1720 - Joshua Gee, Joseph Farmer, William Russell,
Thomas Russell, John Ruston, and Stephen Onion found Principio
Company; Augustine Washington [father of George Washington] held
a one-twelfth interest.
1730 - King
of France granted royal warrant to François Poulin de
Francheville, Seigneur de Saint-Maurice, a Montreal merchant, to
mine iron ore deposits on his seigneury for a 20-year period;
1733 - founded Compagnie des Forges de Saint-Maurice
(died same year); August 20, 1738 - St. Maurice
Ironworks officially opened near Trois-Rivières, Quebec, first
industrial community in Canada, after determining that project
could be profitable if another process for reducing iron ore
were used; established primarily for the purpose of providing
bar iron for building and fitting out ships in the royal navy;
March 1883 - oldest operating blast furnace in
North America closed; could no longer compete with more modern
coke-fired blast furnace ironworks in Ontario and Nova Scotia.
Benjamin Huntsman discovered the crucible technique for making
steel in Sheffield, UK; enormous impact on quantity, quality of
steel produces; 1856 - made obsolete invention of
Bessemer converter (allowed mass production of steel).
- Dowlais Iron Co. established in Wales; 1767 -
John Guest appointed as manager; 1900 -
incorporated as Guest, Keen and Co Limited; 1902 -
name changed to Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd.; 1986
- name shortened to GKN PLC.
1760 - Carron
Iron Works in operation in Scotland.
September 15, 1817
opened Plumstock Rolling Mill,
first U.S. mill to roll and puddle iron, at
Rolling Mill, at Redstone Creek, PA; reduced the carbon
content in cast iron to produce malleable iron; produced wrought
iron by roll milling rather than than hammer forging; destroyed
by floods in 1824. Meason established the first commercially
successful iron furnace and forge west of the Alleghenies in
1791; eventually owned 20,000 acres of land, six iron furnaces,
toll ferries and bridges, two sawmills, grist mills, the entire
town of New Haven and property in Kentucky.
1828 - Edward Vickers, miller, George Naylor (father-in-law) formed Naylor Vickers and Company,
steel foundry, in Sheffield, UK (gained control of steelmaking
firm of Naylor & Sanderson); 1867
- incorporated as Vickers, Sons and Co. Ltd.; acquired
businesses, diversified; 1868
- manufactured marine shafts; 1872
- cast marine propellers; 1882
- set up forging press; 1888
- produced first armor plate; 1890
- made first artillery piece.
- Vickers plc
April 28, 1829 - Henry Robinson Palmer,
co-founder of Institute of Civil Engineers in 1818 and resident
engineer of London Dock and Harbour Company, received first
British patent for "application of metallic plates or sheets, in
a fluted, indented, or corrugated form, to the purposes in
relation to buildings, for which metallic plates with even or
plain surfaces, have been already applied. The advantage to be
derived...consists in the additional strength obtained in the
metal itself, so that less aid is required from framework
supporting or attached thereto..."; application of corrugated
iron to roofs, other parts of buildings (stiffness minimized
need for supporting framework).
July 4, 1840
- Blast furnaces of Lehigh Crane Iron Company, in what is
now known as Catasauqua, Pennsylvania, began production;
1860 - group of executives, headed by Robert H. Sayre,
from recently completed Lehigh Valley Railroad, acquired control
of paper corporation, renamed the Bethlehem Rolling Mill and
Iron Company; produced high-quality wrought-iron rails for
Lehigh Valley, other railroads; 1861 - reorganized
as Bethlehem Iron Company; 1873 - built new,
revolutionary mill (Bessemer process) combined, for first time,
production of steel with rolling of rails in an integrated
process in single building; 1899 - reorganized as
Bethlehem Steel Company, put up for sale.
Robert H. Sayre -
Bethlehem Iron Company
May 30, 1844 -
Simeon Broadmeadow, of Woodbridge, NY, received a patent for an
"Improvement in the Mode of Obtaining Wrought-Iron Directly from
the Ore" ("to obtain malleable iron directly from the ore by
treating the same in a pudding-furnace").
November 9, 1847
- Ohio legislature granted special charter to Cleveland Iron
Company prior to adoption of new constitution in 1850;
April 1850 - chartered by Michigan legislature, began
operations on land in Marquette Iron District bordering on Lake
Superior in Marquette County, MI; April 1853 -
Samuel Mather, Dr. Morgan L. Hewitt, Isaac L. Hewitt, John
Outhwaite, Henry F. Brayton, Selah Chamberlain, E.M. Clark
incorporated Cleveland Iron Mining Company to explore for
minerals in remote wilderness of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula
(iron ore discovered near Negaunee, MI in 1844); 1890
- acquired Cliffs Iron Company, name changed to Cleveland-Cliffs
Iron Company; mid-1980s - renamed Cleveland-Cliffs
Inc.; 2008 - six iron ore mines account for
approximately 46% of North American capacity, 28% for its own
account; largest supplier of iron-ore pellets to steel industry,
oldest iron-mining firm with headquarters in Cleveland.
William G. Mather
- president of Cleveland-Cliffs
October 13, 1853 -
Samuel Wetherill, of Philadelphia, erected the Pennsylvania and
LeHigh Zinc Company Mill in Bethlehem, PA; produced the first
commercial zinc, which was obtained from calamine ores;
eventually acquired by the New Jersey Zinc Company.
October 17, 1855 - Sir
Harry Bessemer, of London, UK, British inventor and
metallurgist, received patent for "Improvements in the
Manufacture of Iron and Steel" ("decarbonization process,
utilizing a blast of air"); first process for mass-producing
cast steel inexpensively from
molten pig iron;
the "Bessemer Process": compressed air blasted through molten
iron removed impurities and excess carbon; made it possible to
mass-produce steel inexpensively; November 11, 1856
- received U.S. patent for ""Improvement
in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel"; 1859 -
Bessemer, Robert Longsdon and William D. Allen
(brothers-in-law), William Galloway (Manchester engineer)
founded Henry Bessemer and Co. to build Bessemer Steel Works on
Carlisle St. in Sheffield, UK; manufactured guns, later rails
for rapidly expanding railway network.
April 8, 1857
- Augustus Wolle, Charles Brodhead incorporated The Saucona Iron
Company to build blast furnace to produce pig iron Saucon Creek
at Gangewere mine; persuaded to enlarge functions of mine,
relocate to south side of Lehigh, at Bethlehem, PA; backed by
Augustus Wolle, Charles Brodhead, Charles W. Rauch, Ambrose H.
Rauch, Charles B. Daniel, others;
June 14, 1860 - The Bethlehem Rolling Mills and
Iron Company organized, Alfred Hunt as president; Augustus
Wolle, Asa Packer (founder of Lehigh Valley Railroad), John T.
Johnston, John Knecht, Edward Roberts, Charles B. Daniel,
Charles W. Rauch as Directors; John Fritz, iron-master of
Johnstown, PA, hired as general superintendent, chief engineer;
May 1, 1861 - name
changed to The Bethlehem Iron Company;
1873 - began making steel; primarily
supplier of military products;
April 17, 1899 - Bethlehem Steel Co. established
as holding company; April 1901
- Charles M. Schwab (facilitated creation, first president of
U.S. Steel Company) acquired Bethlehem Steel Company;
1902 - merged
Bethlehem Steel with group of seven shipyards, created
short-lived United Ship Building Company;
1904 - resigned as president of U.S.
Steel, combined shipyards with Bethlehem Steel Company, with
Joseph Wharton created Bethlehem Steel Corporation.
- President, The Bethlehem Rolling
Mills and Iron Company
1857 - Robert Mushet, metallurgist from Coleford,
England, received a patent for an "Improvement in the
Manufacture of Iron and Steel"; Bessemer-Mushet process of
manufacturing cheap steel, achieved by adding spiegeleisen to
blown metal during melting process; 1868 -
discovered self-hardening steel, became known as Robert Mushet's
Special Steel (R.M.S.); first real tool steel, forerunner of
modern high-speed steels.
1857 - William Kelly, of Lyon County, KY,
received patent for the "Improvement in the Manufacture of Iron"
("New and Improved Method of Treating Iron by which I am enabled
to refine and decarbonize crude pig metal or iron in a fluid
state without the use of fuel"); "a system of air blowing the
carbon out of pig iron" a method of steel production known as
the pneumatic process of steelmaking; air is blown through
molten pig iron to oxidize and remove unwanted impurities.
Bankruptcy forced Kelly to sell patent to Bessemer.
- Gorran Fredrik Goransson founded Hogbo Stal & Jernwerks AB,
steel company, in Sandviken, Swedn (had produced steel on
industrial scae, using Bessemer method, for first time in world
in 1858); made tyres for railroad cars and locomotives,
propeller axles for steamboats, drill steel for rock drilling;
1866 - went
bankrupt; 1868 -
re-established as Sandvikens Jernverks AB;
1870s - sold cold-rolled, u-shaped wire
for umbrella ribs; 1876
- started wire rolling, cold drawing operations;
1883 - started
production of cold-rolled, hardened strip steel;
1901 - listed on
Stockholm Stock Exchange; 1902
- started to produce and deliver steel conveyor belts;
1919 - established
Sandvik Steel Inc., first subsidiary in U.S.;
1921 - began
manufacture of stainless steel;
1942 - began manufacture of cemented carbide;
1950s - began
manufacture of cemented-carbide tools;
1958 - Goransson family interest
acquired by Kinnevik Group; 1968
- annual sales exceeded SEK 1 billion;
1972 - name changed to Sandvik AB;
1983 - acquired by
Swedish company Skanska; 1997-
majority ownership acquired by Swedish investment company
- sold Saws and Tools business, concentrated on Tooling, Mining,
Construction and Specialty Steels;
2011 - 47,000 employees, operations in 130
countries, annual sales of approximately SEK 83 billion.
Gorran Fredrik Goransson
- Sandvik AB
- Union General William J. Palmer , colleagues in Denver and Rio
Grande Railway (D&RG), created Central Colorado Improvement,
Southern Colorado and Coal Town, South Pueblo Colony, Colorado
Coal and Steel Works companies as local source for steel rail
for their expanding narrow railroad business;
1880 - consolidated
into Colorado Coal and Iron Company (CC&I);
1892 - merged with John Cleveland
Osgood's Colorado Fuel and Company in Pueblo, form Colorado Fuel
and Iron Corporation; 1903
- John D. Rockefeller, George Gould gained control of company;
1944 - controlling
interest acquired by Allen Group;
1969 - acquired by Crane Company;
1990 - declared
bankruptcy; assets acquired by Oregon Steel Company.
- John Maneely, Irish immigrant, launched John Maneely Company,
pipe distribution business in Philadelphia, PA; sold pipe,
valves and fittings; 1920s
- one of largest independent distributors of steel, iron pipe on
East Coast; 1931 -
organized Wheatland Tube Company (Wheatland. PA) as steel pipe
manufacturing subsidiary; 1944
- Wheatland began production of couplings;
1963 - installed new Aetna Standard Mill
(eliminated "tong and bell" method of manufacturing pipe);
introduced rigid conduit; 1960s
- introduced Electrical Metallic Tubing (thinner wall tubular
product); 1992 -
acquired Omega Tube and Conduit (Little Rock, AR), entered
residential fence tubing market;
2002 - acquired Sawhill Tubular from AK Steel
(largest expansion company's history); increased capabilities,
annual production to 800,000 tons;
2003 - Peter S. Dooner, fourth generation family
member, appointed president and CEO;
March 2006 - acquired by The Carlyle
Group, private equity firm; largest independent manufacturer of
tubular steel in North America;
August 12, 2008 - agreed to sell company to
Russian steelmaker Novolipetsk Steel for $3.53 billion;
October 8, 2010 -
restructured, name changed to JMC Steel Group.
November 1, 1879
- First all-steel railroad bridge built in Glasgow, MO.
1880 - Colonel James Withers
Sloss, North Alabama planter and
investor, founded Sloss Furnace Company in
Birmingham, AL; April 18, 1882 - "blew-in" second
blast furnace in Birmingham; 1885 - company sold
to group of financiers, renamed Sloss Iron & Steel Company;
August 1899 - merged with Sheffield Steel and Iron
Company, incorporated Sloss- Sheffield Steel and Iron Company
(seven furnaces in Alabama, 1500 beehive coke ovens, 120,000
acres of coal and ore land, five Jefferson County coal mines,
two red ore mines, brown ore mines, quarries in North
Birmingham); became second largest merchant pig-iron company in
Birmingham district; start of WW II - among
largest producers of pig iron in world; 1952 -
merged with U.S. Pipe and Foundry Company; 1960s-1970s
- merchant pig iron industry undermined by technological
changes, introduction of ductile iron and plastic pipe, foundry
trade’s increasing reliance on scrap iron;
iron and steel industry due to stricter air pollution standards,
competition from foreign imports, mismanagement in industry;
1969 - acquired by Jim Walter Corporation; 1971
- oldest remaining blast furnaces in Birmingham shut; 2008
- only 20th-century blast furnace in U.S. preserved, interpreted
as historic industrial site, example of 20th-century iron-making
technology in era when America grew to world industrial
Colonel James Withers
Sloss Furnace Company
June 1, 1880 -
Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Magnetic
Ore-Separator" ("means by which, while simple and cheap in
construction, shall economically and effectually separate
magnetic from non-magnetic substances").
March 17, 1885
- Fayette Brown, of Cleveland, OH, received a patent for
"Hoisting and Top Filling Apparatus for Blast Furnaces"; blast
Reinhard and Max Mannesmann established Deutsch-Österreichische
Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG with pipe mills at Remscheid,
Bous/Saar and Komotau/Bohemia, headquarters in Berlin (invented
pierce rolling process for manufacture of seamless steel tubes
in 1885); 1897 - Deutsche Röhrenwerke A.-G.
established in Düsseldorf to produce welded pipe; January
5, 1907 - went public; 1920s - integrated
vertically: acquired steelworks at Duisburg- Huckingen, piping
systems fabricator at Bitterfeld, engineering concern, Gebruder
Meer of Monchengladbach; 1930s - one of six giant
iron, steel works of Ruhr; 1952 - split into three
parts in post-war settlement (reunited in 1955); 1970
- acquired pipe-making opeartions of Thyssen Corporation;
October 1999 - acquired UK's third-largest
cellular operator, Orange PLC (3.5 million U.K. subscribers )
for $32.8 billion; February 10, 2000 - acquired by
Vodaphone AirTouch for $187 billion, largest corporate merger in
- Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG
June 7, 1892
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Ore Screening
Apparatus" ("for keeping the screen perforations free from
obstruction by lumps of ore too large to readily pass through
June 14, 1892
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Method of and
Apparatus for Separating Ores" ("separating gold or other
non-magnetic ore from the quartz by a dry process").
July 1, 1892 -
Carnegie Brothers and Carnegie, Phipps, Company merged, formed
Carnegie Steel with capitalization of $25,000,000; Carnegie
owned 55%, Frick 11%, Phipps 11%, nineteen other partners 1%
each; remaining 4% held in reserve to reward successful young
men in plants; 1900
- vertically integrated, controlled ore, coke, limestone,
shipping facilities on Great Lakes and from Great Lakes to
Pittsburgh; H.C. Frick Company combined with Carnegie Steel;
January 1900 -
Carnegie tried to force out Frick;
March 1900 - Frick ousted from management;
March 2, 1901 -
acquired by J. P. Morgan for $480,000,000.
- Henry Clay Frick, general manager of Carnegie Steel's
Homestead Steel Works in Homestead, PA, began to shutdown
operations as wage negotiations Amalgamated Association of Iron
and Steel Workers (700 of 3,800 workers) had proved
unsuccessful; workers' wage contract, sliding scale based on
price of 4 x 4 standard Bessemer steel billets, set to expire on
June 30 (Frick had refused to negotiate after June 25); Frick
wanted to cut wages by nearly 20% as price of rolled-steel
products had declined to $22/gross ton from $35;
2, 1892 -
Frick shut mills
with intent to hire non-union workers to replace strikers;
built fence three
miles long, 12 feet high around steelworks plant with peepholes
for rifles, topped with barbed wire;
July 6, 1892
- steel workers clashed with 300 Pinkerton detectives hired
to break strike; nine strikers, seven agents dead;
July 9, 1892 - strike
ended as State of Pennsylvania sent 7000 troops to "restore law
1892 - production resumed; November 1892 - union
conceded defeat, called off strike; Carnegie fired, blacklisted
May 30, 1893
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Rollers for Crushing
Ore or Other Materials" ("especially adapted for crushing iron
ore...three or more rollers supported side by side in a frame
and moveable towards or away from each other, instead of using
them in pairs, and a single weight and lever serves to press all
of said rollers together").
Elbert H. Gary became first president of newly
organized Federal Steel Company (backed by J.P. Morgan);
1901 - merged with U.S. Steel Corporation; Gary elected
chairman of the board, corporation's chief executive officer for
26 years; 1906 - town of Gary, IN, named in his
June 14, 1898
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Drying Apparatus"
("drying or baking oven suitable for the drying or baking of
iron-ore briquets or analagous material"); received a patent for
a "Mixer" ("suitable apparatus for mixing concentrated
pulverized iron ore with a binding material preparatory to the
molding of the material into briquets").
December 2, 1899
- George M. Verity (35), owner of American Steel Roofing
(assumed management in 1889 of Sagendorf Iron Roofing and
Corrugating Company, reorganized in 1891 as American Steel
Roofing Company), incorporated American Rolling Mill Company;
July 12, 1900 - moved company to one-room slab
building in Middletown, OH; March 7, 1901 - first
furnace fires lighted to produce rolled steel (continuous
process for converting white hot ingot into long, thin sheet or
strips), mainly for other manufacturers to use in their own
products; reduced price of automobile body steel from $83 per
ton to $7 per ton; grew to country's eighth largest steel
company; 1948 - adopted acronym "ARMCO"; soon name
changed to Armco Steel Corporation; 1978 - name
changed to Armco Inc.; 1989 - name changed to AK
Steel; 1994 - AK Steel Holding Corporation
created, went public; 1999 - AK Steel subsidiary
merged with Armco Inc.; combined company produced flat-rolled
carbon, stainless and electrical steel products for automotive,
appliance, construction, manufacturing markets, standard pipe
and tubular steel products, employed about 11,500 people.
March 24, 1900 -
Andrew Carnegie incorporated Carnegie Steel Company (thumbed his
nose at Sherman Anti-Trust Law).
April 1901 -
Charles M. Schwab (facilitated creation, first president of U.S.
Steel Company) acquired Bethlehem Steel Company;
1902 - merged
Bethlehem Steel with group of seven shipyards, created
short-lived United Ship Building Company;
1904 - resigned as president of U.S.
Steel, combined shipyards with Bethlehem Steel Company, created
Bethlehem Steel Corporation;
1907-1908 - began producing Grey beams (radical
new rolling mill invented by English engineer Henry Grey) -
(H-section steel structural members that are wider, lighter,
cheaper to produce than conventional, riveted I-section beams);
made possible erection of taller skyscrapers, longer-span
bridges, greatly diversified Bethlehem's product line, lessened
almost exclusive dependence on military orders;
1922 - acquired
Lackawanna Steel Company; 1995
- steelmaking ceased at Bethlehem Steel plant;
1997 - remaining
parts of plant, coke works shut down (couldn't compete with
profitable mini-mill type steel manufacturers, which re-melted
scrap steel, recast it into new products);
October 11, 2001 - filed for Chapter 11
bankruptcy; December 18, 2002
- U.S. Pension Benefit Security announced that it would take
over the company's pensions, assets, and obligations.
April 1, 1901
- J. Pierpont Morgan formed U.S. Steel Corp.; largest business
enterprise ever launched, with an authorized capitalization of
interests of Carnegie Steel Company and Federal Steel Company
formed nucleus of U. S. Steel (also included American Steel &
Wire Co., National Tube Company, American Tin Plate Co.,
American Steel Hoop Co., American Sheet Steel Co.); first full
year of operation, made 67 percent of all steel produced
in United States.
May 28, 1901
- Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Magnetic Separator"
("for ground material containing magnetic and non-magnetic
particles particularly adapted for the separation of ground
magnetic iron ore"); received a patent for an "Apparatus for
Screening Pulverized Material".
1907 - Tata Iron
and Steel Company went public; December 2, 1911 -
first cast of pig-iron produced; February 16, 1912
- first steel made.
August 13, 1913
- English metallurgist, Harry Brearley cast first true
stainless steel in Sheffield, England; steel alloy
contained 0.24% carbon and 12.8% chromium - strongly resisted
chemical attack, including vinegar and other food acids such as
lemon juice; realized that this new steel could also
revolutionize the cutlery industry.
October 1, 1933
- Mesabi Iron Co. of Babbitt, MN shipped the first cargo of
taconite, a low-grade ore containing 25% - 30% iron (magnetite
and hematite as tiny particles scattered throughout a very tough
variety of quartz called chert), to the Ford Motor Company of
River Rouge, MI.
March 1, 1937
- John L. Lewis of Congress of Industrial Organizations and U.S.
Steel President Myron Taylor signed landmark contract; heart of
the deal was U.S. Steel's official recognition of the CIO's
steel arm as the sole negotiator for the company's unionized
workers; concessions to U.S. Steel employees: adoption of
overtime pay, forty-hour work week, pay hike that raised wages
by nearly forty cents an hour; Taylor viewed the UAW-GM strike
as a clear indication that "complete industrial organization was
inevitable", reached out to his workers in hopes of averting a
November 17, 1948
- Britain's House of Commons voted to nationalize steel
March 14, 1950 -
Permanente Metals Corporation registered "Kaiser" trademark
first used November 23, 1946 (aluminum products-namely. pig,
ingot, strip, coil, [general utility sheet and plate, aircraft ]
sheet and plate [and sheet] including flat corrugated and coiled
1952 - President Harry S. Truman seized steel industry
to avert a nationwide strike; June 1952 - Supreme
Court ruled in Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer that
Truman had overstepped his bounds. The finding effectively
proscribed the president's power during times of national
February 5, 1953
- American Iron and Steel Institution announced that U.S. steel
companies had produced 117,500,000 short tons of steel during
the past year.
June 15, 1954
- Great Britain's second biggest steel factory nationalized.
- John H. McConnell, former salesman for Weirton Steel in
Columbus, OH, started business as a custom processed steel
broker with $1,200 in savings; borrowed $600 against 1952
Oldsmobile, worked from basement of his home; founded
July 2, 1957
- Bethlehem Steel Corporation poured first vacuum-cast steel
ingot made in the U.S.; 93,900-pound ingot, 78 inches in
diameter; can be made using either an electric or open-hearth
furnace to melt the metal.
1962 - President John F. Kennedy sharply chided the
steel industry for its recent decision to jack up prices which
he deemed a "wholly unjustified and irresponsible" move; few
days later, steel leaders rolled back the price hikes.
July 28,1967 -
British Steel formed from UK's 14 main steel producing
November 27, 1979
- U.S. Steel announced on this day that it was shutting down
twelve of its plants, threatened jobs of 13,000 employees;
placed much of the blame on "restrictive government policies and
rules," which putatively resulted in "unfairly priced imports"
and excessive environmental spending requirements.
December 27, 1983
- U.S. Steel announced it was reducing steelmaking capacity by
roughly 20 percent, taking a $1.2 billion pre-tax write-off for
the year (biggest pre-tax charge in the steel industry;
Bethlehem Steel had earlier taken a $930 million write-off),
laying off 4,600 workers; plant closings and write-offs affected
15,400 U.S. Steel employees (10,800 workers who were previously
laid-off had now permanently lost their jobs).
June 26, 2006
- Mittal Steel agreed to acquire Arcelor for $33.5 billion;
currently the two largest steel manufacturers in the world,
combination will account for nearly 10% of world's total
industry, three times capacity (100 million tons annually) of
nearest rival, Nippon Steel; 320,000 employees, $70 billion in
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(Bethlehem Steel), Andrew Garn with an
Introduction by Lance E. Metz (1999).
Bethlehem Steel/Photographs. (New York, NY: Princeton
Architectural Press, 108 p.). Bethlehem Steel Company,
Steel-works-Pennsylvania. Photographic chronicle of the
Bethlehem Steel Company, a prime supplier of steel for
railroads, highways and structures (Chrysler Building, Panama
(Bethlehem Steel), Kenneth Warren (2007).
Industrial Genius: The Working Life of Charles Michael Schwab.
(Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 304 p.).
Emeritus Fellow of Jesus College (University of Oxford). Schwab,
Charles M., 1862-1939; Industrialists--United States--Biography;
Steel industry and trade--United States--History.
Startling success of Schwab's
business career, his leadership abilities, his drive to advance
steel-making technology and operations; visionary in industrial
history of America.
(British Steel), John Vaizey (1974).
History of British Steel. (London, Uk: Weidenfeld &
Nicolson, 205 p.). British Steel Corporation.
(British Steel), Elizabeth Cottrell (1981).
The Giant with Feet of Clay: The British Steel Industry
1945-1981. (London, UK: Centre for Policy Studies, 222 p.).
British Steel Corporation -- History; Steel industry and trade
-- Great Britain.
(British Steel), R.A. Bryer, T.J. Brignall,
A.R. Maunders (1982).
Accounting for British Steel: A Financial Analysis of the
Failure of the British Steel Corporation 1967-80, And who Was to
Blame. (Aldershot, UK: Gower, 303 p.). British Steel
Corporation -- Finance; Steel industry and trade -- Great
(British Steel), G.F. Dudley and J.J.
Politics and Steel in Britain, 1967-1988: The Life and Times of
the British Steel Corporation. (Aldershot, UK:
Dartmouth, p.). British Steel
Corporation; Steel industry and trade -- Great Britain.
(British Steel), Charles Villiers (1992).
Beyond the Sunset. (Stoke Abbott, UK: T. Harmsworth
Pub., 267 p.). Villiers, Charles, 1912- ; British Steel
Corporation--Biography; Great Britain. Army--Biography;
(British Steel), Bob Haslam (2003).
An Industrial Cocktail. (London, UK: Robert Hale &
Company, 292 p.). Former Chairman, British Steel. Haslam, Bob;
(Broken Hill Proprietary), Geoffrey Blainey
The Steel Master: A Life of Essington Lewis. (Carlton
South, Vic., AU: Melbourne University Press, 217 p.). Lewis,
Essington, 1881-1961; Broken Hill Proprietary Company,
ltd.--History; Steel industry and
(Broken Hill Proprietary), Donald G. Hoskins
(1995). The Ironmaster: The Life of Charles Hoskins,
1851-1926. (North Wollongong, N.S.W.: University of
Wollongong Press, 166 p.). Hoskins, Charles Henry, 1851-1926;
Broken Hill Proprietary Company, ltd.--History; Iron industry
and trade--Australia--History; Steel industry and
trade--Australia--History; Port Kembla (N.S.W.)--History.
(Buckeye), Mansel G. Blackford (1982).
A Portrait Cast in Steel: Buckeye International and Columbus,
Ohio, 1881-1980. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 225
p.). Buckeye International (Firm)--History; Columbus
(Cameron Iron Works), Patrick J. Nicholson
Mr. Jim: The Biography of James Smither Abercrombie.
(Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co., 364 p.). Abercrombie, James
Smither; Abercrombie family; Businesspeople--United
States--Biography; Oil field equipment and supplies
(Campbell, Wyant and Cannon Foundry), George
William Cannon, Wally E. George (1964).
That First Casting Must Be Good; George W. Cannons Story of the
Partnership and the Foundries of Campbell, Wyant and Cannon, as
Told to Wally E. George. (Muskegon, MI: G.W. Cannon Co.,
175 p.). Campbell, Wyant and Cannon Foundry Company; Textron,
inc. Campbell, Wyant and Cannon Foundry Company.
(Cape Gate Fence and Wire Works), Mendel
Kaplan, with Solomon Kaplan and Marian Robertson (1979).
From Shtetl to Steelmaking: The Story of Three Immigrant
Families and a Family Business. (Cape Town, SA:
Kaplan-Kushlick Foundation, 144 p.). Kaplan family; Cape Gate
Fence and Wire Works--History; Jews--South Africa--History.
(Carron Company), R. H. (Roy Hutcheson)
Campbell (1961). Carron Company. (Edinburgh, Scotland:
Oliver and Boyd, 346 p.). Carron Company.
(Carron Iron Works), Watters, W.B. (1998).
Where Iron Runs Like Water: A New History of the Carron Iron
Works 1759-1982. (Edinburgh, Scotland: John Donald
Publishers Ltd., 230 p.). Carron Iron Works.
(Charter Manufacturing), John Gurda (2006).
The Will To Grow: A History of Charter Manufacturing Company.
(Milwaukee, WI: Charter Manufacturing Co., 117 p.). Charter
Manufacturing --History; Manufacturing industries --Wisconsin
--Milwaukee; Steel industry and trade --Wisconsin --Milwaukee.
(Cockerill-Sambre), Francis Groff (1995).
Albert Frere: Le Pouvoir et La Discretion. (Bruxelles,
Belgium: Editions Labor, 167 p.). Frere, Albert, 1926- ;
(Cockerill-Sambre), Jose-Alain Fralon. (1997).
Albert Frere: Le Fils du Marchand de Clous. (Paris, FR:
Fayard, 345 p.). Frere, Albert, 1926- ;
Businesspeople--Belgium--Biography; Iron and steel
trade--Belgium; Capitalists and financiers--Belgium--Biography.
(Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation), H. Lee
Pioneer Steelmaker in the West: The Colorado Fuel and Iron
Company, 1872-1903. (Boulder, CO: Pruett Pub. Co., 231
p.). Colorado Fuel and Iron Company; Steel industry and
--- (1992). Mill & Mine: The CF&I in the
Twentieth Century. (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska
Press, 247 p.). Colorado Fuel and Iron
Corporation--History--20th century; Steel industry and
trade--United States--History--20th century; Iron and steel
workers--Colorado--History--20th century; Coal
miners--Colorado--History--20th century; Labor unions--United
States--History--20th century; Industrial relations--United
(Colorado Fuel and Iron Company), Robert
Sunrise, A Chronology of a Wyoming Mine. (Pueblo, CO:
Bessemer Historical Society, 437 p.). Colorado Fuel and Iron
Company; Sunrise Mine; Iron mines and mining -- United States.
Mining history, labor and
management relations, oral histories of Sunrise iron ore mine
from its geologic occurrence to its closure, beyond.
(Colorado Fuel and Iron Company),
Jonathan H. Rees (2010).
Representation and rebellion : the Rockefeller plan at the
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, 1914-1942. (Boulder,
CO : University Press of Colorado, 325 p.). Associate Professor
of History (Colorado State University- Pueblo). Colorado Fuel
and Iron Company Management History. 1915 - John D. Rockefeller
Jr. introduced one of nation's first employee representation
plans (ERPs) to Colorado Fuel and Iron Company (in use until
1942); became model for ERPs all over world; Rockefeller Plan,
those who lived under it, various successes and failures;
limited but temporarily effective alternative to independent
unionism in wake of Ludlow Massacre; not story of ceaseless
oppression, stifled militancy; not story of creation of
paternalist panacea for labor unrest.
(Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional), Oliver J.
Brazil’s Steel City: Developmentalism, Strategic Power, and
Industrial Relations in Volta Redonda, 1941-1964.
(Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 352 p.). Croft
Associate Professor of History and International Studies
(University of Mississippi). Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional
--History; Iron and steel workers --Brazil --Volta Redonda
--History --20th century; Industrial relations --Brazil --Volta
Redonda --History --20th century. Social history of National
Steel Company (CSN), Brazil's foremost state-owned company,
largest industrial enterprise in mid-20th century; role
steelworkers played in Brazil's social, economic development
under country's import substitution policies from early 1940s to
1964 military coup; CSN workers held strategic power, used it to
reshape company's labor regime, extract impressive wage gains
and benefits; workers, their peers in similarly strategic
industries, had power to undermine state capitalist development
model prevalent in large economies of postwar Latin America.
(Consett Iron), Kenneth Warren (1990).
Consett Iron, 1840-1980: A Study in Industrial Location.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 193 p.). Consett Iron
Company--History; Steel industry and trade--Great
Britain--History; Iron industry and trade--Great
Britain--History; Steel industry and trade--Great
Britain--Location--Case studies; Iron industry and trade--Great
(William Cook Company), Philip Hansen (1998).
The History of the William Cook Company and the Cook Family:
From the 18th Century to 1985. (Sheffield, UK: William
Cook Ltd., 295 p.). ; Steel industry and trade -- Great Britain
(William Cook Company), Andrew Cook (1999).
Thrice Through the Fire: A History of the William Cook Company
from 1985 to 1998. (Sheffield, UK: William Cook, 225
p.). William Cook Company -- History.
(Esmark), Craig T. Bouchard and James V. Koch (2009).
America for Sale: How the Foreign Pack Circled and Devoured
Esmark. (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO, 210
p.). Steel industry and trade -- United States; Investments,
Foreign -- United States; Consolidation and merger of
corporations -- United States; Esmark -- History.
Events leading to 2008 sale of
steel giant Esmark to Russian firm (more than half of U.S. steel
production in foreign hands); actions of
main players before the sale (Esmark's board of directors,
officials of United Steelworkers Union, major public
stockholders); legislative and policy prescriptions aimed at
preventing similar sell-offs of important industrial assets in
(Robert Findlay Iron Works), Robert S. Davis,
Cotton, Fire, and Dreams: The Robert Findlay Iron Works and
Heavy Industry in Macon, Georgia, 1839-1912. (Macon, GA:
Mercer University Press, 198 p.). Findlay, Robert, 1808-1859;
Robert Findlay Iron Works; Iron works--Georgia--Macon--History;
(GKN), Edgar Jones (1987).
A History of GKN. (London, UK: Macmillan, 2 vols.).
Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland, N.V.; Steel
foundries--Great Britain--History; Steel industry and
John Guest - GKN
(Grede Foundries), Craig Miner (1989).
Grede of Milwaukee. (Wichita, KS: Watermark Press, 253
p.). Grede, Bill, 1897-1989; Industrialists--United
States--Biography; Foundries--United States--History.
(Inland Steel), Anthony Mitchell Ryerson
(1999). Humorous Hubbub: Memoirs of Anthony Mitchell Ryerson.
(Lake Forest, IL: A.M. Ryerson, 383 p.). Ryerson, Anthony
Mitchell, 1918- ; Inland Steel Company;
Businessmen--Illinois--Lake Forest--Biography; Manic-depressive
persons--Illinois--Lake Forest--Biography; Lake Forest
(Jones & Laughlin - founded by Benjamin
Franklin Jones and Pittsburgh banker James Laughlin), David H.
Wollman and Donald R. Inman (1999).
Portraits in Steel: An Illustrated History of Jones & Laughlin
Steel Corporation. (Kent, OH: Kent State University
Press, 331 p.). Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation--History;
Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Iron industry
and trade--United States--History.
(Kaiser Steel), Mark S. Foster; foreword by
William H. Goetzman (1989).
Henry J. Kaiser Builder in the Modern American West.
(Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 358 p.). Kaiser, Henry
J., 1882- ; Businessmen--United States--Biography.
Henry J. Kaiser
(Kaiser Steel), Albert P. Heiner (1991).
Henry J. Kaiser, Western Colossus: An Insider's View.
(San Francisco, CA: Halo Books, 434 p.). Public Relations
Executive at Kaiser Steel. Kaiser, Henry J., 1882- ;
(Kaiser Steel), Stephen B. Adams (1997).
Mr. Kaiser Goes to Washington: The Rise of a Government
Entrepreneur. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 239 p.). Kaiser, Henry J., 1882- ;
Businessmen--United States--Biography; Industrial policy--United
(Kaiser Steel), John Charles Anicic, Jr.
Kaiser Steel Fontana. (San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Pub.,
127 p.). Past President and Past Board Member of the Fontana
Historical Society. Kaiser Steel Corporation; Steel industry and
trade--California--Fontana--Pictorial works; Historic
buildings--California--Fontana--Pictorial works; Fontana
(Calif.).--History--Pictorial works. For two generations, Kaiser Steel
Corporation at Fontana was among California’s, nation’s
(LTV - 1963 was # 14 on the Fortune 500 list),
Stanley H. Brown (1972).
Ling; The Rise, Fall, and Return of a Texas Titan. (New
York, NY: Atheneum, 308 p.). Ling, James Joseph;
(LTV), Christopher J. Dawson (2008).
Steel Remembered: Photographs from the LTV Steel Collection.
(Kent, OH: Kent State University Press: Published in Cooperation
with the Western Reserve Historical Society, 153 p.). Western
Reserve Historical Society--Photograph collections; LTV Steel
(P. MacCallum & Sons Ltd.), John R. Hume and
Michael S. Moss (1983).
A Bed of Nails: The History of P. MacCallum & Sons Ltd of
Greenock, 1781-1981, A Study in Survival. (Greenock, UK:
Lang & Fulton, 148 p.). P. MacCallum & Sons Ltd.--History; Nail
industry--Great Britain--History; Iron industry and trade--Great
Britain--History; Steel industry and trade--Great
Britain--History; Shipbuilding industry--Great Britain--History.
(Maramec Iron Works), James D. Norris (1964).
Frontier Iron; The Maramec Iron Works, 1826-1876.
(Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 206 p.).
Maramec Iron Works.
(Maxwell Steel Company), Vera Maxwell (1979).
Hostile Witness: The Story of Maxwell Steel Company, 1933-1959.
(Fort Worth, TX: Maxwell, 183 p.). Maxwell Steel Company.
(Middleburg Steel & Alloys), Anthony Hocking
The Chrome Connection: A Commemorative History of Middleburg
Steel & Alloys. (Bethulie, Orange Free State, South
Africa: Hollards, 368 p.). Middelburg Steel & Alloys; Stainless
steel industry--South Africa; Chrome steel industry--South
(Minnesota Iron Company), Hal Bridges (1952).
Iron Millionaire: Life of Charlemagne Tower.
(Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 322 p.).
Tower, Charlemagne, 1809-1889; Industrialists--United
(Mittal Steel), Tim Bouquet and Byron Ousey
Cold Steel: The Multi-Billion-Dollar Battle for a Global Empire.
(London, UK: Little, Bown, 352 p.). Steel industry and trade;
Mittal, Lakshmi; Mittal Steel; Dolle, Guy, Arcelor S. A.
Battle for total market
domination in steel industry sent shockwaves through political
corridors of Europe, excited world’s financial markets, enriched
30 hedge funds, transformed global steel.
(Nucor Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
The Legend of Nucor Corporation. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL:
Write Stuff Enterprises, 144 p.). Nucor Corporation--History;
Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Nuclear
counter industry--United States--History.
(Nucor), Ken Iverson with Tom Varian (1998).
Plain Talk: Lessons from a Business Maverick. (New York,
NY: Wiley, 196 p.). Former CEO of Nucor Corporation. Nucor
Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United
States--Management--Case studies; Industrial management--United
(Oliver Chilled Plow Works), Joan Romine
Copshaholm: The Oliver Story. (South Bend, IN: Northern
Indiana Historical Society, 138 p.). Oliver, James, 1823-1908;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Iron industry and
trade--United States--History; Agricultural machinery--United
(Otis Steel), Margaret Bourke-White (1929).
The Otis Steel Company -- Pioneer, Cleveland, Ohio.
(Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press (privately printed), 18 p.).
First Photographer for Fortune magazine. Steel industry and
trade--United States. Limited edition of 550 copies printed for
the Otis Steel Company and signed: E.J. Kulas, president.
(Preussag AG), von Bernhard Stier und Johannes
Von der Preussag zur TUI: Wege und Wandlungen eines Unternehmens
1923-2003. (Essen, germany: Klartext, 632 p.). Preussag
zur TUI;. One of most radical
restructuring processes in German business history.
(Principio Company), Ear Chapin May (1945).
Principio of Wheeling, 1715-1915, A Pageant of Iron and Steel.
(New York, Ny: Harper & Brothers, 335 p.). Principio company,
Principio, Md.; Wheeling steel corporation; Iron industry and
trade--United States; Steel industry and trade--United States.
[from old catalog].
(Principio Company), Michael W. Robbins
The Principio Company: Iron-Making in Colonial Maryland,
1720-1781. (New York, NY: Garland, 345 p.). Principio
Company--History; Iron industry and
trade--Maryland--History--18th century. Series: American
(Republic Steel), Tom M. Girdler and Boyden
Boot straps: The Autobiography of Tom M. Girdler. (New
York, NY: Scribner, 471 p.). Steel industry and trade--United
States; Republic steel corporation.
(Rylands Brothers ltd.), H. Hurford Janes
(1956). Rylands of Warrington, 1805-1955; The Story of
Rylands Brothers Limited. (London, UK: Harley Pub. Co., 141
p.). Rylands Brothers, ltd. [from old catalog].
(Sandmeyer Steel Company), Jim H. Smith
(2002). Stainless Determination: The History of Sandmeyer
Steel Company. (Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 104 p.).
Sandmeyer Steel Company--History; Steel industry and
(Sendzimir Cold Strip Mill), Vanda Sendzimir
Steel Will: The Life of Tad Sendzimir. (New York, NY:
Hippocrene Books,, 368 p.). Daughter. Sendzimir, Tadeusz;
Inventors --United States --Biography. One of top five inventors in
history of steel; 1920s - starting from ramshackle Shanghai nail
factory; 1931 - first Sendzimir Cold Strip Mill and a
Galvanizing plant installed in Poland; his method of rolling
continuously cast steel slabs in so-called planetary mill,
cold-rolling system known worldwide; his invention opened new
horizons for use of galvanized, stainless steels.
(H. E. Shacklock Limited), John H. Angus
(1973). The Ironmasters: The First One Hundred Years of H. E.
Shacklock Limited. (Dunedin, NZ: H. E. Shacklock, 111 p.).
Shacklock (H. E.) Limited.
(Shotton Steel Works), Brian Redhead & Sheila
The Summers of Shotton. (London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton,
160 p.). Summers family; Industrialists--Wales--Shotton
(Clwyd)--Biography; Steel industry and trade--Wales--Shotton
(Clwyd)--History; Shotton (Clwyd)--History. September 1896 -
Harry and James Summers established Shotton Steel, produced
first sheets of galvanized steel sheetings from steam-driven
mills on 10,000 acres of marshland on banks of Dee River in
Deeside, Shotton, Wales.
(Shotts Iron Company), Augustus Muir (1952).
The Story of Shotts: A Short History of the Shotts Iron Company
Limited. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Shotts Iron Company, 80
p.). Shotts Iron Company Limited.
(Sloss Furnace Co.), W. David Lewis (1994).
Sloss Furnaces and the Rise of the Birmingham District: An
Industrial Epic. (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama
Press, 645 p.). Sloss Furnace Company--History; Sloss Furnaces
National Historic Landmark--History; Iron industry and
(Ala.)--Economic conditions; Birmingham (Ala.)--Social
(Steel Company of Canada), William Kilbourn
The Elements Combined: A History of the Steel Company of Canada.
(Toronto, ON: Clarke, Irwin, 335 p.). Steel Company of Canada.
(Stelco), Courtney Pratt and Larry Gaudet
Into the Blast Furnace: The Forging of a CEO’s Conscience.
(Toronto, ON: Random House Canada, 320 p.). Formed CEO Stelco.
Pratt, Courtney; Pratt, Courtney; Stelco Inc.; Stelco inc.;
Chief executive officers --Canada --Biography; Business ethics.
How to stay human in a
bottom-line world; 2004 - Steel manufacturer Stelco Inc. entered
bankruptcy; 6,000 jobs, 10,000 pensions; struggling economy of
company town at risk; 2006 - emerged from bankruptcy protection,
announced plans to cut 15% of work force, settled new four-year
contract with United Steelworkers union; October 31, 2007 -
acquired by United States Steel Corp. for $1.2 billion; renamed
U.S. Steel Canada Inc.; world's fifth-largest steel producer
(production capacity to 33 million net tons from current 26.8
(Taskers of Andover Ltd.), L.T.C. Rolt (1969).
Ironworks; A History of Taskers of Andover, 1809-1968.
(New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 240 p.). Taskers of Andover (1932)
(Tata Iron and Steel Company), John L. Keenan,
with the collaboration of Lenore Sorsby; introduction by Louis
A Steel Man in India. (New York, NY: Duell, Sloan and
Pearce, 224 p.). Tata iron and steel company, limited; Iron
industry and trade--India; Steel industry and trade--India.
(Tata Iron and Steel Company), Satya Brata
Capital Accumulation and Workers’ Struggle in Indian
Industrialisation: The Case of Tata Iron and Steel Company,
1910-1970. (Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell
International, 295 p.). Tata Iron and Steel
Company--History--20th century; Iron and steel
workers--India--Jamshedpur--History--20th century; Steel
industry and trade--India--Jamshedpur--History--20th century;
Iron industry and trade--India--Jamshedpur--History--20th
(Tata Iron and Steel Company), S.N. Pandey
(1991). Social Side of Tata Steel. (New York, NY: McGraw
Hill, 185 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company; Corporate
(Tata Iron and Steel Company), Vinay Bahl
The Making of the Indian Working Class: A Case of the Tata Iron
and Steel Company, 1880-1946. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications, 432 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company--History;
Iron and steel workers--India--History; Labor
movement--India--History; Working class--India--History.
(Tata Iron and Steel Company), R.M. Lala;
foreword by Ratan N. Tata (2007).
The Romance of Tata Steel. (New York, NY: Penguin,
Viking,, 169 p.). Tata Iron and Steel Company; Steel industry
and trade--India--History. Saga of India’s
industrialization. associated with development of Indian nation
as no other company in India.
(Richard Thomas & Co.), David Wainwright
Men of Steel: A History of Richard Thomas and His Family.
(London, UK: Quiller, 149 p.). Richard Thomas & Co.; South Wales
Steel industries Companies history.
(Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel), Helmut
Wege und Wegmarken: 100 Jahre Thyssen. (Berlin, GR:
Siedler, 348 p.). Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel--History; Steel
industry and trade--Germany--History.
(left), Alfred Krupp (right)
- Thyssen Industrie (http://media.thyssenkrupp.com/images/press/thyssenkrupp_p_27_m.jpg)
Alfred Krupp (right)
- Thyssen Industrie (http://www.thyssenkrupp-stainless-usa.com/lib/images/keyvisuals/ph_history_Alfred%20Krupp.jpg)
(Thyssen Industrie AG Henschel), Jeffrey R.
Organizing Control: August Thyssen and the Construction of
German Corporate Management. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 976 p.). Associate Professor (Harvard Business
School). Those, August, 1842-1926; Dinkelbach, Heinrich, b.
1891; Thyssen & Co. (Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany)--History;
Vereinigte Stahlwerke Aktiengesellschaft--History; Industrial
Evolution of management
inside Thyssen-Konzern and Vereinigte Stahlwerke (United Steel
Works) between 1871 and 1934; focus on organization, internal
dynamics of company.
Industrie AG Henschel),
David R. L. Litchfield (2006).
The Thyssen Art Macabre. (London, UK: Quartet Books, 450
p.). Thyssen, August; Thyssen Family; Thyssen & Co. (Mülheim an
der Ruhr, Germany)--History.
Thyssen family history much darker than family has portrayed.
(Tredegar Iron Works), Charles B. Dew (1999).
Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the
Tredegar Iron Works. (Richmond, VA: Library of Virginia,
345 p.). Anderson, Joseph Reid, 1813-1892; Tredegar Iron Works
(Richmond, Va.); Confederate States of America. Army--Ordnance
and ordnance stores; Iron industry and trade--Southern States.
(U.S. Steel), Arundel Cotter (1916). The
Authentic History of the United States Steel Corporation.
(New York, NY: Moody Magazine and Book Company, 231 p.). United
States Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and
Elbert H. Gary
Henry Clay Frick
partner, in 1889 made chairman of Carnegie Steel)
- Carnegie partner (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Henry_Phipps.gif)
(U.S. Steel), Douglas A. Fisher (1951).
Steel Serves the Nation, 1901-1951: The Fifty Year Story of
United States Steel. (New York, NY: United States Steel
Corp., 227 p.). United States Steel Corporation.
(U.S. Steel), Abraham Berglund (1968).
The United States Steel Corporation; A Study of the Growth and
Influence of Combination in the Iron and Steel Industry.
(New York, NY: AMS Press, 179 p. [orig. pub. 1907]). United
States Steel Corporation.
(U.S. Steel), Ida M. Tarbell (1969).
The Life of Elbert H. Gary; A Story of Steel. (New York,
NY: Greenwood Press, 361 p. [orig. pub. 1925]). Gary, Elbert H.
(Elbert Henry), 1846-1927; United States Steel Corporation.
(U.S. Steel), Robert Hessen (1990).
Steel Titan: The Life of Charles M. Schwab. (Pittsburgh,
PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 350 p. (orig. pub. 1975)).
Schwab, Charles M., 1862-1939; United States Steel
Corporation--History; Bethlehem Steel Corporation--History;
Industrialists--United States--Biography; Steel industry and
(U.S. Steel), James H. Bridge (1991).
The inside History of the Carnegie Steel Company: A Romance of
Millions. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh
Press, First published in 1903, NY: Aldine Book Co.; 380 p.).
Steel Industry, Carnegie Steel. Part of Pittsburgh series in
social and labor history.
(U.S. Steel), Brian Apelt; Warren Hull, editor
The Corporation: A Centennial Biography of United States Steel
Corporation, 1901-2001. (Pittsburgh, PA: Cathedral
Publishing, University of Pittsburgh, 546 p.). United States
Steel Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United
(U.S. Steel), Kenneth Warren (2001).
Big Steel: The First Century of the United States Steel
Corporation, 1901-2001. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of
Pittsburgh Press, 405 p.). United States Steel
Corporation--History; Steel industry and trade--United
States--History; Steel industry and
(U.S. Steel), Tyler Priest (2003).
Global Gambits: Big Steel and the U.S. Quest for Manganese.
(Westport, CT: Praeger, 332 p.). Manganese industry--Political
aspects--United States--History; Steel industry and
trade--United States--History; Strategic materials--United
States; Strategic materials--Developing countries; Raw
materials--Developing countries; Manganese--Metallurgy;
Steel--Metallurgy; Developing countries--Foreign economic
relations--United States; United States--Foreign economic
(U.S. Steel), Les Standiford (2005).
Meet You in Hell: Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, and the
Bitter Partnership that Transformed America. (New York,
NY: Crown Publishers, 336 p.). Professor of English and Director
of the Creative Writing Program (Florida International
University). Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919; Frick, Henry Clay,
1849-1919.; Carnegie Steel Company--History; Steel industry and
trade--United States--History; Homestead Strike, Homestead, Pa.,
1892; Industrialists--United States--Biography; Capitalists and
(U.S. Steel), Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr. (2010).
Henry Clay Frick: The Life of the Perfect Capitalist.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 262 p.). Associate Professor of
Business (University of Findlay). Businesspeople -- United
States -- Biography; Capitalists and financiers -- United States
-- Biography; Frick, Henry Clay, 1849-1919.
Reviled, infamous; blamed for Johnston Flood, violent Homestead Strike of 1892;
survived multiple assassination attempts; ardent philanthropist;
gave more than $100 million
during his lifetime; insisted on anonymity.
(Weirton Steel), James B, Lieber (1995).
Friendly Takeover: How an Employee Buyout Saved a Steel Town.
(New York, NY: Viking, 382 p.). Lawyer. Weirton Steel
Corporation; Employee ownership--West Virginia--Weirton Steel
industry and trade--West Virginia--Weirton.
(Wendel Investissement - founded 1704 in
Alsace), Pierre Fritsch (1976). Les Wendel, Rois de l'Acier
Français. (Paris, FR: Laffont, 279 p.). Wendel family; Steel
industry and trade--France--History;
(Wheeling Steel Corporation), Earl C. May
(1945). Principio of Wheeling, 1715-1915, A Pageant of Iron
and Steel. (New York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 335 p.).
Principio company, Principio, Md.; Wheeling steel corporation;
Iron industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and
(Worthington Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
The Legend of Worthington Industries. (Fort Lauderdale,
FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 160 p.). --History; Steel industry
and trade--United States--History.
(Worthington Industries), John H. McConnell
Our Golden Rule. (Columbus, OH: Franklin University
Press, 161 p.). Founder, Worthington Industries. Worthington
Industries; Leadership; Chief executive officers; Executive
Zolton J. Ács; foreword by Charles P.
The Changing Structure of the U.S. Economy: Lessons from the
Steel Industry. (New York, NY: Praeger, 246 p.). Steel
industry and trade--United States; United States--Economic
conditions--1981-; United States--Economic policy--1981-1993.
Roger S. Ahlbrandt, Richard J. Fruehan and
Frank Giarratani (1996).
The Renaissance of American Steel: Lessons for Managers in
Competitive Industries. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 178 p.). Steel, Corporate Turnarounds
Donald F. Barnett and Louis Schorsch (1983).
Steel: Upheaval in a Basic Industry. (Cambridge, MA:
Ballinger Pub. Co., 326 p.). Steel industry and trade--United
Donald F. Barnett and Robert W. Crandall
Up from the Ashes: The Rise of the Steel Minimill in the United
States. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press,
135 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States; Steel
David Bensman and Roberta Lynch (1987).
Rusted Dreams: Hard Times in a Steel Community. (New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 250 p.). Unemployment--Illinois--Chicago;
Plant shutdowns--Illinois--Chicago; Chicago (Ill.)--Economic
conditions; South Chicago (Chicago, Ill.)--Economic conditions.
John Bezís-Selfa (2004).
Forging America: Ironworkers, Adventurers, and the Industrious
Revolution. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 279
p.). Iron industry and trade--United States--History--18th
century; Work ethic--United States--History; United
Diane F. Britton (1991).
The Iron and Steel Industry in the Far West: Irondale,
Washington. (Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado,
226 p.). Steel industry and trade--Washington
(State)--Irondale--History; Iron industry and trade--Washington
(State)--Irondale--History; Irondale (Wash.)--History.
J. C. Carr and W. Taplin (1962).
History of the British Steel Industry. (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 632 p.). Steel industry and
Herbert N. Casson (1971).
The Romance of Steel; The Story of a Thousand Millionaires.
(Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries, 376 p. [orig. pub. 1907]).
Steel industry and trade--United States.
Harold M. Cobb (2010).
The History of Stainless Steel. (Materials Park, OH:
ASM International 359 p.). Metallurgist. Stainless steel
--History; Stainless steel industry --History.
miracle metal by renowned metallurgist Carl Zapffe; work of
famous pioneers like Harry Brearley, Elwood Haynes, Benno
Strauss, significant technical contributions of lesser known
figures like William Krivsky; from stainless steel cutlery of
Brearley in 1913 to early architectural use of stainless steel,
revolution in rail travel (Edward G. Budd Company built first
light-weight stainless steel passenger trains with 90% reduction
in fuel costs).
Anthony P. D'Costa (1999).
The Global Restructuring of the Steel Industry: Innovations,
Institutions, and Industrial Change. (New York, NY:
Routledge, 228 p.). Professor in Comparative International
Development (University of Washington). Steel industry and
trade; Steel industry and trade--Government policy.
Eds. Chris Evans and Goran Ryden (2005).
The Industrial Revolution in Iron: The Impact of British Coal
Technology in Nineteenth-Century Europe. (Burlington,
VT: Ashgate, 200 p.). Iron industry and trade--Great
Britain--History--19th century; Iron industry and
Chris Evans, Goran Ryden (2007).
Baltic Iron in the Atlantic World in the Eighteenth Century.
(Boston, MA: Brill, 359 p.). Iron industry and trade--Great
Britain--History--18th century; Iron industry and
trade--Sweden--History--18th century' Iron industry and
Gerald D. Feldman (1977).
Iron and Steel in the German Inflation, 1916-1923.
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 518 p.). Iron
industry and trade--Germany--History; Steel industry and
trade--Germany--History; Trusts, Industrial--Germany--History;
Industrial policy--Germany--History; Inflation
Douglas A. Fisher (1963).
The Epic of Steel. (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 344 p.).
Walter H. Goldberg (1986).
Ailing Steel: The Transoceanic Quarrel. (New York, NY:
St. Martin's Press, 535 p.). Steel industry and trade--Europe;
Steel industry and trade--United States; Steel industry and
trade--Japan; Competition, International.
Robert B. Gordon (1996).
American Iron, 1607-1900. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 341 p.). Professor of geophysics and applied
mechanics (Yale University). Iron-works--North
America--History--18th century; Iron-works--North
America--History--19th century; Iron--Metallurgy--History--18th
century; Iron--Metallurgy--History--19th century.
Iron technology in America from colonial
period to industry's demise at about turn of the 20th century;
labor, innovation, product quality in ironmaking, industry's
environmental consequences; high level of skills required to
ensure efficient, safe operation of furnaces, improve quality of
iron product; ironworkers gained degree of control over their
lives through mastery of founding, fining, puddling, or bloom
Christopher G. L. Hall (1997).
Steel Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of the U.S. Steel Industry.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 427 p.). Steel industry and
John P. Hoerr (1988).
And the Wolf Finally Came: The Decline of the American Steel
Industry. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pitsburgh
Press, 689 p.). Steel industry and trade--Monongahela River
Region (W.Va. and Pa.); Steel industry and trade--Pennsylvania;
Steel industry and trade--West Virginia; Iron and steel
workers--Monongahela River Region (W.Va. and Pa.); Iron and
steel workers--Pennsylvania; Iron and steel workers--West
Virginia; Collective bargaining--Monongahela River Region (W.Va.
and Pa.); Collective bargaining--Pennsylvania; Collective
William T. Hogan (1971).
Economic History of the Iron and Steel Industry in the United
States. (Lexington, MA: Heath, 2178 p. [5 vols.]). Iron
industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and
Stewart H. Holbrook (1939).
Iron Brew; a Century of American Ore and Steel. (New
York, NY: Macmillan, 352 p.). Iron industry and trade--United
States; Steel industry and trade--United States.
John N. Ingham (1978).
The Iron Barons: A Social Analysis of an American Urban Elite,
1874-1965. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 242 p.).
Steel industry and trade--United States--History; Social
Making Iron and Steel: Independent Mills in Pittsburgh,
1820-1920. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press,
297 p.). Iron industry and
trade--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh--History; Steel industry and
Kris E. Inwood (1986).
The Canadian Charcoal Iron Industry, 1870-1914. (New
York, NY: Garland Pub., 398 p.). Iron industry and
trade--Canada--History; Iron foundries--Canada--History;
W. T. Jeans (1884).
The Creators of the Age of Steel. (London, UK: Chapman
and Hall, Limited, 348 p.). Bessemer, Henry, Sir, 1813-1898;
Siemens, William, Sir, 1816-1896; Whitworth, Joseph, Sir,
1806-1887; Brown, John, Sir, 1816-1896; Thomas, Sidney
Gilchrist, 1850-1885; Snelus, George James, 1837-1906;
Barbara L. Jones with Edward K. Muller and
Joel A. Tarr (2006).
Born of Fire: The Valley of Work: Industrial Scenes of
Southwestern Pennsylvania. (Greensburg, PA: Westmoreland
Museum of American Art, 160 p.). Industries in art; Steel
industry and trade in art; Art, American --Pennsylvania
--Pittsburgh --19th century; Art, American --Pennsylvania
--Pittsburgh --20th century. Development,
distribution and promotional social enterprise that generates
products and other offerings promoting southwestern
Pennsylvania’s industrial and cultural heritage.
Donald J. Jonovic (1985).
Iron, Industry, and Independence: A Biographical Portrait of
Courtney Burton, Jr., American Industrialist and Patriot.
(Cleveland, OH: Jamieson Press, 269 p.). Burton, Courtney;
Businessmen--United States--Biography; Philanthropists--United
Humphrey Lloyd (1975).
The Quaker Lloyds in the Industrial Revolution. (London,
UK: Hutchinson, 322 p.). Lloyd family; Industrialists--Great
Britain--Biography; Iron industry and trade--Great
Britain--History; Businesspeople--Great Britain--Biography.
Amos J. Loveday, Jr. (1983).
The Rise and Decline of the American Cut Nail Industry: A Study
of the Interrelationships of Technology, Business Organization,
and Management Techniques. (Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 160 p.). Nail industry--United States--History.
Jeanne McHugh (1980).
Alexander Holley and the Makers of Steel. (Baltimore,
MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 402 p.). Holley, Alexander
Lyman, 1832-1882; Businessmen--United States--Biography; Steel
industry and trade--United States.
Thomas J. Misa (1995).
A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, 1865-1925.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 367 p.). Steel
industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and
trade--Social aspects--United States--History.
Adam Mornement and Simon Holloway (2007).
Corrugated Iron: Building on the Frontier. (New York,
NY: Norton, 224 p.). Building, Iron and steel; Sheet-metal,
recent revival of building material (patented in 1829, above)
once revered as miracle of industrial age; durable,
biodegradable, environmentally sound cladding system;
residential, corporate, industrial uses, disaster zone housing,
roofing in developing world.
Robert J. Norrell (1991).
James Bowron: The Autobiography of a New South Industrialist.
(Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 285 p.).
Bowron, James, 1844-1928; Industrialists--United
States--History; Iron industry and trade--United
States--History; Steel industry and trade--United
States--History; Tennessee--History; Alabama--History.
Harvey O'Connor (1935). Steel--Dictator.
(New York, NY: The John Day Company, 383 p.). Steel industry and
Paul F. Paskoff (1983).
Industrial Evolution: Organization, Structure, and Growth of
the Pennsylvania Iron Industry, 1750-1860. (Baltimore,
MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 182 p.). Iron industry and
Peter Lester Payne (1979). Colvilles and
the Scottish Steel Industry. (New York, NY: Oxford
University Press, 458 p.). Colvilles Ltd.--History;
Daniel K. Perry (1994).
A Fine Substantial Piece of Masonry: Scranton’s Historic
Furnaces. (Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and
Museum Commission, 47 p.). Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company
(Scranton, Pa.); Lackawanna Iron and Steel Company; Iron
foundries --Pennsylvania --Scranton --History --19th century;
Iron industry and trade --Pennsylvania --Scranton --History
--19th century; Architecture, Industrial --Pennsylvania
--Scranton; Architecture --Pennsylvania --Scranton --History
--19th century; Scranton (Pa.) --History; Scranton (Pa.)
--Buildings, structures, etc. 150th anniversary of construction of first blast furnace
in Slocum Hollow in 1840-41.
Richard Preston (1991).
American Steel: Hot Metal Men and the Resurrection of the Rust
Belt. (New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 278 p.). Steel
industry and trade--United States--Case studies.
Mark Reutter (1988).
Sparrows Point: Making Steel: The Rise and Ruin of American
Industrial Might. (New York, NY: Summit Books, 494 p.).
Steel industry and trade--Maryland--Sparrows Point--History;
Steel industry and trade--United States--History.
Robert P. Rogers (2009).
An Economic History of the American Steel Industry. (New
York, NY: Routledge, 210 p.). Associate Professor of Economics
(Ashland University). Steel industry and trade --United States
--History --19th century; Steel industry and trade --United
States --History --20th century. History of American steel
industry,1860-2001; most used metal in world.
Deborah Rudacille (2010).
Roots of Steel: The Boom and Bust of an American Mill Town.
(New York, NY, Pantheon Books, 304 p.). Science Writer. Steel
industry and trade --Maryland --Sparrows Point --History;
Sparrows Point (Md.) --Economic conditions; Sparrows Point (Md.)
--History. Character, history of once-prosperous community of Dundalk, MD; from 19th-century origins of Sparrows Point’s to
height in 20th century (one of largest producers of steel in
world, provided material that built America’s bridges,
skyscrapers, battleships); racial, class, gender politics that
played out in mill, neighboring towns; arduous, dangerous work
at plant; environmental cost of industrial progress to air,
waterways of Maryland shore.
Harold J. Rutterberg (2001).
My Life in Steel. (Tarentum, PA: Word Association
Publishers, 294 p.). Ruttenberg, Harold J.; Steel
Roch Samson and Parks Canada (1998).
The Forges Du Saint-Maurice : Beginnings of the Iron and Steel
Industry in Canada, 1730-1883. (Sainte-Foy, Quebec:
Presses de l'Université Laval, 458 p.). Foundries--Québec
(Province)--Trois-Rivières Region--History; Iron industry and
trade--Québec (Province)--Trois-Rivières Region--History; Forges
du Saint-Maurice (Québec)--History.
Gertrude G. Schroeder (1953).
The Growth of Major Steel Companies, 1900-1950.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 244 p.). Steel industry and
H. R. Schubert. Foreword by the president of
the Iron and Steel Institute (1957). History of the British
Iron and Steel Industry from c. 450 B.C. to A.D. 1775.
(London, UK: Routledge & K. Paul, 445 p.). Iron industry and
trade--Great Britain; Steel industry and trade--Great Britain.
John Scott (1989).
Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russia's City of Steel.
(Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 306 p. [orig. pub.
1942]). Scott, John, 1912- --Journeys--Russia
(Federation)--Magnitogorsk; Steel industry and trade--Russia
(Federation)--Magnitogorsk; Magnitogorsk (Russia)--Description
and travel; Soviet Union--Politics and government--1917-1936.
William Serrin (1992).
Homestead: The Glory and Tragedy of an American Steel Town.
(New York, NY: Times Books, 452 p.). Steel industry and
trade--Pennsylvania--Homestead--History; Iron and steel
Quentin R. Skrabec, Jr. (2004).
The Boys of Braddock: Andrew Carnegie and the Men Who Changed
Industrial History. (Westminster, MD: Heritage Books,
230 p.). Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919.; Jones, William (William
R.); Schwab, Charles M., 1862-1939; Edgar Thomson Works;
Industrial revolution--United States;
Industrialists--Pennsylvania--Biography; Steel industry and
trade--Pennsylvania--Braddock--History; Braddock (Pa.)--History.
James M. Swank (1884).
History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages, and Particularly
in the United States for Three Hundred Years, from 1585 to 1885.
(Philadelphia, PA: The Author, 428 p.). Iron industry and
trade--United States; Iron industry and trade.
--- (1965). History of the Manufacture of
Iron in All Ages, and Particularly in the United States from
Colonial Times to 1891; also a Short History of Early Coal
Mining in the United States and a Full Account of the Influences
Which Long Delayed the Development of All American Manufacturing
Industries. (New York, NY: B. Franklin, 554 p. [2nd ed.]).
Iron industry and trade--United States; Iron industry and trade;
Coal mines and mining--United States--History.
Peter Temin (1964).
Iron and Steel in Nineteenth-Century America, An Economic
Inquiry. (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 304 p.). Iron
industry and trade--United States--History; Steel industry and
trade--United States--History. Series: MIT monographs in
Paul A. Tiffany (1988).
The Decline of American Steel: How Management, Labor, and
Government Went Wrong. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 282 p.). Steel industry and trade--United States; Steel
industry and trade--Government policy--United States; Iron and
steel workers--Labor unions--United States.
Steven Tolliday (1987).
Business, Banking, and Politics: The Case of British Steel,
1918-1939. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 433
p.). Steel industry and trade--Great Britain--History--20th
Geoffrey Tweedale (1987). Sheffield Steel
and America: A Century of Commercial and Technological
Interdependence, 1830-1930. (New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press, 296 p.). Steel industry and
trade--England--Sheffield--History; Steel industry and
Steel City: Entrepreneurship, Strategy, and Technology in
Sheffield, 1743-1993. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 436 p.). Steel industry and trade -- England -- Sheffield
-- History; Sheffield (England) -- History.
David A. Walker (1979).
Iron Frontier: The Discovery and Early Development of
Minnesota's Three Ranges. (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota
Historical Society Press, 315 p.). Iron industry and
trade--Minnesota--History; Iron mines and
mining--Minnesota--History; Frontier and pioneer
Kenneth Warren (1973).
The American Steel Industry, 1850-1970; A Geographical
Interpretation. (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 337 p.).
Steel industry and trade--Location--United States--History.
Wealth, Waste, and Alienation: Growth and Decline in the
Connellsville Coke Industry. (Pittsburgh, PA: University
of Pittsburgh Press, 297 p.). Coke
industry--History; Connellsville (Pa.)--History.
Business History Links
American Iron & Steel Institute
AISI comprises producer member companies, including integrated,
electric furnace, and reconstituted mills; associate member
companies, which are suppliers to or customers of the industry;
and affiliate member organizations, which are downstream steel
producers of products such as cold rolled strip, pipe and tube,
and coated sheet - Overall mission: To provide high-quality,
value-added products to a wide array of customers; To lead the
world in innovation and technology in the production of steel;
To produce steel in a safe and environmentally friendly manner;
and To increase the market for North American Steel in both
traditional and innovative applications.
CF&I (Colorado Fuel and Iron
Corporation) Steel Collection
The CF&I Museum of Industry and Culture will feature exhibits
related to all facets of the CF&I, including but not limited to
history of mining, labor history, history of steel production,
railroad history, and history of Pueblo and Colorado and the
CF&I's impact on the region. The Bessemer Historical Society
provides permanent care for significant archives and artifacts
of the CF&I Steel collection from its beginning in 1872 to 1993;
focus of the collection includes the Pueblo steel works, the
company mines and towns, as well as real estate in Colorado,
Wyoming, New Mexico and other states and the company-owned
Colorado and Wyoming Railroad. The Society will collect,
preserve and interpret materials that signify the contributions
of the steel industry to Colorado's history and honor the
company's employees. Additionally, the Society will collect,
preserve and interpret materials citing the contributions of the
Bessemer area residents and merchants to Pueblo's history.
Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust
International icon for industrial heritage and a major player in
the tourism industry; 1986- UNESCO awarded World Heritage status
to Ironbridge Gorge, one of the first group of 7 UK sites;
recognised the area’s unique contribution to the birth of the
Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the impact of which
was felt across the world. It was the achievements of pioneering
industrialists including Abraham Darby, William Reynolds and
John Wilkinson that led to the Ironbridge Gorge becoming by the
close of the 18th century the most technologically advanced area
in the world. The surviving built and natural environment with
its museums, monuments and artefacts, including the world famous
Iron Bridge of 1779, serve to remind us of this area’s unique
contribution to the history and development of industrialised
society; 2010 - won the Heart of England Excellence in Tourism
Chairman’s award for the 2010 most ‘Outstanding Contribution to
Tourism’ by an organisation and the Joint Gold Regional Culture
Michigan Iron Industry Museum
Located amid the forested ravines of the Marquette Iron Range,
overlooks the Carp River and the site of the first iron forge in
the Lake Superior region; 1848 to 1855 - Jackson Iron Company
and others manufactured wrought iron from local ore and
demonstrated the high quality of Michigan's iron ore deposits;
seed of the Michigan iron industry that flourished for 125
years, still produces nearly one-quarter of the iron ore
mined in the United States. Museum exhibits, audiovisual
programs and outdoor interpretive paths depict the large-scale
capital and human investment that made Michigan an industrial
Images from Sloss Furnace
The Sloss Company's City Furnaces, built in what is now the
center of Birmingham, Alabama, in 1881-1882, produced pig iron
for the foundry market until their close in 1970. The furnaces
remain a central element of Birmingham's skyline, a visual
reminder of it's industrial past.
Sloss Furnaces National Historic
Sloss Furnaces produced iron for nearly 90 years, gave rise to
the city of Birmingham. Now recognized as a National Historic
Landmark, Sloss Furnaces, with its web of pipes and tall
smokestacks, offers a glimpse into the great industrial past of
the South and our nation.
Tennessee Iron Furnace Trail
The purpose of the project is to research, identify, and
document existing 19th century iron industry resources along the
Western Highland Rim, and to assist the counties within the
Trail to tell the stories of these places. This website is
designed to introduce some of the most intact and significant
existing iron industry sites along the Trail and to provide
individual histories as well as context. A Glossary and a list
of Selected Sources are provided for those readers who wish to
have more information on the technology associated with the
production of iron.
US Steel Gary Works Photograph
Presented by the Indiana University Library Program and the
Calumet Regional Archives, the US Steel Gary Works Photograph
Collection provides access to more than 2,200 digital images
documenting the creation of the world's largest steel mill
during the height of America's industrial revolution. While the
tour takes Internet users through the building of the U.S. Steel
Gary Works, it also depicts the life of the city during this
period. Not only is this site a valuable resource for scholars
and historians of American history and the Industrial
Revolution, it also meets the needs of school teachers and
students. The site includes a teacher's guide equipped with
lesson plans, learning objectives, and online activities for
classroom use for fourth grade, middle school, and high school
teachers. In addition, viewers can either perform a basic,
advanced, or ID search, or browse this easily navigable site by
subject, date, or box.
Youngstown Historical Center of Industry
The Center provides a dramatic overview of the impact of the
iron and steel industry on Youngstown and other Mahoning Valley
communities. The museum's permanent exhibit, By the Sweat of
Their Brow: Forging the Steel Valley, explores labor,
immigration and urban history, using videos, artifacts,
photographs, and reconstructed scenes.