July 5, 1841
- Thomas Cook arranged special train between Leicester and
Loughborough in England (11 miles) for temperance meeting;
believed to be first publicly advertised excursion train in
England; charged one shilling per person (included rail tickets, food); Cook was paid a share of the fares actually charged
to the passengers, as the railway tickets, being legal contracts
between company and passenger, could not have been issued at his
own price; began to arrange excursions for pleasure, took
percentage of the railway tickets;
1844 - Midland Counties
Railway Company made permanent arrangement with him provided he
found the passengers; 1856 - introduced railway
tour of Europe; early 1860s - began the travel
firm of Thomas Cook and son; 1880s - took on military transport
and postal services for England and Egypt; May 26, 1972
- acquired in Midland Bank-led buyout; 2002 -
acquired by the German company C&N Touristic AG, later changed
its name to Thomas Cook AG (jointly owned by Lufthansa and
1869 - John F.
Fugazi, immigrant from Milan, founded Fugazi travel agency in
June 5, 1882
- John Mitchell Lyons, railway clerk in Moncton, New Brunswick,
Canada (headquarters of Intercolonial Railway of Canada),
received a Canadian patent for "Improvements in Baggage Checks
and Coupon Tickets"; way to track and identify luggage; baggage
check separated into halves along perforation; both pieces
printed with same route information and identifying number; one
half attached to bag, other given to passenger to claim luggage
March 7, 1911 -
Willis S. Farnsworth and William H. Reed, of Petaluma, CA,
received a patent for a "Magazine Hinge and Conveyer";
coin-operated locker; assigned to Coin Controlled Lock Co.
June 15, 1945
- Frank Barry, Joe Moran, other partners merged variety of
competing boat ride services, formed Circle Line company (3-hour
cruise around Manhattan cost $1.25); July 4, 1961
- carried its 10 millionth passenger; 1981 -
Circle Line Sightseeing Yachts, Inc. acquired by Karl G. Andren
(founder of United Tank Containers); formed New York Cruise
Lines, Inc.; November 27, 1984 - registered
"Circle Line" trademark first used December 31, 1950 (Conducting
Sightseeing Cruise Services by Yacht or Boat); New York’s
oldest, largest provider of scheduled, chartered sightseeing,
special function cruises.
- Arthur Frommer, former Army intelligence officer posted in
Berlin, self-published 5,000 copies of "Europe on $5 A Day"
(originally written for GIs); sold for $.50 per copy; helped to
change leisure travel; showed average Americans they could
afford a trip to Europe; 1965 - title changed to
"Europe on $5 and $10 a Day"; 2004 - changed to
"Europe From $85 a Day".
- Europe on $5 a Day
March 8, 1994
- Don Ku, of Flushing, NY, received a patent for a "Wheeled
Suitcase of Luggage Support with Collapsible Towing Handle";
assigned to Liberty Leather Products Co. Inc. (Brooklyn, NY).
2000 - Record
13.2 million American traveled to Europe (European Travel
August 11, 2006
- Intrawest Corporation (owner of Mammoth, Stratton, Whistler,
Tremblant and other properties) agreed to biggest buyout
of publicly traded resort operator: about $1.8 billion cash by
the Fortress Investment Group.
October 1, 2007
- BBC Worldwide (British Broadcasting Corporation) acquired
Lonely Planet, travel guidebook company for an undisclosed sum
(75% from founders Tony and Maureen Wheeler; 25% from John
Singleton, shareholder since 1999).
July 31, 2008 -
Hotel industry in Hawaii hit hard by slowdown in travel:
(American Society of Travel Agents), George L.
Fichtenbaum (1990). Passport to the World: The History of
ASTA. (Alexandria, VA: American Society of Travel Agents,
472 p.). American Society of Travel Agents--History; Travel
Agents--United States--Societies, etc.--History.
(Brewster Transport), E.J. Hart (1981). The
Brewster Story: From Pack Train to Tour Bus. (Banff, AB:
Brewster Transport Company, Ltd., 163 p.). Brewster family;
Brewster Transport Company; Bus lines -- Alberta -- Banff;
Sightseeing business -- Alberta -- Banff.
(Compass), Amir D. Aczel (2001).
The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention That Changed the World.
(New York, NY: Harcourt, 178 p.). Compass.
(Compass), Alan Gurney (2004).
Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. (New
York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). British Writer, Photographer, Yacht
(Thomas Cook), Piers Brendon (1991).
Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism. (London, UK:
Secker & Warburg, 372 p.). Thomas Cook Ltd.--History; Travel
(Cruise West), Charles B. West (1985).
Mr. Alaska: The Chuck West Story: Forty Years of Alaska Tourism,
1945-1985. (Seattle, WA: Weslee Pub., 153 p.). West,
Charles B., 1914- ; Travel agents--Alaska--Biography.
(Global Group), Steve Baker (2004).
Pushing Water Uphill with a Rake: Memoirs of a Successful
Failure. (Merric Publishing, 207 p.). Business Marketing
Consultant. Baker, Steve; Global Group; travel services;
(Hawke's Bay Motor Company), Leonard Ernest
Anderson (1967). Coaches North; The Story of the Hawke's Bay
Motor Company. (Auckland, NZ: Reed, 124 p.). Hawke's Bay
(Holland-Amerika Lijn), H.A. Dalkmann and A.J.
One Hundred and Twenty-Five Years of Holland America Line: A
Company History. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Pentland Press,
439 p.). Holland-Amerika Lijn.
(Lindblad Travel), Lars-Eric Lindblad with
John G. Fuller; introduction by Roger Tory Peterson (1983).
Passport to Anywhere: The Story of Lars-Eric Lindblad.
(New York, NY: Times Books, 305 p.). Lindblad, Lars-Eric; Travel
agents--Sweden--Biography; Safaris; pioneered expedition travel
(Lonely Planet Publications), Tony & Maureen
Once While Travelling: The Lonely Planet Story.
(Camberwell, Vic.: Penguin Group (Australia), 391 p.). Founders,
Lonely Planet Publications. Wheeler, Tony, 1946- ; Wheeler,
Maureen; Lonely Planet Publications (Firm); Travel--Anecdotes;
Travelers--Australia--Biography; Publishers and
publishing--Australia--Biography. Evolution of travel guide
business into world’s largest independent travel publishing
Maureen & Tony
Wheeler - Lonely Planet
Unlikely Destinations: The Lonely Planet Story: How Two
Backpackers Trekked Across Asia-and Revolutionized the World of
Independent Travel. (North Clarendon, VT: Tuttle
Publishing, 416 p.). Wheeler, Tony, 1946- ; Wheeler, Maureen;
Lonely Planet Publications (Firm); Travel--Anecdotes;
Travelers--Australia--Biography; Publishers and
publishing--Australia--Biography. 1970 - met during Belfast-born
Maureen's first week in London, went on planned one-year
trip through Far East, ended up stranded, penniless in
Australia; decided to publish short travel guide on Asia, became
basis of multinational company.
(Mount Cook Company), Harrry Wigley (1979).
The Mount Cook Way: The First Fifty Years of the Mount Cook
Company. (Auckland, NZ: Collins, 218 p.). Mount Cook
(Rocky Mountaineer), Paul Grescoe (2000).
Trip of a Lifetime: The Making of the Rocky Mountaineer.
(Vancouver, BC: Hurricane Press, 256 p.). Rocky Mountaineer
Railtours --History; Railroad travel --British Columbia
--History; Railroad travel --Alberta --History; Railroads
--British Columbia --History; Railroads --Alberta --History.
(Rosenbluth Intl.), Hal F. Rosenbluth and
Diane McFerrin Peters (1992).
The Customer Comes Second: And Other Secrets of Exceptional
Service. (New York, NY: Morrow, 240 p.). Organizational
effectiveness; Employee motivation; Quality of work life; Travel
(Santa Monica Pier), James Harris; introduction by Robert
Santa Monica Pier: A Century on the Last Great Pleasure Pier.
(Santa Monica, CA: Angel City Press, 128 p.). Santa Monica
Pier--history; Los Angeles--tourism. Built in 1909 to provide
structure for removal of Santa Monica's sewage from beaches.
(Travelmart), Marge Lawson (2001). The
Travelmart Story: Story of How It All Began: Written in
Celebration of our 50th Anniversary, 1952-2002: Memories.
(North Olmstead, OH: Snow Book Co., 260 p.). Travelmart
(Firm)--History; Travel agents--History.
(TUI AG), von Bernhard Stier und Johannes
Von der Preussag zur TUI: Wege und Wandlungen eines Unternehmens
1923-2003. (Essen, Germany: Klartext, 632 p.). Preussag
zur TUI;. One of most radical
restructuring processes in German business history.
(Tunibra Travel), Sonia Sahao (2000).
Takeharu Akagawa: Uma Vida Dedicada ao Turismo. (Sao Paulo,
SP: Edicon, 159 p.). Akagawa, Takeharu, 1909- ; (Sa~o Paulo
(Brazil)); Travel agents--Brazil--Biography.
Robert C. Allen (2004).
Creating Hawai'i Tourism: A Memoir. (Honolulu, HI: Bess
Press, 258 p.). President and Director of Hawaii Visitors
Bureau, Grayline Hawaii and the Hotel Operating Co. Allen,
Robert Coleman; Travel agents--Hawaii--Biography;
Mark Daniel Barringer (2002).
Selling Yellowstone: Capitalism and the Construction of Nature.
(Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 238 p.). Concessions
(Amusements, etc.) --Yellowstone National Park --History; Resort
development --Yellowstone National Park --History; Land use
--Yellowstone National Park --History; Capitalism --Social
aspects --Yellowstone National Park --History; Capitalism
--Environmental aspects --Yellowstone National Park --History;
Nature --Effect of human beings on --Yellowstone National Park
--History; Yellowstone National Park --History; Yellowstone
National Park --Economic conditions; Yellowstone National Park
Dina Berger (2006).
The Development of Mexico’s Tourism Industry: Pyramids by
Day, Martinis by Night. (New York, NY: Palgrave
Macmillan, 164 p.). Assistant Professor of Modern Latin American
History (Loyola University Chicago). Tourism--Mexico--History.
Emergence of modern tourism, how tourist boosters
capitalized on broader shifts in U.S.-Mexican relations.
Mansel G. Blackford (2001).
Fragile Paradise: The Impact of Tourism on Maui, 1959-2000.
(Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 277 p.). Tourism
--Environmental aspects --Hawaii --Maui; Maui (Hawaii)
Connie Y. Chiang; foreword by William Cronon (2008).
Shaping the Shoreline: Fisheries and Tourism on the Monterey
Coast. (Seattle, WA, University of Washington Press,
282 p.). Assistant Professor of History and Environmental
Studies (Bowdoin College).Fisheries --California --Monterey
Peninsula --History; Tourism --California --Monterey Peninsula
--History; Monterey Peninsula (Calif.) --History.
development from seaside resort to working-class fishing town to
tourist attraction; ways in which Monterey has formed,
been formed by, tension between labor and leisure; stage for
great shift in junction of industry and tourism, from literal
Cannery Row to iconic hub; reciprocal relationship between social, environmental change.
Catherine Cocks (2001).
Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States,
1850-1915. (Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press, 287 p.). Tourism--United States; Cities and towns--United
Michael Dawson (2004).
Selling British Columbia: Tourism and Consumer Culture,
1890-1970. (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 274 p.).
Tourism--British Columbia--History; Tourism--British
Consommation (Économie politique)--Canada--Histoire.
Bob Dickinson and Andrew
Selling the Sea: An inside Look at the Cruise Industry.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 364 p.). Ocean Travel, Cruise Ships.
J. Valerie Fifer (1988).
American Progress: The Growth of the Transport, Tourist, and
Information Industries in the Nineteenth-Century West, Seen
Through the Life and Times of George A. Crofutt, Pioneer and
Publicist of the the Transcontinental Age. (Chester, CT:
Globe Pequot Press, 472 p.). Crofutt, George A.; Businessmen --
United States -- Biography; Transportation -- West (U.S.) --
History -- 19th century; Advertising -- Transportation -- West
(U.S.) -- History -- 19th century; Tourism -- West (U.S.) --
History -- 19th century.
Kristoffer A. Garin (2005).
Devils on the Deep Blue Sea: The Dreams, Schemes, and Showdowns
that Built America's Cruise Ship Empires. (New York, NY:
Viking, 384 p.). Cruise lines--United States; Cruise
ships--United States; Ocean travel.
E.J. Hart (1983).
The Selling of Canada: The CPR and the Beginnings of Canadian
Tourism. (Banff, AB: Altitude Pub., 180 p.). Canadian
Pacific Railway Company -- History; Tourism -- Canada --
History; Advertising -- Tourism -- Canada -- History; Canadian
Rockies (B.C. and Alta.) -- Description and travel.
Victor T.C. Middleton with the late L.J.
British Tourism: The Remarkable Story of Growth.
(Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 209 p.). Former chairman of
the UK Tourism Society. Tourism--Great Britain.
N.J. Morgan, Annette Pritchard (1999).
Power and Politics at the Seaside: Development of Devon's
Resorts in the 20th Century. (Exeter, UK: University of
Exeter Press, 250 p.). Tourism -- Great Britain -- History;
Development--Resorts. Political, power relations in modern seaside resort development
in Devon - England's most popular domestic holiday destination;
complex interplay between ideology, class, power and
consumption of landscape and place.
Harvey K. Newman (1999).
Southern Hospitality: Tourism and the Growth of Atlanta.
(Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 372 p.). Professor
and Chair of the Department of Public Management and Policy,
Andrew Young School of Policy Studies (Georgia State
University). Tourism --Georgia --Atlanta --History; Hospitality
industry --Georgia --Atlanta --History; Heritage tourism
--Georgia --Atlanta --History; Atlanta (Ga.) --Social life and
customs --History. How cultural tradition of hospitality has
encouraged growth of Atlanta's convention and tourist industry,
contributed to city's rapid development; people in central
Atlanta (mostly African Americans) have not shared equally in
Thomas J. Noel & Debra B. Faulkner (2010).
Mile High Tourism: Denver’s Convention and
Visitor History. (Denver, CO: Visit Denver, 164 p.).
Denver, CO - history; Tourism --Colorado --History.
$3.1-billion in travel spending supported 65,000 jobs;
Denver and Colorado’s second most important industry after
manufacturing; builders and boosters (saloonkeepers and
journalists, hotel keepers and museum guides, stagecoach drivers
and 747 pilots, mayors and businesspeople) who tirelessly
promoted Highest State; how Denver’s hundred-year old convention
and tourist bureau grew into one of most respected, professional
organizations of its kind in country; founded in 1909, after
success of the first Democratic National Convention in Mile High
City; sixth oldest convention bureau in nation.
Nicholas T. Parsons (2007).
Worth the Detour: A History of the Guidebook.
(Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 378 p.).
Guidebooks--travel; Publishers and publishing--travel--history.
History of guidebooks from
medieval to modern times; mutation of genre over time: problem
of authenticity, snobbery, political candor.
Hal K. Rothman (1998).
Devil's Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West.
(Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 434 p.).
Eds. Philip Scranton and Janet F. Davidson
The Business of Tourism: Place, Faith, and History.
(Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 312 p.).
Professor of History (Rutgers University); Historian at the Cape
Fear Museum (Wilmington, NC). Tourism--Economic aspects;
Tourism--Social aspects. Tourism as local, global enterprise from 1860s to1990s; cultural
practice of tourism linked to businesses that create cultural
Eds. Luciano Segreto, Carles
Manera, and Manfred Pohl (2009).
Europe at the Seaside: The Economic History of Mass Tourism in
the Mediterranean. (New York, NY: Berghahn Books, 251
p.). Professor of Economic History and the History of
International Economic Relations (University of Florence);
Director of the Research Group on Economic History,
Researcher in Charge of the Project Economic History of Mass
Tourism in Spain, 1940-2000: the Balearic Islands and the
Mediterranean Contrasts; Former Executive with Deutsche Bank (40
years), Founder and Chairman of the International Centre for
Corporate Culture and History. Tourism --Mediterranean Region
--History; Package tours --Mediterranean Region --History;
Cruise lines --Mediterranean Region --History; Seaside resorts
--Mediterranean Region --History. First study to scrutinize
Mediterranean basin as whole, over long period; area's
economic, social networks directly involved in tourism; economics of
tourism in one of world s most visited destinations.
Anthony J. Stanonis (2006).
Creating the Big Easy: New Orleans and the Emergence of Modern
Tourism, 1918-1945. (Athens, GA: University of Georgia
Press, 317 p.). Visiting Assistant Professor of History (Texas
A&M University). Tourism--Louisiana--New Orleans--History; New
Orleans (La.)--Description and travel. Volunteers, businessmen
reframed their city as romantic, exotic tourist destination.
Evan R. Ward (2008).
Packaged Vacations: Tourism Development in the Spanish Caribbean.
(Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 236 p.).
Assistant Professor of History (University of North Alabama).
Tourism --Caribbean Area.
Three themes in Caribbean tourism since World War II: 1)
diminishing role of U.S. investors in developing, managing
region's tourist industry, 2) increasing role of Spanish hotel,
tourism companies, 3) increasing need for sustainable
development in region's tourism industry;
state promotion of tourism, private investment, marketing of decentralized
tourism poles to appeal to domestic, foreign tourists.
Lynne Withey (1997).
Grand Tours and Cooks' Tours: A History of Leisure Travel,
1750-1915. (New York, NY: Morrow, 401 p.). Voyages and
Business History Links
Centre for Tourism and
Established at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK in
2001, the CTCC is one of the leading international platforms for
tourism research. Focus is on the multi-dimensional
relationships which exist between tourism and culture(s). We aim
to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the
complexities of tourism as a global phenomenon at different
social and political scales (through academic research,
collaborative projects, consultancy, conferences, publications,
professional development and postgraduate programmes).
How Space Tourism Works
This site introduces the space tourism industry, citing its
first tourist adventurers, along with the training and costs
involved. It includes summaries of several commercial space
travel projects and ideas, including space stations for
corporate communities and a national contest to develop reusable
launch vehicles for transporting the public into space.