Guipuzcoana de Caracas. (Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion
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Mohnot (1987). Reliance, An Industrial Legend. (New
Delhi, India: Centre for Industrial & Economic Research, 375
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- Reliance Industries
(Reliance Industries), Hamish
The Polyester Prince: The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani. (St
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(Reliance Industries), K. Bhushan
Dhirubhai Ambani: The Man
Behind Reliance. (New Delhi, IN: APH Publishing, 190 p.).
Ambani, Dhirubhai; Reliance Industries, Ltd.
(Reliance Industries), Alam Srinivas (2005).
Ambani vs Ambani: Storms in the Sea Wind. (New Delhi,
India: Lotus Collection, Roli Books, 242 p.). Ambani, Anil;
Ambani, Mukesh; Industrialists--India--Biography.
(Reliance Industries Limited), Hamish McDonald
Mahabharata in Polyester: The Making of the World's Richest
Brothers and Their Feud. (Sydney, NSW, Australia:
University of New South Wales Press, 402 p.). Asia-Pacific
editor of the Sydney Morning Herald. Ambani, Dhirubhai,
1932-2002; Ambani family; Reliance Industries Limited --
History; Businessmen -- India -- Biography; Industrialists --
India -- Biography; Corporations -- History; Vendetta -- India.
Anil and Mukesh sons of (Dhirubhai Ambani, rags-to-riches Indian
tycoon whose company Reliance is now one of India’s major
corporations), took over after their father's death in 2002;
worth $43 billion and $42 billion respectively, but their
relationship is far from amiable; complicated links between
government and big business, one of wealthiest families in
world, India’s transformation into global economic powerhouse.
(James Richardson & Sons), Tim Higgins (2010).
Just Common Sense: The Life and Times of George Taylor
Richardson. (Winnipeg, MB: Heartland Associates, 245
p.). Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography; Directors of
corporations -- Canada -- Biography; Philanthropists -- Canada
-- Biography; Winnipeg (Man.) -- Biography; Richardson, George
Taylor; James Richardson & Sons -- Biography.
(Seibu Group), Lesley Downer (1994).
The Bothers: The Hidden World of Japan's Richest Family.
(New York, NY: Random House, 418 p.). Tsutsumi family; Tsutsumi,
Yasujir¯o, 1889-1964; Tsutsumi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki, 1934-
(Seibu Group), Thomas R.H. Havens (1994).
Architects of Affluence: The Tsutsumi Family and the
Seibu-Saison Enterprises in Twentieth-Century Japan.
(Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard
University, 335 p.). Tsutsumi family; Seibu Group--History;
(Shinkong Group), Huang Chin-shing;
translated, with an introduction and epilogue, by Hoyt Cleveland
Business as a Vocation: The Autobiography of Wu Ho-su.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press [for East Asian Legal
Studies Program, Harvard Law Shool], 262 p.). Historian,
Academia Sinica. Wu, Huoshi, 1919-1986; Industrialists Taiwan
(Siemens), Georg Siemens ; translated by A. F.
History of the House of Siemens. (Freiburg, Germany:
Karl Alber, 2 Vols.). Siemens & Halske A.-G.;
Siemens-Schuckertwerke A.-G.; Electric industries -- Germany.
Werner von Siemens
Werner Von Siemens: Inventor and International Entrepreneur.
(Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 203 p.). Siemens,
Werner von, 1816-1892; Electric engineers--Germany--Biography;
engineering--Germany--History--19th century; Business
Siemens, 1918-1945. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University
Press, 714 p.). Siemens Aktiengesellschaft--History,
(Tata Group), D. E. Wacha (1915). The Life
and Life Work of J. N. Tata. (Madras, IN: Ganesh, 204 p.
[2nd ed.]). Tata, Jamsetji Nasarwanji, 1839-1904.
Tata - founder Tata
J. R. D. Tata - Tata
(Tata Group), J.R.D. Tata; edited by S.A.
Sabavala and R.M. Lala (1986).
Keynote: Excerpts from His Speeches and Chairman’s Statements to
Shareholders. (Bombay, IN: Tata Press, 155 p.).
Industries--India; India--Economic conditions--1947- ;
(Tata Group), Murad Fyzee ; with a foreword by
G. Leonard Cheshire (1991). Aircraft and Engine Perfect: The
Story of JRD Tata Who Opened Up Skies for His Country. (New
Delhi, IN: Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 176 p.). Tata, J. R. D.
(Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Air
(Tata Group), R.M. Lala (1992).
Beyond the Last Blue Mountain: A Life of J.R.D. Tata.
(New York, NY: Penguin Books, 398 p.). Tata, J.R.D. (Jehangir
Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Steel industry and
The Joy of Achievement: Conversations with J.R.D. Tata.
(New York, NY: Viking, 194 p.). Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratenji
Dadabhoy), 1904- ; Industrial policy--India.
For the Love of India: The Life and Times of Jamsetji Tata.
(New York, NY: Penguin, 247 p.). Tata, Jamsetji Nasarwanji,
Philanthropists--India--Biography. On life and achievements of
Jamsetji Nasarwanji Tata, 1839-1904, Indian industrialist and
(Tata Group), R.M. Lala ; foreword by J.R.D.
Tata ; epilogue by Ratan N. Tata (2004).
The Creation of Wealth: The Tatas from the 19th to the 21st
Century. ( New York, NY: Penguin Group, 303 p.). Tata
Industries Private Limited--History.
(Tata Group), Aman Nath & Jay Vithalani with
Tulsi Vatsal (2004).
Horizons: The Tata-India Century, 1904-2004. (Mumbai,
IN: India Book House, 357 p.). Tata, Jamsetji Nasarwanji,
1839-1904; Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904- ;
Tata, Naval; Tata Group--History. History of Tata Group, business
conglomerate of India, juxtaposed with history of modern India
(Tata Group), Bakhtiar K. Dadabhoy (2005).
"Jeh", A Life of J.R.D. Tata. (New Delhi, IN: Rupa &
Co., 165 p.). Tata, J. R. D. (Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy), 1904-
(Textron), Robert S. Eisenhauer (1979).
Textron ... From the Beginning. (Providence, RI: Textron,
147 p.). Textron, inc.--History.
(Textron), Royal Little (1979).
How to Lose $100,000,000 and Other Valuable Advice.
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 334 p.). Little, Royal, 1896-;
Textron, inc.; Capitalists and financiers--United
States--Biography; Conglomerate corporations--United States.
(Trafalgar House), Nigel Broackes (1979).
A Growing Concern: An Autobiography. (London, UK:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 278 p.). British Entrepreneur. Nigel
Broackes, Trafalgar House Limited.
(TRW), Davis Dyer (1998).
TRW : Pioneering Technology and Innovation Since 1900
(Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 503 p.).
(Unilever), Charles Wilson (1968).
Unilever 1945-1965: Challenge & Response in the Post-War
Industrial Revolution. (London, UK: Cassell, 290 p.).
Unilever (Firm); Unilever, N.V.
Charles Wilson (1970).
The History of Unilever: A Study in Economic Growth and Social
Change. (London, UK: Cassell, 3 vols.). Unilever, N. V.;
Unilever (Firm); Soap trade--Great Britain.
(Unilever), Andrew M. Knox (1976).
Coming Clean: A Postscript After Retirement from Unilever.
(London, UK: Heinemann, 252 p.). Knox, Andrew Marshall, 1903- ;
Unilever (Firm)--History; Businesspeople--Great
(Unilever), D. K. Fieldhouse (1978).
Unilever Overseas: The Anatomy of a Multinational 1895-1965.
(Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 620 p.). Unilever
(Firm); International business enterprises--Developing
countries--Case studies. Series: Hoover Institution publication.
(Unilever), W. J. Reader (1980).
Fifty Years of Unilever, 1930-1980. (London, UK:
Heinemann, 148 p.). Unilever (Firm)--History.
(Unilever), T. Thomas (1992). To Challenge
and To Change. (New York, NY: Viking, 237 p.). Former
chairman of Hindustan
director of Unilever Ltd., London and Unilever,
NV, Rotterdam. Thomas, T. (Thomas), 1927- ;
(Unilever), Philip Mirvis, Karen Ayas, George
To the Desert and Back: The Story of One of the Most Dramatic
Business Transformations on Record. (San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass, 257 p.). Organizational Psychologist, Research
Fellow (Erasmus University, Rotterdam), Research Associate
(MIT). Unilever N.V.; Food industry and trade--Netherlands;
Consolidation and merger of corporations--Netherlands--Case
studies; Corporate reorganizations--Netherlands--Case studies;
International business enterprises--Case studies.
(Unilever), Adam Macqueen
The King of Sunlight: How William Lever Cleaned Up the World.
(London, UK: Bantam, 328 p.). Journalist (Private Eye Magazine).
Philanthropists -- Great Britain -- Biography; Soap trade --
Great Britain -- Biography; Landowners -- Great Britain --
(Unilever), Geoffrey Jones (2005).
Renewing Unilever: Transformation and Tradition. (New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 375 p.). Joseph C. Wilson
Professor of Business Administration (Harvard Business School).
Unilever (Firm); Conglomerate corporations -- History.
Evolution of company over last half century.
(Unilever), Ben Wubs (2008).
International Business and National War Interests: Unilever
Between Reich and Empire, 1939-45. (London, UK:
Routledge, 256 p.). Postdoc Researcher (University of Utrecht,
The Netherlands). Unilever (Firm) -- History; International
business enterprises -- Management -- Europe -- History; World
War, 1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- Germany; World War,
1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- Great Britain.
Effects of World
War II on structure, strategy, performance of Unilever (huge
British Empire, German Reich); company in Britain, Netherlands,
Germany in 1939-1945 period; business history, history of the
Nazi economic administration, European history.
(Unilever), Brian Lewis (2009).
So Clean: Lord Leverhulme, Soap and Civilisation. (New
York, NY: Manchester University Press, 246 p.). (New York, NY:
Manchester University Press, 246 p.). Associate Professor of
History (McGill University). Leverhulme, William Hesketh Lever,
Viscount, 1851-1925. Founder of Lever Brothers’ Sunlight Soap
empire; contextualized, comparative essays on history of
advertising, factory paternalism, town planning, Garden City
movement, their ramifications across 20th century; on
colonialism, forced labor in Belgian Congo, South Pacific.
(Unilever - Hindustan Lever Ltd.), Prakash
Return to Punjab. (Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 211 p.). First National Chairman. Tandon,
(United Africa Company Ltd. - founded in 1879
by George Taubman
Goldie; taken over by Unilever in 1929), John E. Flint (1960).
Sir George Goldie and the Making of Nigeria. (London,
UK: Oxford University Press, 340 p.). Goldie, George Dashwood
Taubman, Sir, 1846-1925; Nigeria--History.
(United Africa Company, Ltd.), Frederick
Pedler; with a chapter by Alan Burns (1974).
The Lion and the Unicorn in Africa: A History of the Origins of
the United Africa Company 1787-1931. (London, UK:
Heinemann Educational, 343 p.). United Africa Company, ltd.
(United Africa Company Ltd.), D. J. M. Muffett
Empire Builder Extraordinary, Sir George Goldie: His Philosophy
of Government and Empire. (Douglas Isle of Man, UK:
Shearwater Press, 334 p.). Goldie, George Dashwood Taubman, Sir,
1846-1925; Royal Niger Company; Colonial
administrators--Nigeria--Biography; Capitalists and
financiers--Great Britain--Biography; Nigeria--Colonization.
(United Africa Company, Ltd.), D.K. Fieldhouse
Merchant Capital and Economic Decolonization: The United Africa
Company, 1929-1987. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 832 p.). United Africa Company, ltd.--History;
Capital--Africa--History; Africa--Economic conditions;
Africa--Colonial influence; Africa--Dependency on foreign
(United Africa Company, Ltd.), Geoffrey L.
Trade Winds on the Niger: The Saga of the Royal Niger Company,
1830 -1971. (New York, NY: Radcliffe Press, 333 p.).
Royal Niger Company--History; United Africa Company,
ltd.--History; Colonial companies--Nigeria--History;
(United Technologies), Ronald Fernandez
Excess Profits: The Rise of United Technologies.
(Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 320 p.). United Technologies
Corporation--History; Conglomerate corporations--United
(Veba AG), Heiner Radzio (1979).
Unternehmen Energie: Aus d. Geschichte d. Veba.
(Düsseldorf; Wien, germany: Econ-Verlag, 368 p.). Veba
AG--History; Industries--Germany--Ruhr (Region)--History; Ruhr
(Germany : Region)--Economic conditions. Holding compamy for
state-owned industrial enterprises.
(Westinghouse), Francis E. Leupp (1918).
George Westinghouse; His Life and Achievements. (Boston,
MA: Little, Brown, 304 p.). Westinghouse, George, 1846-1914.
George Westinghouse (http://www.todayinsci.com/W/
(Westinghouse), Henry Goslee Prout (1922).
A Life of George Westinghouse. (New York, NY: Scribner,
375 p.). Westinghouse, George, 1846-1914.
(Westinghouse), Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr.
George Westinghouse: Gentle Genius. (New York, NY:
Algora Pub., 272 p.). Associate Professor of Business (Findlay
University). Westinghouse, George, 1846-1914; Westinghouse
Electric & Manufacturing Company--History; Inventors--United
States--Biography; Electric engineering--History.
Manager of innovation; developed
corporate model of invention, research; took lead in electrical
distribution; .nation favored AC current system of Westinghouse;
natural gas distribution system made Pittsburgh the Steel City.
(Wickes), George Bush (1976).
The Wide World of Wickes: An Unusual Story of an Unusual Growth
Company. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 486 p.). Wickes
Corporation; Conglomerate corporations--United States.
Ed. Sea-Jin Chang (2006).
Business Groups in East Asia: Financial Crisis, Restructuring,
and New Growth. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press,
264 p.). Conglomerate corporations--East Asia; Financial
crises--East Asia; East Asia--Economic conditions--20th century.
Most business groups did
not immediately collapse during 1997 Asian Crisis, proved
remarkably robust, subsequently restructured.
Editors of Fortune Magazine (1970). The
Conglomerate Commotion. (New York, NY: Viking, 180 p.).
Conglomerate corporations--United States. Notes: "A majority of
the chapters were originally published in 1968 or 1969 ... in
ed. Charles Gilbert (1972). The Making of a
Conglomerate (Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University Press, 586
p.). Conglomerate corporations--United States--Case studies.
Edward M. Graham (2003).
Reforming Korea’s Industrial Conglomerates. (Washington,
DC: Institute for International Economics, 198 p.). Senior
Fellow at the Institute for International Economics. Industrial
organization --Korea (South); Industrial concentration --Korea
(South); Industrial policy --Korea (South). History of chaebol,
their role in creating "economic miracle", role they played in
bringing about 1997 crisis in Korea; weaknesses within
industrial groups of Korea persist that could cloud Korea's
economic future, despite impressive rebound that Korean economy
has experienced since 1998; uncorrected weaknesses, steps that
should be now taken.
Michael Greenberg (1979).
British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-42. (New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 238 p. [orig. pub. 1951]).
Great Britain -- Commerce -- China; China -- Commerce -- Great
Britain; China -- History -- War of 1840-1842; Great Britain
Foreign trade with China 1800-1842; China Foreign trade with
Great Britain 1800-1842.
Roger L. Janelli with Dawnhee Yim (1993).
Making Capitalism: The Social and Cultural Construction of a
South Korean Conglomerate. (Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press, 276 p.). Professor, Folklore and
Ethnomusicology (Indiana University). Corporate culture--Korea
(South); Industrial management--Korea (South); Elite (Social
sciences)--Korea (South); Middle class--Korea (South)
Ed. Geoffrey Jones (1986).
British Multinationals: Origins, Management, and Performance.
(Brookfield, VT: Gower, 212 p.). International business
enterprises--History; Corporations, British--History.
The Making of Global Enterprise. (Portland, OR: F. Cass,
209 p.). International business enterprises--History;
International business enterprises--Case studies. Two main
themes: 1) How has global business developed over the last
century? 2) What has been its impact on host economies?
Geoffrey Jones (2000).
Merchants to Multinationals: British Trading Companies in the
Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 404 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of
Business Administration (Harvard Business School). Trading
companies--Great Britain--History; International business
enterprises--Great Britain--History; Investments,
British--History; International trade--History.
Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the
Twenty-First Century. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 340 p.). Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business
Administration (Harvard Business School). International business
enterprises--History--19th century; International business
enterprises--History--20th century; Capitalism--History--19th
century; Capitalism--History--20th century;
Globalization--Economic aspects--History--19th century;
Globalization--Economic aspects--History--20th century.
Yoshiro Miwa and J. Mark Ramseyer (2006).
The Fable of the Keiretsu: Urban Legends of the Japanese Economy.
(Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 192 p.). Professor of
Economics (University of Tokyo); Mitsubishi Professor of
Japanese Legal Studies (Harvard Law School). Conglomerate
corporations--Japan; Corporations--Finance; Japan--Economic
policy--1989- ; Japan--Economic conditions--1989-.
keiretsu is urban legend; very idea created, propagated by
Marxist scholars in post-war Japan.
Kenichi Miyashita, David W. Russell (1994).
Keiretsu: Inside the Hidden Japanese Conglomerates. (New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 225 p.). Conglomerate
corporations--Japan; Industrial concentration--Japan.
Ronald W. Schatz (1983).
The Electrical Workers: A History of Labor at General Electric
and Westinghouse, 1923-1960. (Urbana, IL: University of
Illinois Press, 279 p.). General Electric Company--History;
Westinghouse Electric Corporation--History; Electric industry
workers--United States--History; Electric industry
workers--Labor unions--United States--History; Labor unions and
communism--United States--History; Working class--United
Robert Sobel (1999).
The Rise and Fall of the Conglomerate Kings.
(Washington, DC: Beard Books, 240 p. [orig. pub. 1984]).
Conglomerate corporations--United States--History; Consolidation
and merger of corporations--United States--History; Directors of
Richard M. Steers, Yoo Keun Shin, Gerardo R.
The Chaebol: Korea's New Industrial Might (New York, NY:
Harper & Row, 164 p.). Conglomerate corporations--Korea (South);
Industrial policy--Korea (South); Industrial management--Korea
(South); Industrial organization--Korea (South).
ed. Shin'ichi Yonekawa (1990).
General Trading Companies: A Comparative and Historical Study.
(Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 229 p.). Trading
Alexander K. Young (1979).
The Sogo Shosha: Japan's Multinational Trading Companies.
(Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 247 p.). Conglomerate
corporations--Japan; Exports--Japan; Trading companies--Japan.
Business History Links
Corning Museum of Glass
The Museum houses over 29,000 objects representing 3,500 years
of glassmaking; also houses the Rakow Library, the most
comprehensive research library in the world. Images of some of
the collection, and an extensive educational section called "A
Resource of Glass "that is used as a syllabus for many schools
and researchers. Recently added a new multi-million dollar
Innovation Center that represents key stories of inventions and
breakthroughs in glassmaking.
3M's Logo History (Identity Strategy &
Developed in 1997 to help 3M build and protect its brand.
George Westinghouse Virtual Museum
Memorial to George Westinghouse, his achievements and
contributions to society. The Museum preserves an important part
of the nation's industrial history and provides a means to share
this rich heritage with present and future generations.