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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Insurance
business biographies  

May February 1688 - Edward Lloyd opened coffee shop by Thames River; became recognized for accurate shipping news, as place for obtaining marine insurance.

May 25, 1721 - John Copson ran insurance advertisement in The American Weekly Mercury in Philadelphia, PA; first known recorded reference to marine insurance.


January 11, 1759
- Governors Thomas and Richard Penn granted charter to Presbyterian Synod of Philadelphia, PA (founded 1716) for The Corporation for Relief of Poor and Distressed Presbyterian Ministers and of the Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers (successor to charitable organization to assist local Presbyterian ministers called "Fund for Pious Uses" which made first charitable grant to widow of deceased reverend, in 1719); evolved into Presbyterian Ministers and of the Poor and Distressed Widows and Children; America's first life insurance company; separate from but cooperated with Synodical Company; 1760s - had 43 contributors, had issued 21 policies to ministers; May 22, 1761 - wrote first life insurance policy in United States; May 1777 - board of company voted to loan 5000 pounds to Continental Congress to help finance states' efforts against British; 1850s - encouraged subscriptions from ministers from any church under Presbyterian umbrella (reformed churches); name changed to Presbyterian Annuity Corporation; 1870 - corporation insured 126 of over 4,000 ministers; 1875 - name changed to Presbyterian Annuity and Life Insurance Corporation to offer insurance to all; 1880 - insurance restricted to ministers; 1888 - name changed to Presbyterian Ministers' Fund (corporation had returned to practice of insuring only Presbyterian ministers); 1941 - acquired Ministers Mutual Life Insurance Company; 1990 - renamed Covenant Life Insurance Company; 1994 - acquired by Provident Mutual Life Insurance Company; 2002 - acquired by Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company.

February 20, 1768 - First American chartered fire insurance company opened (Penn).

November 19, 1792 - John Nesbitt, Ebenezer Hazard, group of entrepreneurs met in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall, created Insurance Company of North America; wrote first policy covering a ship and its cargo; 1794 - incorporated; wrote first life insurance policy, covered a sea captain; 1999 - Property and Casualty operations of CIGNA acquired, became part of ACE Group of Companies.

May 10, 1810 - Connecticut General Assembly passed act to incorporate Hartford Fire Insurance Company; Nathanial Terry first president; 1822 - reinsured New Haven Fire Insurance Company (one of first reinsurances in U.S.); 1825 - wrote fire insurance policy for Yale University (first for institution of higher learning); 1859 - sold insurance policy to Robert E. Lee to cover his home ("Arlington"); 1861 - sold fire insurance policy to Abraham Lincoln to protect his home, property in Springfield, IL; 1870 - operated coast-to-coast; 1875 - stag logo adopted (from Sir Edwin Landseer's painting, "Monarch of the Glen"); 1906 - paid $11.6 million in damage claims after San Francisco earthquake (most of any insurance company involved); 1913 - formed Hartford Accident & Indemnity Company; 1920 - sold "sickness policy" to babe Ruth to protect his earnings in event of his being unable to play; 1959 - expanded into life insurance, acquired The Columbian National Life Insurance Company; 1970 - acquired by ITT Corporation for $1.4 billion (largest acquisition in corporate history at time); renamed ITT-Hartford Group, Inc.; 1985 - introduced first single premium variable life product; 1993 - introduced first variable universal life product (leading seller of individual annuities in U. S. ); December 20, 1995 - spun off from ITT; 1997 - name changed to The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc.; 2000 - fastest growing retail-oriented mutual fund family to reach $10 billion in assets; 2005 - Fortune 100 company.

1819 - Aetna Insurance (named after Mt. Etna) founded in Morgan Coffee House in Hartford, CT as fire insurer; Thomas K. Brace as president, Isaac Perkins as secretary, original capital of $150,000; first year profit of $2,294.60; 1834 - first company to issue fire policy in Chicago; 1853 - annuity Department incorporated as life Insurance company.

November 20, 1824 - Union Insurance Company established as Scottish Union Insurance Company; 1833 - btained royal charter; April 9 1847 - incorporated under act of parliament; January 31 1877 - merged with Scottish National Insurance Company, namer changed to Scottish Union and National Insurance Company (received royal assent in May 1878); November 6 1948 - incorporated as Scottish Union and National Insurance Company; 1959 - acquired by Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society Ltd.; 1991 - principal activity was transaction of short-term insurance business; November 27, 2002 - name changed to Aviva Insurance Ltd; November 29, 2002 - name changed to Aviva Insurance; August 15 2006 - renamed Union Insurance Company; September 23 2008 - put into liquidation.

1835 - Quakers, insurance agents William Hargrave and Joseph Marsh established National Provident Institution (NPI).

1846 - Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company founded; first life insurance company in Connecticut.

1847 - Edward A. Rucker devised system of keeping track of every recorded instrument, legal proceeding affecting real estate titles; joined James H. Rees; Chicago's first land title abstract business; 1850 - Rucker left; 1852 - partnered with Samuel B. Chase, formed Rees & Chase; later became Chase Brothers (upon Rees's departure); 1852 - J. Mason Parker established similar abstract indices; 1863 - Fernando Jones also established similar abstract indices; 1868 - Charles C. Chase joined firm, renamed Chase Brothers & Co.; one of three abstract businesses in Chicago at time of Great Fire of 1871; firms combined, renamed Chase Brothers, Jones, Sellers, Shortall and Hoard; April 1872 - Illinois Legislature passed Burnt Records Act; firm turned business, lease of its books over to newly organized firm of Handy, Simmons, Smith and Stocker (ultimately Handy & Co.); 1887 - Illinois passed General Trust Company Act; Handy succeeded by Title Guarantee and Trust Co., qualified as trust company under new act; 1888 - Company issued first title guarantee policy in Illinois, protected owner against loss if title as guaranteed was found invalid (real estate title insurance); 1891 - name of company changed to Chicago Title and Trust Co.

James H. Rees - Chicago Title and Trust  (https://www.ctic.com/images/rees.jpg)

Charles C. Chase - Chicago Title and Trust  (https://www.ctic.com/images/chase.jpg)

1850 - Aetna Insurance Company organized Annuity Fund to sell life insurance; Hartford, CT judge, Eliphalet A. Bulkeley, former president of Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, chosen to head Annuity Fund operation; 1853 - Annuity department separated from Aetna Insurance, incorporated as Aetna Life Insurance Company; first president Eliphalet A. Bulkeley; name retained - three years of life policies already issued; name inspired by an 11,000-foot volcano on the eastern shores of Sicily, Mt. Etna, then most active volcano in Europe. 1867 - issued first farm mortgage loan (27 percent of its assets in farm mortgages by 1872; 43 percent of its assets, $94 million, invested in farm mortgages by 1924); 1868 - all-cash premium plan introduced, one of first two companies to switch from half-note premium system; 1891 - issued first accident policy; first step in 30-year transformation from monoline insurer to company that offered variety of coverage; 1904 - introduced first corporate seal: emblem portrays company's home office bursting out from within a globe (to convey Aetna's status as largest life insurer in the world writing accident, health and liability coverage).

May 15, 1851 - George Rice, Connecticut life insurance agent, raised $100,000 from 31persons, chartered Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company in Massachusetts to sell life insurance policies in one-room office in Foot's Block Building, Springfield, MA; Caleb Rice first president (would not insure: ocean voyages, working near steam engine, summer vacations south of Virgina); 1865 - assets under management exceeded $1 million; 1873 - Vice President Ephraim Bond succeeded as President; 1885 - bought first typewriter; 1891 - held first annaul agents' conference; 1908 - introduced time clock for employees; 1914 - offered disability income insurance; 1928 - offered accidental-death insurance; 1934 - housewives insurable; 1938 - first pension trust policy; 1941 - more than 80 agencies throughout U.S.; 1944 - first female agent (J. Nedra Schilling); 1946 - established MassMutual Retirement Services (entered defined benefit, traditional pension market; 1950-1960 - Norman Rockwell illustrated company's advertsiements; 1959 - life insurance sales exceeded $1 billion; 1960 - installed first IBM 7070 computer (decimal architecture based on transistors vs. vacuum tube technology); 1968 - introduced flextime for employees; 1973 - enetered defined contribution market (401k, 403b, profot sharing products); 1978 - acquired Chrysler building in New York City for $35 million; 1981 - assets under management exceeded $10 billion; 1989 - acquired OppenheimerFunds, Inc.; 1994 - merged with Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co. (5th largest insurer in U.S.); acquired David L. Babson & Co.; established Cornerstone Real Estate Advisers, Inc.; 1999 - policy dividend payout exceeded $1 billion (more than $25 billion paid from 1960-2010); 2000 - name changed to MassMutual Financial Group; 2004 - acquired Baring Asset Management Ltd. (more than $35 billion in assets); 2011 - weighted whole life sales of $237 million; retirement sales of $5.3 billion, total adjusted capital of more than $12 billion.

  Caleb Rice - Mutual Life Insurance Company of Massachusetts (http://photos.prnewswire.com/prn/20110516/NY02217-a)

March 2, 1857 - Wisconsin Legislature passed bill incorporating Mutual Life Insurance Company of Wisconsin, headquartered in Janesville, WI; founded by John C. Johnston (75), former successful insurance agency operator for Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York; November 25, 1858 - company named John C. Johnston first general agent, issued him its first policy, paid in full, for $5,000 coverage.; March 7, 1859 - company moved to Milwaukee; March 11, 1859 - Johnston terminated  association with company as an agent; 1860 - company insurance in-force 25th in nation (among 40 competitors); 1865 - name changed to The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company to reflect expansion beyond Wisconsin; 1866 - assets $1 million; 1868 - formally adopted emblem (seal surrounds Banyan tree, an Indonesian fig with an unusual growth habit); 1870 - eighth in company insurance in-force (among 100-plus); 1907 - established Examining Committee of Policyholders to make unrestricted report on company’s operations; 1920 - $2.2 billion in insurance in-force; 1933 - introduced Single Premium Annuities, first product line other than life insurance; 1934 - started advertising in national magazines; 1941 - assets of $1.4 billion; 1970 - $19 billion insurance in-force, assets top $6 billion; paid in benefits or held in reserve $1.30 for every dollar received in premiums; 1972 - launched "The Quiet Company" television advertising campaign during Munich Olympic Games; 1984 - life insurance in-force passed $100 billion mark; 1989 - life insurance in-force passed $200 billion mark; 1995 - sixth largest U.S. life insurer, assets of $54.9 billion; 1996 - new premium sales exceeded $1 billion (No. 1 provider of ordinary life insurance in the U.S.); 2000 - changed name to Northwestern Mutual; 2005 - 22nd time as "America's Most Admired Company" in Fortune's life/health insurance company field; named to Fortune's Hall of Fame.

July 26, 1859 - Henry B. Hyde (25), former cashier at Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, rented space in  building located at 98 Broadway in Manhattan; hanged 30-foot banner from window, incorporated The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States; 1868 - introduced tontines (annuity products that pay deferred dividends); dominated industry for 35 years (1867-1905); 1870 - first American business to build its own corporate headquarters, put its name on it (120 Broadway in Manhattan),   first to use steam elevators (office building as promotional tool, workplace); 1880 - pioneered practice of paying death claims immediately; 1890 - largest insurance company in world (measured in surplus); 1902 - introduced training classes for new insurance agents; 1909 - developed first modern Home Purchase plan (major industry product for five decades); 1911 - sold first modern Group Life policy to Pantasote Leather Company (to Montgomery Ward in 1912); 1951 - developed Individual In-Hospital Major Medical Expense insurance; 1961 - opened 42-story home office building, largest building in country occupied by single company; 1968 - introduced first line of individual variable annuity products; 1985 - acquired Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette, its money management arm, Alliance Capital Management, L.P.; 1991 - New York State Insurance Department certified policyholder approval of demutualization; AXA Group, second largest French insurance company, invested $1 billion; 1992 - completed New York's largest Initial Public Offering for insurance company (AXA Group single largest shareholder); assets under management exceeded $150 billion; 1995 - $230 billion in assets under management; statutory capital/general accounts liabilities ratio reached 11.86%, highest among America's top 10 life insurers; 1997 -AXA Group assets exceeded $450 billion; merged with rival UAP, became second largest insurer in world; 2000 - AXA acquired control of Equitable Life Insurance Company; 2003 - AXA Group leading insurer in world, 50 million clients in 50 countries, $979 billion in client assets under management; 2004 - acquired Mutual of New York (MONY), former employer of Equitable founder Henry Hyde; 2008 - 15th largest organization in world on 2008 Fortune Global 500 list (based on revenues). Hyde May 3, 1899 Obituary: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9B01E3D71030E333A25750C0A9639C94689ED7CF

1860 - Hugo Wesendonck founded The Germania Life Insurance Company; 1917 - name changed to Guardian Life.

1863 - Group of New York City businessmen raised $100,000 to found National Union Life and Limb Insurance Company; March 24, 1868 - Metropolitan Life Insurance Company chartered to sell "ordinary" insurance to middle class in "Metropolitan District" of New York City.

1863 - James G. Batterson, group of Hartford businessmen petitioned Connecticut legislature for permission to form  corporation; April 1, 1864 - The Travelers Life and Accident Insurance Company opened for business; James G. Batterson as president; issued first travel accident policy to Batterson; also issued first general insurance policy to him; 1870 - umbrella, symbol of  company's brand, first appeared in a newspaper ad.

James G. Batterson - Travelers Insurance  (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/29/James_G._Batterson.jpg)

May 3, 1863 - William Holdredge, ship's captain, incorporated  Fireman's Fund Insurance Company to insure San Franciscans against fire; paid 10 percent of profits to widows and orphans of firefighters; June 18, 1863 - first policy written on half-interest in 1,000 kegs of Boston syrup (premium of $12 cash, in advance); first company to issue fire-insurance policy in California; 1957 - premium income of nearly $300 million; 1966 - became holding company called Fund American Companies; 1968 - acquired by American Express for about $500 million; September 1985 - sold 59% in IPO; 1989 - holding company name changed to Fund American Companies, Inc.; January 2, 1991 - acquired by Allianz AG Holding for $3.3 billion.

March 18, 1865 - Mathew Hamilton Gault (son of merchant and ship owner in Northern Ireland), syndicate of bankers and merchants in Montreal received approval from parliament to incorporate company to conduct business of insurance; December 27, 1871 - Sun Mutual Life Insurance Company of Montreal began; 1882 - name changed to Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada; 1895 - established U.S. operations in Detroit; 1919 - first Canadian company to offer group insurance; 1956 - entered health and accident insurance business; 1962 - became mutual company (lengthy mutualization process, bought its shares back for $65 million); 1982 - acquired Massachusetts Financial Services (MFS); 1992 - worldwide life insurance in-force passed $300 billion; March 23, 2000 - went public as Sun Life Financial Inc.; 2006 - annual earnings surpassed $2 billion.

June 30, 1866 - Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. founded (“the first company in America devoted primarily to industrial safety”); February 14, 1867 - issues first policy.

1871 - Dan H. Bomar Company founded in Chicago after Great Chicago Fire; 1885 - Henry W. Marsh left Harvard University, joined Robert A. Waller agency; 1894 - Donald R. McLennan began insurance career at Stryker, Manley & Buck in Duluth, MN; Burrows, Marsh & McLennan formed in Chicago, became world's largest insurance agency with annual premiums of $3 million; 1906 - renamed Marsh & McLennan.

1871 - Hugo Kranz, group of people in Berlin (now Kitchener), Ontario created plan to protect neighbours from devastating hardships caused by fire and lightning; November 25, 1871 - Economical Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Berlin issued first policy on house and barn; 1937 - Merchant's Casualty Company of Waterloo, QU acquired by Econmical; 1947 - acquired Canadian operation of Northwestern Mutual Fire Insurance Association; expanding into Maritimes; began to offer automobile, accident and illness insurance in addition to property, contents insurance; 1956 - acquired Missisquoi and Rouville Insurance Company of Quebec (established in 1835, oldest operating Canadian-owned insurer); 1997 - merged with Western General Mutual Insurance Company in Woodstock, ON (establishe 1905), became farm division; 2001 - acquirHartfored d Insurance Company of Canada; 2006 - acquired The Mattei Companies (Seattle, WA); first subsidiary outside Canada.

Hugo Kranz - Economical Mutual Fire Insurance Company (http://waterlooregionmuseum.com/media/3052/kranz-hugo.jpg)

April 3, 1873 - New Jersey legislature granted charter to Widows' and Orphans; Friendly Society established by John Fairfield Dryden, February 18, 1875 - name changed to The Prudential Friendly Society,  Dr. Leslie D. Ward (physician), Noah F. Blanchard (leather manufacturer) as incorporators; located in basement office in downtown Newark, NJ; first company in U.S. to make life insurance available to working class; November 10, 1875 - began selling industrial insurance (provided funeral, burial expenses for low-income families) with some weekly premiums as low as 3 cents; 1877 - name changed to Prudential Insurance Company of America; May 1881 - John F. Dryden succeeded Blanchard as President (elected U.S. Senator in 1902); 1885 - assets reached $1 million; one-millionth policy sold to John Dryden; renamed "The Prudential Insurance Company of America"; 1896 - adopted The Rock of Gibraltar as company symbol (reflected strength, security it offered to customers); 1940s - assets grew six-fold, product line expanded, company decentralized, began regional offices; August 17, 1948 - registered "The Prudential Has the Strength of Gibraltar" trademark first used in 1896 (services in providing individual and group life insurance protection); June 19, 1973 - registered "Own A Piece Of The Rock" service mark first used in June 1970 (providing individual and group life and sickness and accident insurance protection and annuities); 1980s - first major insurance company to market variable annuities; 1984 - introduced Variable Appreciable Life, major product innovation, gave customers investment options in which to invest their policy cash values; 1985 - acquired Jennison Associates Capital Corp., major stock and bond manager for pension funds; 1987 - entered residential real estate brokerage business, formed new subsidiary, The Prudential Real Estate Affiliates; 1990s - consolidated assets surpassed $100 billion; Arthur F. Ryan (Chase Manhattan Bank) became chairman, chief executive officer (first individual from outside Prudential); December 13, 2001 - demutualization, went public; acquired Prudential Annuities (previously known as American Skandia), largest distributor of variable annuities through independent financial planners in United States; created retail brokerage business with Wachovia Corporation, formed one of nation's largest retail financial advisory organizations, Wachovia Securities, LLC; 2007 - total revenue of $26.7 billion.

John Fairfield Dryden - Prudential Insurance  (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/JohnDryden.jpg)

1878 - Abram Suydam, Matthew Suydam (son) opened Suydam Insurance Agency in Somerset, NJ; insured farms (relatives, friends, neighbors, small businesspeople); 1959 - Abram Suydam, Jr. (grandson) founded current agency; 2010 - served more than 1,500 business, personal customers

January 17, 1879 - Hotel Men's Mutual Benefit Association of the United States and Canada commenced operations; 1928 - John D. MacArthur acquired control of small insurance company, Marquette Life of Jerseyville, IL; 1932 - Bankers Life and Casualty Company began operations; 1935 - acquired by MacArthur from Illinois Insurance Department for $2,500; developed concept of mass marketing low cost health insurance policies through mail; 1942 - Hotel Men's Mutual Benefit Association, Illinois Standard Life Insurance Co., Bankers Life and Casualty merged under Bankers Life and Casualty name; 1956 - largest health, accident insurance company in America; 1978 - assets surpassed $1 billion; 1992 - acquired by Conseco.

John D. MacArthur - Bankers Life (http://nigeria.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7BF4568C46-3F1D-45D6-9B36-842BCB8C2CFE%7D/john_macarthur.jpg)

March 24, 1880 - Tobacco Growers' Mutual Insurance Company incorporated in North Canaan, Connecticut; Lyman Dunning as President;  June 1880 - began business.

1881 - John Allen & Charles Stults began selling insurance in downtown Hightstown, NJ; Allen & Stults Co. served agriculture community; sold $5 fire insurance policies, undertaking services; 2010 - offered risk management services to technology companies, high net worth individuals; Charles S. "Cappy" Stults III (fourth generation, great-grandson) president. 

Spring 1882 - Thomas Caldecot Chubb, Percy Chubb (son) collected $1,000 from each of 100 prominent merchants, opened marine underwriting business in seaport district of New York City; focused on insuring ships and cargoes; 1967 - Chubb Corporation formed; 1984 - listed on New York Stock Exchange; ranked among top 10 publicly traded insurance organizations based on revenues in United States; 2006 - approximately 11,800 employees throughout North America, Europe, South America, Pacific Rim; served property, casualty customers from some 120 offices in 29 countries; worked with 8,000 independent agents, brokers worldwide.

1885 - Henry W. Marsh left Harvard University, joined Robert A. Waller agency; 1894 - Donald R. McLennan began insurance career at Stryker, Manley & Buck in Duluth, MN; 1905 - Burrows, Marsh & McLennan formed in Chicago, became world's largest insurance agency with annual premiums of $3 million; 1906 - renamed Marsh & McLennan; 1923 - began reinsurance broking with  acquisition of newly formed Guy Carpenter & Company; 1959 - consulting began with the acquisition of benefit consultants William M. Mercer in Canada; 1970 - entry into investment management through acquisition of Putnam Investments.

Henry W. Marsh & Donald R. McLennan

 

 

(http://www.mmc.com/images/1885-pict.gif)

 

1885 - Archibald McAlister opened “Lands, Loans, Rents, & Insurance” office on Higuera Street in San Luis Obispo, CA; 1911 - Ernest Vollmer (son-in-law) joined business; 1921 - Vollmer took over, renamed 'Ernest Vollmer, Real Estate & Insurance'; 1927 - Pete Bachino joined firm; 1940 - Vollmer shifted to ranching and non-insurance endeavors; Les Stockird joined agency; renamed “Bachino & Stockird Insurance Brokers, Successors to Ernest Vollmer"; early 1950s - Stockird retired; Harry Morris earned ownership in agency (first called on agency in 1935 as field representative from Hartford Insurance Company); 1961 - Marvin Dee, formerly Hartford claims adjuster, joined company; 1964 - Greg Morris joined, renamed Morris & Dee Insurance; 1975 - Phil Chew (oversaw inside operations), Gene Garritano (fresh from Hartford’s executive training program) joined business; 1986 - Dee retired, Morris, Garritano, Chew remained as principals; 1989 - Morris, Garritano sole owners. 

http://pacbiztimes.com/images/stories/morrisWEB.jpg Archibald McAlister - Morris & Garritano ( http://pacbiztimes.com/images/stories/morrisWEB.jpg)

April 5, 1885 - Daniel Webster (D.W.) Rogers, local farmer, incorporated Michigan Mutual Tornado, Cyclone and Windstorm Insurance Company in Hastings, MI; June 18, 1885 - issued first policies, 41 members shared $40,700 in risk; December 31, 1885 - 160 members carried $163,710 in risk; 1908 - 43,000 policyholders, $74,000,000 of insurance in force; 1920 - name changed to Michigan Mutual Windstorm Insurance Company; 1924 - L.W. Sunday elected first full-time president; 1925 - second largest mutual windstorm insurance company in world (90,000 members shared $300 million in coverage); 1938 - employed 700 agents, served 120,000 members; late 1950s - largest windstorm insurer in state, second in world (over billion dollars at risk); January 15, 1959 - formally reorganized as general, non-assessable mutual, name changed to Hastings Mutual Insurance Company; became general line insurance company; 1967 - broadened coverage to farmowners, inland and ocean marine, general liability, burglary and theft; added workers compensation; 1970 - added automobile insurance; 1982 - developed automated policy processing system; 2010 - over 900 agencies serviced Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio.

1887 - Edwin W. Sargent assisted in organizing, became legal adviser to Los Angeles Abstract Co.; 1893 - Abstract and Title Insurance Co. merged with Los Angeles Abstract Co.; 1894 - name changed to Ticor Insurance & Trust Co.; 1982 - acquired by Southern Pacific; 1984 - acquired in $271 million leveraged buyout by "investors" (including former ITT chairman Harold S. Geneen, former Avis rental car chief Winston V. "Bud" Morrow, two other major investors);  1988 - Ticor Title Insurance Cos. recorded more than 18,867 grant deeds in Los Angeles, insured $5.8 billion in mortgages, revenues in L.A. County were $40.5 million; 1990 - changed name to Westwood Equities Corp. 1991 - acquired by Chicago Title & Trust for $85 million.

June 23, 1887 - Act of Canadian Parliament incorporated The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company; Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's first Prime Minister, elected President of Company; 1893 - first policy sold outside of Canada (Bermuda); 1896 - assets greater than $1.2 million (fastest 10-year growth of any Canadian company at time.); 1903 - entered U.S. market with license to sell insurance in Michigan (opened office in Detroit); 1918 - total amount of insurance in force reached $100 million; 1947- total business in force reached $1 billion, one-millionth policy sold; 1959 - total business in force reached $3 billion; 1961 - assets reached $1 billion; 1968 - two-millionth policy sold; 1979 -total assets surpassed $5 billion; 1986 - total insurance in force reached $100 billion; 1990 - name changed to Manulife Financial; January 1, 1996 - merged with North American Life Assurance Company; first Canadian life insurer to pass half-billion dollar mark in earnings; July 29, 1999 - 98.5% of voting eligible policyholders approved The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company's demutualization; 2000 - first Canadian life insurance company to exceed $1 billion dollars in net income;' April 2004 - merged with John Hancock Financial Services Inc.(including its Canadian subsidiary, Maritime Life); created largest life insurer in Canada, second largest in North America, fifth largest in world.

June 6, 1890 - Joseph Cullen Root founded Woodmen of the World Life Insurance Co. in Omaha, NE; 1900 - $219 million of life insurance in force.

1893 - C.E. Parker, local Orange County, CA businessman, merged two competing title companies, founded in 1889, formed Orange County Title Company; 1924 - became one of first abstract companies in California to qualify to issue policies of title insurance; 1948 - Donald Parker Kennedy (grandson) joined company; 1957 - board of directors authorized expansion plan to become powerhouse in Southern California market; 1963 - D. E. Parker named president, name changed to First American, operating in four states; 1964 - went public; 1966 - restructured into general holding company, The First American Financial Corporation; conducted title operations through First American Title Insurance Company, trust business through First American Trust Company; 1982 - served every region of the country; May 2000 - name changed to The First American Corporation; nation’s largest data provider.

1893 - Maco Stewart, Galveston, TX attorney, purchased Gulf City Abstract Company; issued abstracts through Stewart Law & Land Title Office; 1897 - W.C. Morris joined company as stenographer, later married Wilamina Stewart (only daughter); 1905 - with Minor Stewart (brother) offered first title insurance in Texas (indemnity against loss due to title claims); 1908 - Stewart Title Guaranty Co. chartered; first title insurance underwriter authorized to write title insurance in Texas; 1950 - Carloss Morris, Stewart Morris Sr. (sons) took over; 1970 - formed Stewart Information Services Corporation holding company; 1972 - went public; 1975 - management control acquired by Carloss Morris, Stewart Morris Sr.; 1981 - policies issued through more than 1,000 issuing offices in 38 states; 1986 - revenues of $178 million; 1990 - 2,700 issuing offices throughout United States; 1994 - Stewart Information Services Corporation listed on New York Stock Exchange; 1999 - Malcolm S. Morris, Stewart Morris Jr. (grandsons) elected co-CEOs of Stewart Information Services Corporation; 2006 - $1.4 billion in assets, $44.11 book value per share, highest in company’s history; 2010 - title insurance, related information services through more than 8,500 policy-issuing offices, agencies in United States, around world.

1898 - John Merrick, Dr. Aaron McDuffie Moore, Charles Clinton Spaulding established North Carolina Mutual and Provident Insurance Company; oldest, largest African American life insurance company in United States; only insurance company domiciled in North Carolina with charter dated before 1900; 2005 - over $12 billion dollars of insurance in force, surplus exceeding $18 million.

February 1, 1898 - Travelers Insurance Company of Hartford, Connecticut, extended coverage to an automobile owner, first company to issue an automobile insurance policy to an individual;  Dr. Truman J. Martin of Buffalo, New York, paid a premium of $11.25 for the policy that covered $5,000 to $10,000 of liability; 1925 - Massachusetts became the first state to mandate automobile insurance, "requiring owners of certain motor vehicles and trailers to furnish security for their civil liabilities."

September 1898 - James J. Dowd, Jeremiah Keane started Keane and Dowd, insurance and real estate business, in Room 32 of Ball Building (later known as Holyoke National Bank Building) in Holyoke, MA; 1916 - James J. Dowd II (son) took over; Keane left business, renamed James J. Dowd & Sons Insurance Agency; 1947 - James Dowd Jr. (third generation) joined agency; John Dowd (brother) joined few years later; 1960 - brothers took over; 1974 - John Dowd, James Dowd III (cousin), Gilbert (cousin) took over; 1975-2009 - grew from just over $1 million in sales to more than $40 million; 2009 - John E. Dowd, fourth-generation principal.

1905 - Alonzo Herndon founded Atlanta Life Insurance Company, second largest black insurance company in United States; 1910 - more than 42 branch offices.

June 12, 1905 - Group of businessmen in Fort Wayne, IN formed Lincoln National Life Insurance Company (named after Abraham Lincoln, with consent and photograph supplied by President Lincoln's son, Robert Todd Lincoln); pooled assets under management of $116, 097; September, 1905 - opens with one product, four employees; 1907 - first claim  submitted; 1911 - company reported $6.5 million of life insurance, $250,000 in premium income, $750,000 in assets; 1912 - entry into reinsurance market; 1914 - first acquisition.

March 5, 1909 - Nebraska Insurance Department issued charter to Mutual Benefit Health & Accident Association; Harry S. Weller, first president; January 8, 1910 - received 250th policy (required to obtain state license), authorized to issue health and accident insurance in Nebraska; July 1910 - Dr. C. C. Criss, medical student at Creighton College of Medicine, named treasurer; began to offer simplified, liberal policies to minimize insured's liability from accident, illness; 1918 - Mutual Benefit consolidated with Omaha Health & Accident Association; 1920 - licensed to sell insurance in 15 states, $1.3 million in premiums for year; 1926 - Mabel L. Criss (wife of C. C. Criss) elected second vice president of Mutual Benefit; first woman officer in company; 1929 - passed $10 million in premium income; 1930 - 233 employees; February 11, 1933 - Criss elected president of Mutual Benefit; 1936 - issued first hospital insurance policy; 1939 - licensed in 48 states; September 1940 - 287,000 policy holders, life insurance policies worth $161 million; January 14, 1950 - name changed to Mutual of Omaha; 1947-1957 - premium income tripled from $66 million to $180 million; 1960 - first insurance company to include rehabilitation provision in disability income protection policies; February 10, 1962 - name changed to Mutual of Omaha Insurance Company; January 6, 1963 - "Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom" debuted (9-year run).

Mabel L. Criss, Dr. C. C. Criss - Mutual of Omaha (http://www.unmc.edu/sorrellcenter/images/crissbwweb.jpg)

June 1, 1911 - The Equitable Life Assurance Society sold first modern Group Life policy to Pantasote Leather Company (121 employees); 1912 - sold second to Montgomery Ward.

July 1, 1912 -15 insurance executives organized Massachusetts Employees’ Insurance Association (MEIA), as mutual company owned by policyholders, under Massachusetts Employees' Insurance Association and the Workmen's Compensation Act of 1911 (required employers to protect employees with workers' compensation insurance);  Massachusetts Governor appointed Board of Directors (Henry Howard as Chairman); 1914 - issued first automobile policy; 1917 - name changed to Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, began writing public liability insurance, entered arrangement with United Mutual Fire Insurance Company to provide complete automobile insurance; 1936 - became largest writer of workers compensation insurance; 1964 - established Liberty Life Assurance Company of Boston, offered full range of individual, group life insurance products; 1972 - surpassed $2 billion in written premiums; 2002 - converted to mutual holding company structure to better compete in global property and casualty markets; formed Liberty Mutual Holding Company; 2004 - opened office in Chongqing, China (first foreign property and casualty insurance company in western China).

1915 - Alvin Alderfer gathered 102 of Harleysville, PA leading citizens to form association to protect their cars from theft; October 9, 1917 - chartered as Mutual Auto Theft Insurance Company, Mutual Auto Fire Insurance Company (state laws prevented same company from offering both types of protection); 1922 - formed Harleysville Mutual Casualty Company; 1933 - merged with Auto Theft Company; 1956 - name changed to Harleysville Mutual Insurance Company; 1960 - founded Harleysville Life Insurance Company to offer individual and group life insurance, disability insurance, retirement plans; 1979 - formed Harleysville Group Inc.; 1986 - went public; 2008 - consolidated commercial lines premiums account for more than 80% of annual premium volume; about 1,725 employees, some 1,400 agencies in 32 states; consolidated assets of $3.8 billion, net written premiums of $1.1 billion, ranked as one of top 60 property/casualty insurance companies and groups. 

March 28, 1918 - Charlie G. Fichardt (Bloemfontein businessman, MP for Ladybrand, Willie A. Hofmeyr (Attorney), Charlie R. Louw (Attorney), Pieter A. Malan (Attorney), Fred H. Dormehl (former insurance man), Antoon F. Benning (prospector, master builder), Alfred McDowell (Scottish banker, insurance accountant) registered Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Trust en Assuransie Maatskappij (Santam - The South African National Trust and Assurance Company) in Cape Town, South Africa (Hofmeyr, co-founder of De Nationale Pers, as chairman); focused on short-term insurance; June 8, 1918 - registered Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Lewens Assuransie Maatskappij Beperk (Sanlam - The South African National Life Assurance Company Limited); became spearhead of company; 1935 - Sanlam acquired African Homes Trust (now Metropolitan Life) life assurance company from Santam; 1940 - registered Federale Volksbeleggings (FVB); gave policy owners stake in large number of commercial, industrial companies (led to foundation of industrial, mining giant Gencor in 1950s); 1946 - registered Bonuskor for re-investment of policy bonuses; March 8, 1954 - Santam became independent mutual life assurance company; 1960 - formed Sankor to undertake further development projects (Bonuskor's capital totalled R10 million); 1993 - Sanlam transferred effective control of Metropolitan Life (Metlife) from Sankorp to black shareholders of Metlife Investment Holdings (Methold), black-controlled company (85% Black policy-holders at time; now known as New Africa Investments Limited, Nail); 1998 - Sanlam demutualised, went public on November 30, 1998; gave more than 2.2 million South Africans opportunity to share in Group's future (estimated 32% were Black shareholders, held approximately 20% of shares (direct shareholding); Sanlam Ltd, formed as parent company of Sanlam group of businesses; 2003 - Ubuntu-Botho,Black Economic Empowerment consortium, acquired initial 10% equity holding in Sanlam; 2009 - one of South Africa’s leading financial services groups.

1919 - Cornelius Vander Starr founded American Asiatic Underwriters Federal Inc. U.S.A. as property-casualty insurance agency in Shanghai, China; first Westerner in Shanghai to sell insurance to the Chinese; 1926 - opened his first office in the United States - American International Underwriters; 1962 - names Hank Greenberg president of American Home Assurance Company, midsize multi-line carrier (shifted focus from personal insurance to high-margin corporate coverage, sold insurance through independent brokers, not agents); 1968 - Greenberg named CEO; 1989 - Greenberg named chairman; February 2005 - Greenberg resigned as CEO amid concern from the board about regulatory inquiries.

Cornelius Vander Starr Cornelius Vander Starr - founder AIG  (http://www.starrfoundation.org/images/cvstarr.bw.jpg)

June 3, 1919 - Blacks in Chicago organized Liberty Life Insurance Co.

December 14, 1920 - Chicago Ice Producers Mutual Liability Company, class mutual insurance company, founded to insure members of Chicago District Ice Association for general liability, workers compensation, teams public liability for horses and wagon, commercial vehicle insurance; Joseph Moudry as President; association members donated $26,225 to start insurance operations; 1930s - expanded to insuring private passenger vehicles owned by owners, employees of ice companies; later extended to individuals referred by policyholders of company; 1961 - name changed to Chicago Mutual Liability Company; 1970s-1980s - grew from being primarily commercial lines insurer to personal auto insurer; 1994 - Board of Directors exited work compensation and general Liability lines entirely; concentrated on personal and commercial auto lines of business; 1996 - name changed to Chicago Mutual Insurance Company; March 2006 - converted from a mutual form of governance to stock company; renamed First Chicago Insurance Company, subsidiary of J & P Holdings, Inc.

June 7, 1922 - Retired farmer, insurance salesman George Jacob "G.J." Mecherle (45), Minnie Jones, Verna Crusius established State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company in temporary office in Bloomington, IL; sold first auto policy to local farmer Henry Stubblefield (semi-annual premium of $11.17 for 1919 Hudson luxury car); 1925 - 175 agents attended first agency convention; 1935 - added fire insurance; 1937 - first State Farm Road Atlas published; 1938 - opened branch office in Toronto, ON; 1942 - began reign as nation's top auto insurer; 1955 - homeowners insurance added; August 14, 1956 - State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company registered "State Farm Insurance" trademark first used March 1, 1930 (underwriting and conduct of a life, casualty, and fire insurance business); 1964 - nation’s No. 1 writer of homeowners insurance; largest insurance writer in world; 1971 - "Like a good neighbor …" theme song debuted (written by Barry Manilow); 2000 - launched State Farm Bank«; 2006 - first property, casualty insurer to promote major feature film (animated film, CARS by Disney/Pixar); 2008 - 17,000 agents, 67,000 employees, over 77 million auto, fire, life health policies in US, Canada, more than 1.9 million bank accounts.

George Jacob "G.J." Mecherle - State Farm  (http://www.rnd.ilfb.org/history/simms/images/George.gif)

March 28, 1928 - First meeting of board of Farmers Automobile Inter-Insurance Exchange launched by John C. Tyler, Thomas E. Leavey, in Los Angeles, CA, to offer preferred insurance rates to rural drivers; organized as reciprocal insurer (inter-insurance exchange), policy holders function as subscribers, exchange contracts with each other to provide insurance against certain losses; four employees; April 1928 - sold first policy; 1932 - assets of $1.08 million, net written premiums of $1.43 million; 1935 - launched Truck Insurance Exchange to specialize in truck insurance; 1940 - leading auto insurance carrier in Pacific Northwest; 1958 - written premiums reached $158 million; 1978 - exceeded $2 billion in written premiums; December 1988 - acquired by UK-based British American Tobacco (B.A.T.) Industries; 1997 - .B.A.T. merged with Zurich Insurance Company, formed Zurich Financial Services Group, fifth largest insurance group, aggregate gross premiums of $45 billion.

April 17, 1931 - General Robert E. Wood, chairman of Sears & Roebuck, opened Allstate Insurance Company in Chicago, IL, as  wholly owned subsidiary; name borrowed from an automobile tire sold in the Sears catalog; first year - 4,217 policies in force, premium volume of $118,323, 20 employees, $76,000 loss.

1936 - Leo and Lillian Goodwin founded Government Employees Insurance Company (GEICO) in Washington, DC; believed that if he lowered costs in the company by marketing directly to carefully targeted customer groups, he’d be able to pass along lower premiums and still earn a profit; target customers, federal employees and the top three grades of noncommissioned Military officers; end of 1936 - 3,700 GEICO policies in force, total staff of 12 people; 1964 - passed the 1 million policyholder mark; 1965 - premiums reached $150 million; 1995 - acquired by Berkshire Hathaway; 2002 - GEICO passed 5 million policyholder mark; 2004 - reached 6 million policyholders; 2006 - 7 million policyholders; 20,000 associates in 12 major locations around the country.

Leo and Lillian Goodwin - founded GEICO  (http://www.geico.com/images/photos_content/about_background.jpg)

November 17, 1955 -  John, Paul and Bill Amos founded American Family Life Insurance Company (AFLAC) in small six-room rented complex in Swift Building in downtown Columbus, GA; first year of operations: 6,426 policyholders, $388,000 in assets.

1963 - Harvey R. Ball, Worcester, MA graphic artist, invented  "smiley face"; made a smiley yellow button for the State Mutual Life Assurance Company of America to cheer employees during a rocky merger with an out-of-town company; received a fee of $45 for the creation; never trademarked the symbol.

September 25, 1997 - Travelers Group acquired Salomon Brothers for $9 billion.

December 17, 2002 - Insurance, finance company Conseco Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.

October 20, 2006 - Warren Buffett, chairman of Berkshire Hathaway Corporation, agreed to pay up to $7 billion in claims (many related to asbestos) which threatened future of Lloyd's of London and its investors for nearly 20 years; offered thousands of Names at Lloyd’s hope of avoiding future cash calls by striking deal to take on the insurance market’s pre-1993 claims.

2006 - first half 2007 - Combined ratios at 92.7% lowest in history (net, after reinsurance, combined loss and expense ratios for the Property/Casualty industry after dividends to policyholders = results for industry operations prior to investment income, capital gains) = largest underwriting gains, operating profits in history: 1) strong pricing in 2004, 2005, into 2006 (compared to actual accident year losses), 2) amounts required in 2006 to fund prior reserves much less than in recent years.

April 23, 2008 - Liberty Mutual Group agreed to buy Safeco for $6.2 billion in a deal that would make Liberty the fifth-largest property and casualty insurer in the United States.

September 16, 2008 - Federal Reserve agreed to $85 billion bailout of troubled insurance giant American International Group (failed to get bank loan to avoid bankruptcy); gave government control two weeks after Treasury took over federally chartered mortgage finance companies Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac = most radical intervention in private business in central bank's history); A.I.G. - enormous provider of esoteric financial insurance contracts to investors who bought complex debt securities, effectively required A.I.G. to cover losses suffered by buyers in event securities defaulted (potentially on hook for billions of dollars worth of risky securities once considered safe); if unable to pay all of its insurance claims, institutional investors around world would have been instantly forced to reappraise value of those securities, in turn would have reduced their own capital, value of their own debt.

    (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/09/17/business/17aig-graf01.jpg)

March 2, 2009 - American International Group Inc. reported $61.7 billion 4th-quarter loss; biggest quarterly loss in corporate history ($22.95/ share, fifth quarterly loss in a row; broke record of $45 billion set by Time Warner Inc. during 4th quarter of 2002 during its acquisition by America Online;  Mayfair (London) office of AIG, dubbed "the casino in London", blamed for bringing world's largest insurance company to its knees. AIG's financial products division (specialized in in credit default swaps) overseen by Joseph Cassano, viewed as key villain of  global financial crisis; AIG boasted triple-A credit rating, would stand behind banks' securities in return for fee; did not need to build reserves in case of major claims (AIG considered it largely risk-free); Cassano said in 2007: "It is hard for us, without being flippant, to even see a scenario within any kind of realm of reason that would see us losing $1."

(Aetna), Henry R. Gall and William George Jordan (1919). One Hundred Years of Fire Insurance; Being a History of the Ătna Insurance Company, Hartford, Connecticut, 1819-1919. (Hartford, CT: The Ătna insurance company, 260 p.). Aetna Insurance Company; Aetna Life Insurance Company (Hartford, Conn.).

Eliphalet Adams Bulkeley (petitioned CT legislature to incorporate Aetna Life in 1853) (http://www.tfaoi.com/am/8am/8am198.jpg)

(Aetna), Richard Hooker (1956). Aetna Life, Insurance Company, Its First Hundred Years. (Hartford, CT: The Company,   p). Aetna Insurance Company; Aetna Life Insurance Company.

(Aetna), Mallory B. Mercaldi; research by Joan B. Whiting and Aetna archivist Paul C. Lasewicz (1992). Aetna Bond: Strength, Commitment, Excellence. (Hartford, CT: Aetna Casualty and Surety Co., 118 p.). Aetna Casualty and Surety Company (Hartford, Conn.)--History; Insurance, Surety and fidelity--United States--History.

(AFLAC), Seymour Shubin (1998). The Man from Enterprise: The Story of John B. Amos, Founder of AFLAC. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 228 p.). Amos, John Beverly, 1924-1990; American Family Life Insurance Company--History; Insurance, Life--United States--History; Executives--United States--Biography.

(AIG), Ronald Shelp with Al Ehrbar (2006). Fallen Giant: The Amazing Story of Hank Greenberg and the History of AIG. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 228 p.). Former Supervisor of Worldwide Government Relations, Corporate Communications, Aadvertising/Sales Promotion at AIG; Former Chief Economics Writer (Wall Street Journal). Greenberg, Maurice R.; Adler, Rodney; American International Group, Inc.--History; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Insurance executives--United States--Biography; Insurance companies--United States--History. How A.I.G.’s "unique corporate culture" contributed to its autocratic chairman’s success and — after 37 years at the helm — his undoing? 

Hank Greenberg. AP/Wide World Photos. Hank Greenberg - AIG  (http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/biography/images/idbb_02_img0115.jpg)

(Alexander & Alexander), John A. Bogardus, Jr.; with Robert H. Moore (2003). Spreading the Risks: Insuring the American Experience. (Chevy Chase, MD: Posterity Press, 408 p.). Alexander & Alexander--History; Insurance--United States; Insurance companies--United States.

(Alexander & Company), Theodore Martin Alexander, Sr. (1993). Beyond the Timberline The Trials and Triumphs of a Black Entrepreneur. (Edgewood, MD: E.E. Duncan and Company, 269 p.). Alexander, Theodore Martin, Sr.; Alexander & Company--History. Entrepreneurship. 

(Alliance), Sir William Schooling (1924). Alliance Assurance, 1824-1924. (London, UK: Alliance Assurance Company,   119 p.). Alliance Assurance Company, Limited.

(Allianz AG), Gerald D. Feldman (2001). Allianz and the German Insurance Business, 1933-1945. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 568 p.). Allianz Versicherungs AG (Germany)--History--20th century; Insurance companies--Germany--History--20th century.

(American General), Fran Dressman; foreword by Sterling C. Evans (1994). Gus Wortham: Portrait of a Leader. (College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 284 p.). Wortham, Gus S., 1891-1976; American General Life Insurance Company; Businesspeople--Texas--Biography.

(American Hull Insurance Syndicate), C. Bradford Mitchell (1970). Touching the Adventures & Perils ... A Semicentennial History. (New York, NY: American Hull Insurance Syndicate, 233 p.). American Hull Insurance Syndicate.

(American Income Life Insurance Co.), As Told to Don Carleton; with an introduction by Bill Moyers (2002). Being Rapoport: Capitalist with a Conscience. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 316 p.). Rapoport, Bernard, 1917- ; University of Texas System. Board of Regents--Biography; Democratic Party (Tex.)--Biography; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography; Jews--United States--Biography; Insurance companies--United States.

(AmerUs Life), Jay Pridmore (1996). A Century of Success: The Amerus Life Story (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 200 p.). AmerUs Life (Firm)--History; Insurance companies--United States--History; Insurance, life--United States--History.

(Assicurazioni Generali), Francesco Balletta (1995). Mercato Finanziario e Assicurazioni Generali: 1920-1961. (Napoli, IT: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 194 p.). Assicurazioni Generali--History; Insurance companies--Italy--Rome--History; Capital market--Italy--History; Italy--Economic conditions--1918-1945; Italy--Economic conditions--1945-1976.

(Atlanta Life Insurance Company), Alexa Benson Henderson (1990). Atlanta Life Insurance Company: Guardian of Black Economic Dignity. (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 251 p.). Atlanta Life Insurance Company--History; Insurance--United States--History; Afro-Americans--Economic conditions.

(Bankers Life), Joseph Frazier Wall (1979). Policies and People: The First Hundred Years of the Bankers Life (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 192 p.). Bankers Life Company--History.

(Bankers Life and Casualty), William Hoffman (1969). The Stockholder. (New York: Lyle Stuart, 192 p.). MacArthur, John Donald, 1897-.

(Bankers Life and Casualty), Bob Sanford (1996). John D. MacArthur, A View from the Bar: A Memoir. (Highland City, FL: Rainbow Books, 149 p.). MacArthur, John D., 1897-1978; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography.

(Bankers Life and Casualty), Nancy Kriplen (2008). The Eccentric Billionaire: John D. MacArthur-- Empire Builder, Reluctant Philanthropist, Relentless Adversary. (New York, NY: AMACOM/ American Management Association, 234 p.). MacArthur, John D., 1897-1978; Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography; Billionaires--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography. Rose from poverty (son of fire-and-brimstone preacher), sole owner of Bankers Life and Casualty; real estate empire spanned continent; tumultuous private life; established foundation that funded NPR, liberal  causes.

(Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association), Robert Cunningham, III and Robert M. Cunningham, Jr.; foreword by Rosemary A. Stevens (1997). The Blues: A History of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield System. (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 311 p.). Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association--History; Insurance, Health--United States--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Texas), Samuel Schaal (1999). Lone Star Legacy: The Birth of Group Hospitalization and the Story of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Texas. (Dallas, TX: Odenwald Press, 193 p.). Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Texas; Insurance, Health--Texas; Insurance, Hospitalization--Texas.

(Blue Cross), Odin Anderson (1975). Blue Cross Since 1929: Accountability and the Public Trust. (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 118 p.). Blue Cross Association -- History.

(Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company), Dane Yorke (1950). Able Men of Boston: The Remarkable Story of the First 100 Years of the Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company, Its Men, Its Times, and Its Growth in Insurance Protection, in Fire Prevention Know-How, in Ever Vital Service and Security to North American industry, 1850-1950. (Boston, MA: Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Co, 253 p.). Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company.

(Chicago Metropolitan Assurance Company), Robert E. Weems, Jr. (1996). Black Business in the Black Metropolis: The Chicago Metropolitan Assurance Company, 1925-1985. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 158 p.). Chicago Metropolitan Assurance Company -- History; Insurance companies -- Middle West -- History; African American business enterprises -- Middle West -- History.

(Chubb & Son), Thomas Caldecot Chubb (1957). If There Were No Losses: The Story of Chubb & Son from Its Founding in 1882 until 1957. (New York, NY: Chubb & Son, 93 p.). Chubb & Son; Insurance companies, American--New York (State)--New York; Insurance, Marine.

(Cincinnati Equitable), Clyde William Park (1954). The Cincinnati Equitable Insurance Company, Oldest Fire Insurance Company West of the Alleghenies. (Cincinnati, OH: The Company, 196 p.). Cincinnati Equitable Insurance Company.

(C-Life), Fiona Graham (2003). Inside the Japanese Company. (New York, NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 256 p.). Insurance, Life--Japan--Management; Industrial relations--Japan; National characteristics, Japanese.  

(C-Life), Fiona Graham (2005). A Japanese Company in Crisis: Ideology, Strategy, and Narrative. (New York, NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 288 p.). C-Life (Firm)--Employees--Attitudes; C-Life (Firm)--Employees--Longitudinal studies; Corporate culture--Japan--Case studies; Business failures--Japan--Case studies.

(Coastal States Life Insurance Co.), Rufus Jarman (1974). The History of Coastal States Life. (Atlanta, GA: Coastal States Life Insurance Co., 295 p.). Coastal States Life Insurance Co.

(Commercial Union Assurance), Edward Liveing (1961). A Century of Insurance: The Commercial Union Group of Insurance Companies, 1861-1961; A Centenary History. (London, UK: H. F. & G. Witherby, 320 p.). Commercial union assurance company.

(Confederation Life Insurance Co.), Rod Mcqueen (1996). Who Killed Confederation Life?: The Inside Story. (Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 320 p.). Confederation Life Insurance Co.

(Connecticut Mutual - founded 1846; first life insurance company in CT), William Cahn (1970). A Matter of Life and Death; The Connecticut Mutual Story. (New York, NY: Random House, 309 p.). Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company.

Dr. Guy Rowland Phelps (secured charter for Connecticut Mutual in 1846)  (http://images.goantiques.com/dbimages/XZP1690/XZP1690624729306.jpg)

(Continental Insurance), Ann M. Kelchburg, with Ronald G. Mullins (1979). A History of the Continental Insurance Company. (New York, NY: Corporate Communications Dept., Continental Corp., 126 p.). Continental Insurance Company--History.

(Cooperative Insurance Society), R. G. Garnett (1968). A Century of Co-Operative Insurance. (London, UK: Allen & Unwin, 324 p.). Cooperative Insurance Society.

(CUNA Mutual Insurance Society), Hakala Associates Inc. (1991). The Debt Shall Die with the Debtor: The Story of CUNA Mutual Insurance Society. (Madison, WI: CUNA Mutual Insurance Group, 198 p.). CUNA Mutual Insurance Society--History; Insurance companies--United States--History; Insurance, Credit life--United States--History; Credit unions--United States--History.

(Equitable - IA), George S. Pease (1967). Patriarch of the Prairie; The Story of Equitable of Iowa, 1867-1967. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 260 p.). Equitable Life Insurance Company of Iowa, Des Moines.

(Equitable - IA), George S. Mills (1988). The Little Man with the Long Shadow: The Life and Times of Frederick M. Hubbell. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 262 p.). Hubbell, Frederick M. (Frederick Marion), 1839-1930; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Railroads--United States--History. 

(Equitable Life Assurance Society ), Roscoe C. Buley (1959). The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States: One hundredth Anniversary History, 1859/1959. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 262 p.). Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States.

(Equitable Life Assurance Society), R. Carlyle Buley (1967). The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, 1859-1964. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1475 p., 2 vols.). Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States.

(Equitable Life Assurance Society), John Rousmaniere (1995). The Life and Times of the Equitable. (New York, NY: Equitable Companies, Inc., 371 p.). Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States.

(Equitable Life Assurance Company), Patricia Beard (2003). After the Ball: Gilded Age Secrets, Boardroom Betrayals, and the Party That Ignited the Great Wall Street Scandal of 1905. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 402 p.). Former Writer/Editor (Town & Country/Elle). Hyde, James Hazen, 1876-1959; Equitable Life Insurance Company--History; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Wall Street--History.

(Equitable Life Assurance Society), Anonymous (2005). Henry Baldwin Hyde: A Biographical Sketch. (Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 268 p.). Hyde, Henry Baldwin; Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States.

(Equitable Life Assurance Society - London), Maurice E. Ogborn (1962). Equitable Assurances; The Story of ... the Equitable Life Assurance Society, 1762-1962. (London, UK: Allen & Unwin, 271 p.). Society for Equitable Assurances on Lives and Survivorships; Insurance, Life -- Great Britain -- History.

(Erie Insurance), Samuel P. Black, Jr. and John Paul Rossi (2001). Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Automobile Insurance: Samuel P. Black and the Rise of Erie Insurance, 1923-1961. (New York, NY: Routledge, 358 p.). Prominent Pennsylvania Insurance Executive and Associate Professor of History (Penn State Erie), respectively. Black, Samuel P. (Samuel Patton), 1902-; Erie Insurance Group; Insurance, Automobile--United States--History; Insurance companies--Pennsylvania--Erie--History; Entrepreneurship. 

(Farmers Insurance), Kathi Ann Brown (2003). Sound Thinking and Lofty Ideals: The First Seventy Five Years of Farmers Insurance. (Los Angeles, CA: Farmers Insurance). Farmers Insurance; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Fireman's Fund), Frank Morton Todd (1929). A Romance of Insurance, Being a History of the Fireman's Fund Insurance Company of San Francisco. (San Francisco, CA: Printed for the Fireman's fund insurance company at the press of the H. S. Crocker company, 283 p.). Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, San Francisco.

(Fireman's Fund), William Bronson; Introd. by Oscar Lewis (1963). Still Flying and Nailed to the Mast: the First Hundred Years of the Fireman's Fund Insurance Company. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 192 p.). Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, San Francisco.

(First Executive), Gary Schulte (1991). The Fall of First Executive: The House That Fred Carr Built; An Insider's Account of the Biggest Insurance Failure in History. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 288 p.). Carr, Fred, 1931- ; First Executive Corporation; Insurance holding companies--United States; Insurance, Life--United States.

(First Executive), Vic Modugno (1992). Broken Promises: The Inside Story of the Failure of Executive Life. (Torrance, CA: Pacific Insurance Press, 206 p.). First Executive Corporation--History; Insurance holding companies--United States; Insurance, Life--United States; Business failures--United States.

(Franklin Life Insurance Company - founded 1884) (1972). The Fabulous Franklin Story: The History of the Franklin Life Insurance Company 1884-1970. (Springfield, IL: Franklin Life, 256 p.). Franklin Life Insurance Company. Part of the American General Financial Group.

(Friends’ Provident Mutual Life Office), David Tregoning and Hugh Cockerell (1982). Friends for Life: Friends’ Provident Life Office 1832-1982. (London, UK: Henry Melland, 196 p.). Friends' Provident Mutual Life; Life insurance agents -- Great Britain. 1832 - Religious Society of Friends, the Quakers, founded Friends’ Provident Mutual Life Office in Yorkshire.

(Geico), William K. Klingaman (1994). GEICO: The First 40 Years. (Washington, DC: GEICO Corp., 152 p.). Government Employees Insurance Company--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Guardian Life), J.M. Kesslinger (1960). Guardian of a Century, 1860-1960. (New York, NY: Guardian Life Insurance Co. of America, 125 p.). Guardian Life Insurance Company--History.

(Guardian Life), Anita Rapone (1987). The Guardian Life Insurance Company, 1860-1920: A History of a German-American Enterprise. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 209 p.). Guardian Life Insurance Company--History; German Americans--History.

(Guardian Life), Robert E. Wright and George David Smith (2004). Mutually Beneficial: The Guardian and Life Insurance in America. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 503 p.). Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics (Stern School of Business, New York University); Clinical Professor of Economics, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation (Stern School of Business, New York University). Guardian Life Insurance Company History; Insurance, Life United States History; Insurance companies United States History. 

(Joseph Hadley & Co. Ltd.), Hurford Janes (1977). A Wonderful Heritage: The Hadley Story. (London, UK: Henry Melland for Joseph Hadley (Holdings) Ltd., 104 p.). Hadley family; Hadley, Joseph, 1862-1958; Insurance--Great Britain--Biography; Insurance--United States--Biography.

(Hancock), William T. Baxter (1965). The House of Hancock. (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 321 p. [Reprint of 1945 ed.]). Hancock, Thomas, 1703-1764; Hancock, John, 1737-1793; Boston--History--Colonial period; Boston--Commerce.

(Hartford Fire Insurance Company), Hawthorne Daniel (1960). The Hartford of Hartford: An Insurance Company's Part in a Century and a Half of American History. (New York, NY: Random House, 312 p.). Hartford Fire Insurance Company.

(Hartford Steamboiler), Glenn Weaver and J. Bard McNulty (1991). An Evolving Concern: Technology, Safety, and the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, 1866-1991. (Hartford, CT: The Company, 168 p.). Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company--History; Insurance, Boiler--United States--History; Steam-boiler inspection--United States--History.

(Heritage Mutual Insurance Company), Janet Ellen Raasch (2000). Against All Odds: The History of a Regional Mutual Insurance Company, 1925-2000. (Sheboygan, WI: Heritage Mutual Insurance Co., 167 p.). Heritage Mutual Insurance Company (Sheboygan, Wis.)--History; Insurance companies--Wisconsin--Sheboygan--History.

(INA), William H. A. Carr (1967). Perils, Named and Unnamed; The Story of the Insurance Company of North America. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 424 p.). Insurance Company of North America.

(INA), Marquis James (1976). Biography of a Business, 1792-1942: Insurance Company of North America. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 431 p. [Reprint of 1942 ed.]). Insurance Company of North America.

(INA), Mary Elizabeth Ruwell (1993). Eighteenth Century Capitalism: The Formation of American Marine Insurance Companies. (New York, NY: Garland Pub., 184 p.). Insurance Company of North America--History; Insurance, Marine--United States--History--18th century; Insurance, Marine--History--18th century.

(Jefferson Pilot Financial - origins to Jefferson Standard Insurance Co., founded in 1907 and Pilot Life Insurance Co., founded in 1903), Ned Cline, William Friday (2001). Adding Value: The Joseph M. Bryan Story from Poverty to Philanthropy. (Winston-Salem, NC: Down Home Press, 382 p.). Bryan, Joseph M.; Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Co., North Carolina -- business.

(Johnson & Higgins), Richard Blodgett (1995). Johnson & Higgins at 150 Years (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 143 p.). Johnson & Higgins--History; Insurance companies--New York (State)--New York--History.

(Leslie and Godwin), Victor Head (1985). Two's Company: A History of Leslie and Godwin 1885-1985. (London, UK: Leslie and Godwin (Holdings) PLC, 121 p.). Leslie and Godwin (Holdings) PLC.

(Lincoln National), Michael C. Hawfield (1995). Ninety Years and Growing: The Story of Lincoln National. (Indianapolis, IN: Guild Press of Indiana, 161 p.). Lincoln National Life Insurance Company; Insurance, Life--United States--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Lloyd's), Charles Wright ... and C. Ernest Fayle ... (1928). A History of Lloyd's from the Founding of Lloyd's Coffee House to the Present Day. (London, UK: Published for the Corporation of Lloyd's by Macmillan and Company limited, 475 p.). Lloyd's (Firm); Insurance, Marine--Great Britain.

(Lloyd's), Ralph Straus (1937). Lloyd’s: A Historical Sketch. (London, UK: Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., 292 p.). Lloyd’s (Firm); Insurance, Marine--Great Britain.

(Lloyd's), Ralph Straus (1938). Lloyd’s; The Gentlemen at the Coffee-House. (New York, NY: Carrick & Evans, 327 p.). Lloyd’s (Firm); Insurance, Marine--Great Britain.

(Lloyd's), D. E. W. Gibb (1957). Lloyd's of London, A Study of Individualism. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 387 p.). Lloyd's (Firm).

(Lloyd's), Raymond Flower [and] Michael Wynn Jones (1974). Lloyd's of London; An Illustrated History. (New York, NY: Hastings House, 192 p.). Lloyd's (Firm)--History.

(Lloyd's), Hugh Cockerell (1984). Lloyd's of London: A Portrait. (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 157 p.). Lloyd's (Firm)--History.

(Lloyd's), Vanessa Harding and Priscilla Metcalf (1986). Lloyd's at Home. (Colchester, Esse: Lloyd's of London, 168 p.). Lloyd's (Firm)--History; Commercial buildings--England--London.

(Lloyd's), Godfrey Hodgson (1986). Lloyd's of London: A Reputation at Risk (New York, NY: Penguin, 414 p. [rev. and updated]).

(Lloyd's), Antony Brown (1987). Hazard Unlimited: From Ships to Satellites: 300 Years of Lloyd's of London: An Intimate Portrait. (London, UK: Lloyd's of London Press, 168 p. [3rd ed.]). Lloyd's (Firm)--History.

(Lloyd's), Ian Hay Davison (1987). Lloyd's: A View of the Room: Change and Disclosure New York, NY, St. Martin's Press). 238 p. Lloyd's (Firm).

(Lloyd's), Cathy Gunn (1993). Nightmare on Lime Street: Whatever Happened to Lloyd's of London? (London, UK: Smith Gryphon Publishers, 232 p. [rev. new ed.]). Lloyd's (Firm)--History; Insurance companies, British--History.

(Lloyd's), Jonathan Mantle (1993). For Whom the Bell Tolls: Lessons of Lloyd's of London. (London, UK: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1 vol.). Lloyd's (Firm); Insurance companies--England--London--History.

(Lloyd's), Elizabeth Luessenhop and Martin Mayer (1995). Risky Business: An Insider's Account of the Disaster at Lloyd's of London. (New York, NY: Scribner, 352 p.). Lloyd's (Firm); Insurance companies--England--London--History.

(Lloyd's), Adam Raphael (1995). Ultimate Risk: The Inside Story of the Lloyd's Catastrophe. (New York, NY: Four Walls Eight Windows, 301 p.). Lloyd's (Firm); Insurance companies--England--London--Management.

(Manulife), Rod McQueen (2009). Manulife: How Dominic D'Alessandro Built a Global Giant and Fought to Save It. (Toronto, ON, Viking Canada, 280 p). Manulife Financial -- History; Chief executive officers -- Canada -- Biography; Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography. 15 years of business leadership; how pugnacious personality, hard-driving leadership style of Dominic D'Alessandro led Manulife Financial to position as one of largest, most profitable life insurance companies in North America, fourth largest in world, successful completion of Canada's largest cross-border merger.

(Maritime Life), Harry Bruce (2002). Never Content: How Mavericks and Outsiders Made a Surprise Winner of Maritime Life. (Toronto, ON: Key Porter, 256 p.). Maritime Life (Firm)--History; Insurance, Life--Canada--History.

(MA Hospital Life), Gerald T. White (1955). A History of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 229 p.). Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company.

(Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co.), R. J. Holden (1951). A Century of Service; the Massachusetts Mutual Story. (Springfield, MA: Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co., 191 p.). Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company.

(MetLife - origins to 1863), Louis I. Dublin (1943). A Family of Thirty Million; The Story of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. (New York, NY: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 496 p.). Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.

(MetLife), Marquis James (1976). The Metropolitan Life: A Study in Business Growth. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 480 p. [Reprint of 1947 ed.]). Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.

(Mutual Benefit Life), Mildred F. Stone (1957). Since 1845; A History of the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 236 p.). Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company.

(Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York), Shepard B. Clough (1946). A Century of American Life Insurance; A History of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, 1843-1943. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 402 p.). Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York; Insurance, Life--United States--History.

(Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York), Michel Helman (1993). Generations of Excellence. (Teaneck, NJ: Tunnel Press, 350 p.). Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York--History; Insurance companies--United States--History; Insurance, Life--United States--History.

(Mutual of America), John Baird (1989). Promises to Keep: The Mutual of America Story. (New York, NY: Mutual of America Life Insurance Co., 321 p.). Mutual of America Life Insurance Company--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(National Fire Insurance Company), Natonal Fire Insurance Company (1897). A Quarter-Century's Fire Underwriting, 1871-1896. An Historical and Biographical Milestone in the Life of the National Fire Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn. (New York, NY: The De Vinne Press. Insurance, Fire--United States--History.

(National Insurance Company of New Zealand), Gordon Parry (1973). Underwriting Adventure: A Centennial History of the National Insurance Company of New Zealand, Limited. (Dunedin, NZ: National Insurance Company of New Zealand, 212 p.). National Insurance Company of New Zealand.

(National Life Group), Mildred F. Stone (1979). Extraordinary Ellen, The First lady of Life Insurance: The Story of Ellen M. Putnam, CLU. (Rockville Centre, NY: Farnsworth Pub., 102 p.). Putnam, Ellen M., 1894-; Insurance, Life--United States--Biography. 

(National Life and Accident Insurance Company), Powell Stamper The National Life Story; A History of the National Life and Accident Insurance Company of Nashville, Tennessee. (New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 359 p.). National Life and Accident Insurance Company, inc., Nashville.

(National Mutual Life Assurance Society), Compiled by Eric Street (1980). The History of the National Mutual Life Assurance Society, 1830-1980. (London, UK: The Society, 122 p.). National Mutual Life Assurance Society --History.

(National Provident Institution), Norman Toulson (1985). The Squirrel and the Clock: National Provident Institution, 1835-1985. (London, UK: Melland, 140 p.). National Provident Institution -- History; Great Britain Life assurance companies.

(Nationwide Insurance Enterprise), Peter D. Franklin (1994). On Your Side: The Story of the Nationwide Insurance Enterprise. (Columbus, OH: The Enterprise, 291 p.). Nationwide Insurance Enterprise--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Newcastle P & I Association), Martin Fryer (1987). A Newcastle Century: One Hundred Years of Newcastle P & I Association, Newcastle Protection and Indemnity. (Newcastle, UK: Newcastle Protection and Indemnity, 156 p.). Newcastle Protection and Indemnity; Marine insurance -- Great Britain.

(NE Mutual Life), Sydney Clark (1935). The First Hundred Years of the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1835-1935. (Boston, MA: New England Mutual Life Insurance Company. New England Mutual Life Insurance Company; Finance--United States--History.

(NE Mutual Life), Abram T. Collier (1985). A Capital Ship: New England Life: A History of America's First Chartered Mutual Life Insurance Company, 1835-1985. (Boston, MA: New England Mutual Life Insurance Co., 336 p.). New England Mutual Life Insurance Company--History; Insurance companies--United States--History; Insurance, Life--United States--History.

(New York Life), James M. Hudnut (1895). Semi-Centennial History of the New York Life Insurance Company, 1845-1895 (New York, NY: The Company, 401 p.). New York Life Insurance Company.

(New York Life), Lawrence F. Abbott (1930). The Story of Nylic; A History of the Origin and Development of the New York Life Insurance Company from 1845 to 1929. (New York, NY: The Company, 329 p.). New York life insurance company. [from old catalog]; Insurance, Life--United States--History. [from old catalog].

(New York Life), Tom O'Hanlon (1995). The Company You Keep: 150 Years with New York Life. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 239 p.). New York Life Insurance Company--History; Insurance,Life--United States--History; IInsurance companies--United States--History.

(New Zealand Government Life Insurance Office), C. W. Vennell (1969). Tower of Strength; A Centennial History of the N.Z. Government Life Insurance Office, 1869-1969. (Auckland, NZ: Wilson & Horton, 240 p.). New Zealand Government Life Insurance Office.

(Nippon Life), edited by Japan Business History Institute (1991). The 100-year History of Nippon Life: Its Growth and Socioeconomic Setting, 1889-1989. (Osaka, Japan: Nippon Life Insurance Co., 389 p.). Nihon Seimei Hoken S»ogo Kaisha--History.

(North Carolina Mutual Life), Jesse E. Gloster (1976). North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Its Historical Development and Current Operations. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 349 p. [Originally presented as the author's thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1955]). North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company; Afro-American businessmen.

Charles Clinton Spaulding - North Carolina Mutual Life   (http://www.northcarolinahistory.org/images/uploaded/posts/screen_4a2d53420ea79.jpg); August 2, 1952 Obituary: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0801.html

(Northwestern Mutual Fire Association), Jack Bertholf (1951). Men and Mutuality; 50 Years. (Seattle, WA: Metropolitan Press, 223 p.). Northwestern Mutual Fire Association.

(Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.), Henry F. Tyrell (1908). Semi-Centennial History of the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1859-1908. (Milwaukee, WI: The company, 389 p.). Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company.

(Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.), Harold F. Williamson and Orange A. Small (1976). Northwestern Mutual Life: A Century of Trusteeship. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 368 p. [Reprint of 1957 ed.]). Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company.

(Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co.), John Gurda (1983). The Quiet Company: A Modern History of Northwestern Mutual Life. (Milwaukee, WI: Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co., 334 p.). Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company--History.

(Northwestern Mutual Life), John Gurda (2007). The Policyowners’ Company: A History of Northwestern Mutual, 1857-2007. (Milwaukee, WI: Northwestern Mutual Life, 245 p.). Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company --History.

(Ohio Farmers), George E. Condon, Willard Largent (1985). History of Ohio Farmers Insurance Company. (Westfield Center, OH: Westfield Companies, 274 p.). Ohio Farmers Insurance Company--History; Westfield Companies--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Old Mutual), Phillida Brooke Simons (1995). Old Mutual, 1845-1995. (Cape Town, SA: Human & Rousseau, 253 p.). Old Mutual (Cape Town, South Africa)--History; Insurance companies--South Africa--History.

(Penn Mutual), Dunlea Hurley (1947). Panorama of a Century : 1847-1947 (Philadelphia, PA: Penn Mutual Life Insurance Co., 158 p.). Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company.

(Phoenix Assurance), Clive Trbelcock (1986). Phoenix Assurance and the Development of British Insurance: Volume 1, 1782-1870. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 812 p.). Phoenix Assurance--History; Insurance, Fire--Great Britain--History.

(Phoenix Assurance), Clive Trbelcock (1999). Phoenix Assurance and the Development of British Insurance: Volume 2, The Era of the Insurance Giants 1870-1984. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1088 p.). Phoenix Assurance--History; Insurance, Fire--Great Britain--Graet Britain.

(Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance), Marian Calabro (2001). A Wealth of History: 150 Years with Phoenix, 1851-2001. (Lyme, CT, Greenwich Pub. Group, 144 p.). Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company; Life insurance --United States.

(Pilgrim Life Insurance Company), Joseph D. Greene (2005). From Cotton Fields to Board Rooms. (Tucson, AZ: Hats Off Books, 148 p.). Former Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer. Greene, Joseph D.; Insurance companies--United States--History; Boards of Directors. 

(Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund), John A. Baird (1982). Horn of Plenty: The Story of the Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund. (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 320 p.). Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund --History.

(Providence Washington Insurance Company), William Greene Roelker and Clarkson A. Collins, III (1949). One Hundred Fifty Years of Providence Washington Insurance Company, 1799-1949. (Providence, RI: The Company, 153 p.). Providence Washington Insurance Company.

(Provident Life and Accident), John Longwith (1986). Provident: A Centennial History: The Story of Provident Life and Accident Insurance Company. (Chattanooga, TN: The Company, 169 p.). Provident Life and Accident Insurance Company (Chattanooga, Tenn.)--History; Insurance, Life--United States--History; Insurance, Accident--United States--History.

(Provincial), Oliver M. Westall (1992). The Provincial Insurance Company 1903-1938: Family, Markets, and Competitive Growth. (New York, NY: Manchester University Press, 465 p.). Provincial Insurance Company; Insurance--Great Britain--History.

(Prudential Assurance Co.), R. W. Barnard (1948). A Century of Service: The Story of the Prudential 1848-1948. (London, UK: Prudential Assurance Co., 148 p.). Prudential Assurance Company--History; Insurance--Great Britain--History. History of the Prudential Insurance Company.

(Prudential Assurance Co.), Laurie Dennett (1998). A Sense of Security: 150 Years of Prudential. (Cambridge, UK: Granta Editions, 438 p.). Prudential Assurance Company--History; Insurance--Great Britain--History.

(Prudential), Earl Chapin May and Will Oursler (1950). The Prudential: A Story of Human Security. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 372 p.). Prudential Insurance Company of America, Newark, N.J.

(Prudential), William H. A. Carr (1975). From Three Cents a Week ...: The Story of the Prudential Insurance Company of America. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 316 p.). Prudential Insurance Company of America, Newark, N.J.

(Prudential), Laurie Dennett (1998). A Sense of Security: 150 Years of Prudential. (Cambridge, UK: Granta Editions, 438 p.). Prudential Assurance Company--History; Insurance--Great Britain--History.

(Refuge Assurance Company), Cyril Clegg (1958). Friend in Deed: The History of a Life Assurance Office from 1858 as the Refuge Friend in Deed Life Assurance and Sick Fund Friendly Society to 1958 as the Refuge Assurance Company Limited. (Toronto, ON: Stone and Cox Limited, 160 p.). Refuge Assurance Company.

(Royal Exchange Assurance), Barry Supple (1970). The Royal Exchange Assurance; a History of British Insurance 1720-1970 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 584 p.). Royal Exchange Assurance; Insurance--Great Britain--History.

(Royal London Mutual Insurance Society Limited), Walter Gore Allen (1961). We the Undersigned: A History of the Royal London Mutual Insurance Society Limited and Its Times, 1861-1961. (London, UK: Newman Neame, 809 p.). Royal London Mutual Insurance Society Limited.

(Salvation Army Assurance Society Ltd.), Bernard Watson (1968). A Unique Society A History of the Salvation Army Assurance Society Limited. (London, UK: Salvationist Publishing & Supplies, 135 p.). Salvation Army Assurance Society Limited.

(Scottish Provident Institution), Maurice Lindsay (1987). Count All Men Mortal: A History of Scottish Provident 1837-1987. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Canongate, 224 p.). Scottish Provident Institution; Great Britain Insurance companies.

(Scottish Union & National Insurance Company), W. Forbes Gray (1924). A Brief Chronicle of the Scottish Union & National Insurance Company, 1824-1924. (Edinburgh, Scotland: H. & J. Pillans & Wilson, 192 p.). Scottish Union & National Insurance Company; Insurance companies -- Scotland -- History.

(SECURA Insurance Companies), SECURA Insurance Companies (2000). Milestones & Memories: Seasons of Change-- SECURA's 100-Year Journey. (Appleton, WI: SECURA Insurance Companies, 104 p.). SECURA Insurance Companies--History; Insurance companies--United States--History.

(Security Benefit Life Insurance Company), Dean L. Smith (1979). A Nickel a Month. (St. Louis, MO: MidAmerica Pub., 239 p.). Security Benefit Life Insurance Company--History.

(Security Industrial Insurance Co.), E.J. Ourso with Dan Marin (2001). Dreaming Impossible Dreams: Reflections of an Entrepreneur. (Lafayette, LA: Acadian House, 175 p.). Ourso, E. J., 1923- ; Millionaires--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United States--Biography.

(Sedgwick Group plc), James Bishop (1998). The Sedgwick Story. (London, UK: Sedgwick Group plc, 144 p.). Sedgwick Group plc; insurance -- Great Britain; Insurance -- marine. History of Segwick’s, from foundation of company in 1879 until taken over by Marsh and McLennan in 1997.

(South British Insurance Company), C. W. Vennell (1972). Risks and Rewards, A Policy of Enterprise 1872-1972; A Centennial History of the South British Insurance Company Limited. (Auckland, NZ: Wilson and Horton for the Company, 368 p.). South British Insurance Company.

(Standard Life), Michael S. Moss (2000). Standard Life, 1825-2000: The Building of Europe's Largest Mutual Life Company. (Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Pub., 431 p.). Standard Life Assurance Company (Edinburgh, Scotland)--History; Insurance companies--Scotland--History; Insurance, Life--Scotland--History.

(State Farm), Karl Schriftgiesser (1955). The Farmer from Merna; A Biography of George J. Mecherle and a History of the State Farm Insurance Companies of Bloomington, Illinois. (New York, NY: Random House, 243 p.). Mecherle, George Jacob, 1877-1951; State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company; State Farm Life Insurance Company.

(Sun Insurance Office Ltd.), P. G. M. (Peter George Muir) Dickson (1960). The Sun Insurance Office 1710-1960; The History of Two and a Half Centuries of British Insurance. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 324 p.). Sun Insurance Office, Ltd.; Insurance -- Great Britain -- history.

(Sun Life), Joseph Schull (1971). The Century of the Sun; The First Hundred Years of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. (Toronto, ON: Macmillan, 158 p.). Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada.

(Supreme Life), Robert Christian Puth (1976). Supreme Life: The History of a Negro Life Insurance Company. (New York, NY: Arno Press, 293 p. [orig. pub. 1968]). Supreme Life Insurance Company of America; Afro-American businesspeople.

(Time Insurance Company), Janet Ellen Raasch (1992). With Time on Our Side: A Centennial History of Time Insurance Company. (Milwaukee, WI: Milwaukee County Historical Society, 127 p.). Time Insurance Company--History.

(Toplis and Harding Group), David Wainwright (1990). In the Wake of Disaster: 200 Years of the Toplis and Harding Group. (London, UK: Quiller, 173 p.). Toplis and Harding Group; Insurance History Great Britain.

(Transamerica), George H. Koster with E. Elizabeth Summers (1978). The Transamerica Story: 50 Years of Service and Looking Forward. (San Francisco, CA: Transamerica Corp., 95 p.). Transamerica Corporation--History; Bank holding companies--United States--History; Financial services industry--United States--History.

(Union Central Life Insurance), The Company (1917). Union Central Life Insurance Company, 1867-1917. (Cincinnati, OH: The Company, 102 p.). Union Central Life Insurance Company.

(Union Mutual Life Insurance Company), George Stuyvesant Jackson (1964). A Maine Heritage; The History of the Union Mutual Life Insurance Company.  (Portland, ME: The Author, 221 p.). University of Maine at Portland. Union Mutual Life Insurance Company (Portland, Me.); Insurance companies -- Maine -- History.

(USAA), Edward C. Dunn (1970). USAA: Life Story of a Business Cooperative. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 492 p.). USAA.

(USAA), Paul T. Ringenbach (1997). USAA: A Tradition of Service, 1922-1997. (Dallas, TX: Donning Co., 580 p.). USAA; Insurance, Automobile--United States; Insurance companies--United States--History; United States--Armed Forces--Officers--Finance, Personal.

(USF&G), Russ Banham (1996). Legacy & Leadership: USF&G's First Century. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 111 p.). United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company--History; Insurance, Surety and fidelity--Maryland--Baltimore--History; Insurance companies--Maryland--Baltimore--History.

(Western and Southern Life), Gerald E. Moore (1988). Making an Idea Succeed: The Western-Southern Story. (Cincinnati, OH: Western and Southern Life Insurance Co., 177 p.). Western and Southern Life Insurance Company--History; Insurance companies--Ohio--Cincinnati--History.

(Woodmen of the World Life Insurance Co.), Farrar Newberry (1914). Life and Speeches of Joseph Cullen Root, and The Glories of Perfected Woodcraft. (Arkadelphia, AR: The Siftings Herald Printing Co., 183 p.). Root, Joseph Cullen, 1844-1913; Woodmen of the World Life Insurance Co.

(Wright), Philip Green Wright and Elizabeth Q. Wright (1937). Elizur Wright; The Father of Life Insurance. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 380 p.). Wright, Elizur, 1804-1885.

(Wright), Lawrence B. Goodheart (1990). Abolitionist, Actuary, Atheist: Elizur Wright and the Reform Impulse. (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 282 p.). Wright, Elizur, 1804-1885; Abolitionists--United States--Biography; Actuaries--United States--Biography; Atheists--United States--Biography; Antislavery movements--United States; Insurance, Life--United States--History--19th century.

Timothy Alborn (2009). Regulated Lives: Life Insurance and British Society, 1800-1914. (Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press, 439 p.). Professor in the Department of History (Lehman College, City University of New York). Life insurance --Social aspects --Great Britain --History --19th century' Life insurance --Great Britain --History --19th century; Great Britain --Social conditions --19th century; Great Britain --Civilization --19th century. British life insurance industry's changing assessments of values, risks of human life between 1800 and 1914; how Victorian ideas about lived experience altered both to accommodate, resist elements of modernity; Victorian life insurance companies' customers were consuming subjects, objectified abstractions; how salesmen, actuaries, doctors utilized their differing conceptions of what various aspects of people's lives meant.

John Bainbridge (1952). Biography of an Idea: The Story of Mutual Fire and Casualty Insurance. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 381 p.). Insurance, Fire--United States--History; Insurance, Casualty--United States--History.

Robert L. Carter and Peter Falush (2009). The British Insurance Industry Since 1900: The Era of Transformation. (Basingstoke, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 236 p.). Emeritus Professor of Insurance Studies (University of Nottingham, UK); Consultant, Journalist. Insurance --Great Britain --History --20th century; Insurance --Great Britain --History --21st century. Fast-changing shape of distribution system, role of state, shifting boundaries of insurability, risk transfer; life and general insurance, reinsurance, changing pattern of legislation and regulation.

Joseph W. Eaton and David J. Eaton; with a foreword by Tom Miller (2007). The American Title Insurance Industry: How a Cartel Fleeces the American Consumer. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 287 p.). Professor Emeritus of Economic and Social Development Studies (University of Pittsburgh); Bess Harris Jones Centennial Professor of Natural Resources Policy Studies (University of Texas at Austin). Insurance, Title--United States; Title companies--United States. Cartel-like arrangement: anticompetitive business practices (price-fixing, excessive prices relative to risk of defect, location); federal, most state governments perpetuate industry unfair practices.

James Fleming (1986). Merchants of Fear: An Investigation of Canada's Insurance Industry. (New York, NY: Viking, 409 p.). Insurance--Canada; Insurance companies--Canada.

Eric D. Gerst (2008). Vulture Culture: Dirty Deals, Unpaid Claims, and the Coming Collapse of the Insurance Industry. (New York, NY: New York : American Management Association, 256 p.). Insurance Lawyer. Insurance--Corrupt practices--United States; Insurance law--United States. ExposÚ of industry: widespread corruption, inconsistent state regulation, inability (often unwillingness) of federal government to protect rights of denied claimants; bid-rigging, fraudulent commissions, secret payoffs, abuses, ominous new trends. Industry on brink of collapse.

Burton J. Hendrick (1907). The Story of Life Insurance. (New York, NY: McClure, Phillips & Co., 296 p.). Insurance, Life. [from old catalog]; Insurance, Life--United States--History. [from old catalog].

Morton Keller (1963). The Life Insurance Enterprise, 1885-1910; A Study in the Limits of Corporate Power. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 338 p.). Insurance companies--United States.

Mackie (1956). Facile Princeps: The Story of the Beginning of Life Insurance in America. (Lancaster, PA: Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund, 292 p.). Presbyterian Ministers’ Fund; Insurance, Life--United States--History.

E. J. Moorhead (1989). Our Yesterdays: The History of the Actuarial Profession in North America, 1809-1979. (Schaumberg, IL: Society of Actuaries, 437 p.). Actuaries--United States--History; Actuaries--Canada--History.

Sharon A. Murphy (2010). Investing in Life: Insurance in Antebellum America. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 395 p.). Associate Professor of History (Providence College). Life insurance -- United States -- History -- 19th century; Insurance companies -- United States -- History -- 19th century; United States -- Economic conditions -- To 1865. Evolution of corporate strategies for marketing and organization, ambivalent popular responses to life insurance, especially among urban middle class; insurance as business and social phenomenon; how insurance companies positioned themselves within marketplace, calculated risks associated with disease, intemperance, occupational hazard, war, battled fraud, murder and suicide; role of consumers, their reasons for purchasing life insurance, perceptions of industry, how their desires, demands shaped ultimate product.

John E. Murray (2007). Origins of American Health Insurance: A History of Industrial Sickness Funds. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 336 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Toledo). Insurance, Health--United States--History; Sick leave--United States--History; Absenteeism (Labor)--United States. History of health insurance in U. S. from roots in 19th-century sickness funds (offered by industrial employers, fraternal organizations, labor unions) to rise of group plans (Blue Cross and Blue Shield) in mid-20th century; workings of industrial sickness funds suggest that workers rejected plans for compulsory state insurance because they were largely content with existing private plans, thus no movement to establish universal health insurance.

Kenneth D. Myers (1995). False Security: Greed & Deception in America's Multibillion-Dollar Insurance Industry. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 288 p.). Insurance crimes--United States--Case studies; Insurance--Corrupt practices--United States--Case studies.

Terence O'Donnell (1936). History of Life Insurance in Its Formative Years; Compiled from Approved Sources. (Chicago, IL: American Conservation Company, 844 p.). Insurance, Life--History. 

Robin Pearson (2004). Insuring the Industrial Revolution: Fire Insurance in Great Britain, 1700-1850. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 434 p.). Professor of Economic History (Hull University). Insurance, Fire--Great Britain--History. Definitive history of the British fire and property insurance industry through the middle of the nineteenth century.

Ed. Robin Pearson (2010). The Development of International Insurance. (London, UK: Pickering & Chatto Ltd, 261 p.). Professor of Economic History (University of Hull). Insurance industry -- history. Nine international experts cover extensive geographical, thematic spread of national insurance industries; 19th century - grew to maturity on global scale; First World War - wave of new insurance products had swept across world; insurance pooled huge variety of complex risks, enabled production, consumption of goods that would otherwise not be produced or consumed; achieved net welfare gains for both developing, more advanced economies.

Guillaume Plantin, Jean-Charles Rochet (2007). When Insurers Go Bust: An Economic Analysis of the Role and Design of Prudential Regulation. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 112 p.). Assistant Professor of Finance (London Business School); Professor of Mathematics and Economics (University of Toulouse), Visiting Professor of Finance (London School of Economics). Economics; Finance; Insurance -- regulation. Economic analysis of regulation of insurance industry; current approach to insurance regulation should be replaced with mechanisms that replicate governance of non-financial firms.

Wendell Potter (2010). Deadly Spin: An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR Is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press, 288 p.). Senior Fellow on Health Care for the Center for Media and Democracy, Former Senior Vice President, Head of Public Relations for CIGNA. Health insurance --United States; Insurance companies --Public relations --United States; Insurance, Health --economics --United States; Delivery of Health Care --economics --United States; Health Care Reform --economics --United States; Health Care Sector --economics --United States; Public Relations --economics --United States. From health care executive to outspoken reform advocate; how huge chunk of healthcare spending bankrolls propaganda campaign, lobbying effort focused on protecting profits; health care legislation makes no attempt to change fundamental problem; how relentless PR assaults play insidious role in political process.

J. Owen Stalson (1942). Marketing Life Insurance: Its History in America. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 911 p.). Insurance, Life--United States; Life insurance agents.

Mildred F. Stone (1960). The Teacher Who Changed an Industry; a Biography of Dr. Solomon S. Huebner of the University of Pennsylvania. (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 393 p.). Huebner, S. S. (Solomon Stephen), 1882-1964; Insurance--Study and teaching.

--- (1963). A Calling and Its College; A History of the American College of Life Underwriters. (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 425 p.). American College of Life Underwriters.

Andrew Tobias (1982). The Invisible Bankers: Everything the Insurance Industry Never Wanted You to Know. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 336 p.). Insurance--United States; Insurance companies--United States.

Ed. Oliver M. Westall (1984). The Historian and the Business of Insurance. (Dover, NH: Manchester University Press, 196 p.). Insurance--Great Britain--History; Insurance, Fire--Great Britain--History; Insurance, Life--Great Britain--History; Insurance--History--Research.

JoAnne Yates (2005). Structuring the Information Age: Life Insurance and Technology in the Twentieth Century. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 368 p.). Distinguished Professor of Management (MIT Sloan School of Management). Insurance, Life--United States--History; Insurance, Life--Technological innovations. How life insurance companies (good record-keeping, repeated use of massive amounts of data) adopted, shaped information processing technology through most of 20th century.

Viviana A. Rotman Zelizer (1983). Morals and Markets: The Development of Life Insurance in the United States. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 208 p. [orig. pub. 1979]). Insurance, Life--United States--History; Insurance, Life--Social aspects--United States--History.

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Business History Links

Insurance Hall of Fame                                                           http://www.insurancehalloffame.org/                           

Induction into the Insurance Hall of Fame is the highest honor awarded to individuals in the insurance industry. Created in 1957, the Insurance Hall of Fame honors those throughout the world who have exercised substantial influence on the industry for the benefit of society. Laureates of the Insurance Hall of Fame have created lasting and significant ideas that have expanded the industry. Founded by Dr. John Bickley, Emeritus Professor of Insurance, The University of Alabama, USA and it was first created at the Griffith Foundation for Insurance Education in Ohio. Today, the Hall of Fame is administered by the International Insurance Society, Inc., a non-profit educational group of some 800 insurance executives from around the world.

 

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