December 16, 1897 - A demonstration was given
on the Patapsco River of the Argonaut, the first U.S. submarine
fitted with an internal combustion engine; invented by Simon
Lake, built in 1897 by the Columbian Iron Works and Dry Dock
Company of Baltimore, Maryland; first submarine to salvage
sunken objects of value.
March 17, 1898
- John Holland demonstrated the first practical submarine off
Staten Island in New York for 100 minutes; -not the first
underwater boat, credited as the first practical one.
April 22, 1915
- Modern chemical weapons were first used in a war as German
troops released chlorine gas from several metal cylinders on the
front lines at Ypres, Belgium during WW I; yellow-green gas
blown by wind over the French trenches, painfully killed 5000
soldiers via suffocation, constriction of the chest, tightness
in the throat, edema of the lungs.
MIT professor Vannevar Bush (32) and college roommate Laurence
K. Marshall (33) founded American Appliance Co.; teamed with
inventor Charles G. Smith to produce a home refrigerator
(invented by Smith) based on artificial coolants; never
developed; produced earlier Smith invention, gaseous rectifier,
S-tube, permits radios, for first time, to be plugged into wall
sockets for power instead of depending on costly, short-lived A
and B batteries; 1925 - introduced under Raytheon
name; end of 1926 - generated more than $1
million in sales.
- Leroy Grumman, Jake Swirbul, Bill Schwendler, E. Clint Towl
and Ed Poor started Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Company, in
abandoned auto garage; 1931 - introduced XFF-1,
first Navy fighter with retractable landing gear, fully enclosed
cockpit; 1943 - first aircraft company to receive
Navy "E" flag for production efficiency; 1944 -
introduced F6F Hellcat (Hellcat pilots account for 55 percent of
all enemy aircraft destroyed by Navy and Marines in World War
II); 1948 - Leroy Grumman received Presidential
Medal of Merit for wartime production; 1967 - A-6
Intruder, world's only all-weather attack bomber, used by Navy
and Marine Corps squadrons in Vietnam; 1969 -
Apollo Lunar Module carried man to surface of moon; 1994
- acquired by Northrop Corporation.
1934 - Charles
Litton Sr., radio enthusiast and engineering student at Stanford
University, started Litton Industries with device to
mass-produce radio tubes; 1953 - Charles Bates
"Tex" Thornton, Roy L. Ash, formerly of Hughes Aircraft, founded
Electro Dynamics Corporation; acquired Litton's small microwave
tube company; changed company name to Litton Industries;
1980 - $4 billion in sales; 1981 - major
supplier of night vision goggles to U.S. Army , law enforcement
agencies; 1983 - produced 20,000th inertial
navigation system, milestone in aviation history; created first
laser radar used in space (part of U.S. Department of Defense's
Strategic Defense Initiative); 1990s
- split into separate military, commercial companies:
Litton Industries, Western Atlas Inc. (oilfield services,
business and automated assembly line operations); April
2001 - acquired by Northrop Grumman Corporation for $3.6
1935 - Sir Watson-Watt received a patent for
July 2, 1940
- Enrico Fermi, Edoardo Amaldi, Bruno Pontecorve, Franco
Rasetti, Emilio Segre, all of Rome, Italy, received a patent for
a "Process of Production of Radioactive Substances" ("production
of isotopes of elements from other isotopes of the same or
different elements by reaction with neutrons, and especially to
the production of artificial radio activity by the formation of
unstable isotopes"); assigned to G. M. Giannini & Co. (New
1942 - Hedy Kiesler Markey (Hedy Lamarr), of Los
Angeles, CA, and George Antheil, of Manhattan Beach, CA,
received a patent for a "Secret Communication System"
("involving the use of carrier waves of different frequencies
and is especially useful in the remote control of dirigible
craft, such as torpedoes"); "frequency hopping";
1957 - concept
taken up by engineers at Sylvania Electronic Systems Division;
their arrangement, using electronics rather than piano rolls,
ultimately became basic tool for secure military communications
(installed on ships sent to blockade Cuba in 1962, about three
years after Lamarr-Antheil patent had expired); subsequent
patents in frequency changing, generally unrelated to torpedo
control, have referred to Lamarr-Antheil patent as basis of
field, concept lies behind principal anti-jamming device used
today in U.S. government's Milstar defense communication
1942 - Enrico Fermi and his team demonstrated
first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction (part of the
Manhattan Project, secret wartime project to develop nuclear
weapons) in makeshift lab underneath football stands at Stagg
Field at University of Chicago; initiated modern nuclear age;
physicists and staffers, working around clock, built lattice of
57 layers of uranium metal and uranium oxide embedded in
graphite blocks supported by wooden structure.
August 1, 1943 - Groundbreaking ceremony in Oak
Ridge, TN for first uranium 235 manufacturing plant (needed to
build A-bomb); facility cost $280,000,000 to build, completed in
summer of 1944.
November 29, 1951
- First U.S. underground atom bomb test (to reduce the extensive
logistic effort, time and cost) - designed "Uncle" - was
detonated; part of Operation Buster-Jangle, caused a hole 800-ft
in diameter and 100-ft deep.
February 21, 1952
- General Dynamics established after its predecessor and current
operating division, Electric Boat, acquired aircraft company
Canadair Ltd.; began building first nuclear-powered submarine,
- Puerto Rican immigrant John Mariotta invested $3,000 to start
a small company in renovated brick garage in desolate area of
the South Bronx to manufacture baby carriages;
1970 - brought in
a partner, Fred Neuberger, focused on Department of Defense
contracts; 1987 -
grew into $117 million Wedtech political scandal (corruption and
1988 - Northrop Corporation introduced B-2
"stealth" bomber for first time at Air Force Plant 42 in
Palmdale, CA; massive cost--more than $40 billion for
development and a $1 billion price tag for each unit; wingspan
of nearly half a football field, its radar signal was as
negligible as that of a bird. The B-2 also successfully evaded
infrared, sound detectors, and the visible eye. Following the
collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the original order for the
production of 132 stealth bombers was reduced to 21 aircraft.
The B-2 has won a prominent place in the modern U.S. Air Force
fleet, serving well in bombing missions during 1990s.
January 16, 1997 -
Raytheon Corp., then the nation's sixth-largest weapons
contractor, agreed to acquire Hughes Electronics, General
Motors's weapons unit and country's fourth-largest military
manufacturer, at cost of $9.5 billion.
April 2001 -
Northrop Grumman Corp. acquired Litton Industries Inc. for $3.6
October 28, 2008 -
Defense spending = 4% of GDP (Bush years), 4.7% at nadir of Cold
War (Carter years):
(Blackwater), Suzanne Simons (2009).
Master of War: Blackwater USA’s Erik Prince and the Business of
War. (New York, NY: Collins, 288 p.). CNN executive
producer. Prince, Erik, 1969-; Blackwater USA; Businessmen
--United States --Biography; Private military companies --United
States; Mercenary troops --United States; Mercenary troops
--Middle East; Iraq War, 2003- --Economic aspects; Afghan War,
2001- --Economic aspects. World's largest private military
contractor (dwarfs competitors); tip of Erik Prince's empire
(mercenary organization for other governments, private spying
company, air fleet large enough to serve as miniature air
force); one of modern world's most influential military figures.
Erik Prince - Blackwater
(GEC), Alex Brummer and Roger Cowe. (1998).
Weinstock: The Life and Times of Britain's Premier Industrialist.
(London, UK: HarperCollinsBusiness, 343 p.). Industrialists --
Great Britain -- Biography; Jewish businesspeople -- Great
Britain -- Biography.
(General Dynamics), eds. John Niven, Courtland
Canby, Vernon Welsh (1960). Dynamic America; A History of
General Dynamics Corporation and Its Predecessor Companies.
(New York, NY: General Dynamics Corporation, 426 p.). General
(General Dynamics), Jacob Goodwin (1985).
Brotherhood of Arms: General Dynamics and the Business of
Defending America. (New York, NY: Times Books, 419 p.).
General Dynamics Corporation; Defense industries -- United
(General Dynamics), Roger Franklin (1986).
The Defender: The Story of General Dynamics. (New York,
NY: Harper & Row, 385 p.). General Dynamics Corporation --
History; Defense industries -- United States -- History.
(General Dynamics), Patrick Tyler (1986).
Running Critical: The Silent war, Rickover, and General Dynamics.
(New York, NY: Harper & Row, 374 p.). Rickover, Hyman George;
General Dynamics Corporation; War -- Economic aspects -- United
(General Dynamics), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
Serving the Silent Service: The Legend of Electric Boat.
(Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 176 p.).
Submarine development; Defense contracts--United States.
(General Dynamics), James S. Reyburn (2006).
Electric Boat Corporation. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 128
p.). Public Affairs Department at Electric Boat Corporation for
16 years. General Dynamics Corporation. Electric Boat Division;
Nuclear submarines--Connecticut--Groton; Submarines
(Ships)--Connecticut--Groton; Groton (Conn.)--History.
1900 - company delivered Holland,
first submarine accepted by United States Navy; world’s first
nuclear-powered ship; world’s first ballistic missile–firing
submarine company through 10 decades.
(Grumman), Richard Thruelsen (1976).
The Grumman Story. (New York, NY: Praeger, 401 p.).
Grumman Corporation; Grumman airplanes.
(Grumman), Bill Gunston (1988).
Grumman: Sixty Years of Excellence. (New York, NY: Orion
Books, 159 p.). Grumman Aerospace Corporation--History; Grumman
airplanes--History; Aerospace industries--United
States--History; Aircraft industry--United States--History.
(Grumman), George M. Skurla and William H.
Inside the Iron Works: How Grumman’s Glory Days Faded.
(Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 225 p.). Skurla, George
M.; Grumman Aerospace Corporation--History; United States.
Navy--Aviation--History; Aerospace engineers--Biography.
(Intelligarde International), George S.
The New Parapolice: Risk Markets and Commodified Social Control.
(Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 182 p.). Intelligarde
International -- Case studies; Police, Private -- Canada -- Case
studies; Crime prevention -- Canada.
(Itek Corporation), Jonathan E. Lewis (2002).
Spy Capitalism: Itek and the CIA. (New Haven, CT:
Yale University Press, 329 p.). Portfolio Manager (OFFITBANK),
Cochairman of the Intelligence Capabilities Action Group at
Business Executives for National Security (BENS). Rockefeller,
Laurance S., 1910- ; United States. Central Intelligence Agency;
(Litton Industries - founded 1953), Beirne
Lay; Foreword by James H. Doolittle (1969).
Someone Has To Make It Happen; The Inside Story of Tex Thornton,
the Man Who Built Litton Industries. (Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice-Hall, 204 p.). Thornton, Charles Bates, 1913- ;
B. ("Tex") Thornton -
(Litton Industries), Jeffrey L. Rodengen
The Legend of Litton Industries. (Write Stuff
Enterprises: Write Stuff Enterprises, 159 p.). Litton
Industries--History; Defense industries--United States--History;
Conglomerate corporations--United States--History.
(Nihon Keibi Hosh¯o Kabushiki Kaisha), H.T.
Vision in Japanese Entrepreneurship: The Evolution of a Security
Enterprise. (New York, NY: Routledge, 267 p.). Iida,
Makoto, 1922- ; Nihon Keibi Hosh¯o Kabushiki Kaisha--Management;
Security systems industry--Japan--Management--Case studies;
Telecommunication equipment industry--Japan--Management--Case
studies; Entrepreneurship--Japan--Case studies.
(Rand Corporation), Alex Abella (2008).
Soldiers of Reason: The Rand Corporation and the Rise of the
American Empire. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 388 p.). Rand
Corporation--History; Rand Corporation--Influence; Research
institutes--United States--History--20th century; Military
research--United States--History--20th century; United
States--Intellectual life--20th century; United States--Foreign
relations--1945-1989; United States--Foreign relations--1989-;
United States--Military policy. Established in wake of World War
II to advise Air Force on how to wage and win wars, created
America’s anti-Soviet nuclear strategy; theories of rational
warfare steered conduct in Vietnam (invasion of Iraq);
developed rational choice theory, model explaining all human
behavior through self-interest (sparked Reagan-led
transformation of social, economic system) .
(Raytheon), Otto J. Scott (1974).
The Creative Ordeal: The Story of Raytheon. (New York,
NY: Atheneum, 429 p.). Raytheon Company; Electronic
industries--United States--Case studies.
(Raytheon), Alan R. Earls and Robert E.
Raytheon Company: The First Sixty Years. (Charleston,
SC: Arcadia, 128 p.). Raytheon Company--History; Business
(Mass.)--Commerce--History; Waltham (Mass.)--Commerce--History.
From military components
(radar components, miniature tubes for crucial proximity
fuse in antiaircraft shells) to civilian products (microwave
oven, televisions, marine radars, transistors, miniature hearing
aids, medical equipment).
(Sandia National Laboratories), Necah Stewart
Sandia National Laboratories: The Postwar Decade.
(Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 858 p.).
Sandia Laboratories -- History; Manhattan Project (U.S.) --
(Thorn EMI Electronics. Radar Division), Derek
Thorn EMI: 50 Years of Radar: 50 Years of Company Involvement
with Radar Technology 1936-1986. (Hayes, UK: Thorn EMI
Electronics, Radar Division, 85 p.). Thorn EMI Electronics.
Radar Division -- History; Great Britain Military radar
(Wedtech), William Sternberg and Matthew C.
Harrison, Jr. (1989).
Feeding Frenzy. (New York, NY: Holt, 326 p.). Wedtech
(Firm); Defense contracts--Corrupt practices--United States.
(Wedtech), Marilyn W. Thompson (1990).
Feeding the Beast: How Wedtech Became the Most Corrupt Little
Company in America. (New York, NY: Scribner, 337 p.).
Wedtech (Firm); Defense contracts--Corrupt practices--United
States; Government purchasing--Corrupt practices--United States.
(Wedtech), James Traub (1990).
Too Good To Be True: The Outlandish Story of Wedtech.
(New York, NY: Doubleday, 379 p.). Wedtech (Firm); Defense
contracts--Corrupt practices--United States; Government
purchasing--Corrupt practices--United States.
Deborah D. Avant (2005).
The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 328 p.). Associate
Professor of Political Science and Director of the Institute for
Global and International Studies at the Elliott School of
International Affairs (George Washington University). Private
security services; Police--Contracting out; Mercenary troops;
Internal security; National security; Contracting out;
Eds. John Barber and Mark Harrison
The Soviet Defence-Industry Complex from Stalin to
Khrushchev. (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press in
association with Centre for Russian and East European
Studies, University of Birmingham, 283 p.). Fellow and
Vice-Provost (King's College, Cambridge); Professor of
Economics (University of Warwick). Defense industries
--Soviet Union --History. Economic
dynamics, social and political significance of Soviet
defense (powerfully influenced course of 20th
century through resistance to imperial Japan, defeat
of Nazi Germany, nuclear stalemate with America in
Eli Berman (2009).
Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism. (Cambridge,
MA : MIT Press, 300 p.). Professor of Economics
(University of California, San Diego). Terrorism --Economic
aspects; Terrorism --Religious aspects. Economics of
organizations; leaders of most lethal terrorist groups have
found way to control defection; deadly
effectiveness lies in resilience, cohesion despite strong
incentives to defect.
Stuart D. Brandes (1997).
Warhogs: A History of War Profits in America.
(Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 371 p.).
War--Economic aspects--United States--History;
History of war profits in America (semi-legitimate wealth - not
specifically illegal, not entirely ethical) - across nearly entire
scope of American history through four major military
mobilizations, smaller conflicts.
Jurgen Brauer and Hubert van Tuyll (2008).
Castles, Battles, & Bombs: How Economics Explains Military
History. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 403
p.). Professor of Economics in the James M. Hull College of
Business (Augusta State University); Professor of History and
Chair of the Department of History, Anthropology, and Philosophy
(Augusta State University). War --Economic aspects --History;
Military history. Key episodes of military
history from point of view of economics - building of castles in
Middle Ages, great commanders of the Age of Battle, strategic
bombing of Germany in World War II, France's decision to develop
nuclear weapons; lessons for today's military.
Marc Egnal (2009).
Clash of Extremes: The Economic Origins of the Civil War.
(New York, NY: Hill & Wang, 432 p.). Professor of History (York
University). Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- ); United States
--History --Civil War, 1861-1865 --Economic aspects.
Reinterpretation of American Civil War from 1820s through
Reconstruction; economics moved country to war; 1820-1850 -
patterns of trade, production drew North, South together,
brokered series of compromises; after
1850 - rise of Great Lakes economy reoriented Northern trade
along east-west lines; South - soil exhaustion, concerns about
country's westward expansion, growing ties between Upper South,
free states led many cotton planters to contemplate secession;
resulted in "clash of extremes"; civil war.
David Hambling (2005).
Weapons Grade: How Modern Warfare Gave Birth to Our High-Tech
World. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf, 402 p.). British
Defense Journalist. Military research; Technology; Technological
Ed. Mark Harrison (2008).
Guns and Rubles: The Defense Industry in the Stalinist State.
(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 272 p.). Professor of
Economics (University of Warwick). Defense industries --Soviet
Union; Weapons industry --Soviet Union; Soviet Union --Military
policy; Soviet Union --History --1925-1953. Early decades of
Soviet defense industry, problems of defense procurement - why
Stalin wanted a large defense sector. how production and
allocation of military goods actually took place over first four
decades of Soviet Union.
James Hasik (2008).
Arms and Innovation: Entrepreneurship and Alliances in the
Twenty-First-Century Defense Industry. (Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press, 189 p.). Defense industries
--United States; Defense industries --Technological innovations
--United States. Entrepreneurship and alliances in defense
industry; small firms have number of advantages relative to
their bigger competitors; significant challenges in
access to capital, customers - can form alliances with each
other or with larger companies.
Ed. Gregory D. Hess (2009).
Guns and Butter: The Economic Causes and Consequences of
Conflict. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 314 p.). Vice
President for Academic Affairs, Dean of the Faculty and the
Russell S. Bock Chair of Public Economics and Taxation at the
Robert Day School of Economics and Finance (Claremont McKenna
College). War --Economic aspects. Causes, consequences of war
from political economy perspective (consideration of incentives,
constraints faced by individuals, groups in
conflict decision making - vs. standard
state-centric approach); several themes: 1) war as equilibrium
phenomenon rather than exogenous process; 2) interaction of
politics, economics, institutions and its effect on frequency,
severity of conflicts; 3) cost of fighting; 4) innovative
character of conflict; theoretical aspects of ways in which
domestic politics affects decision to go to war; globalization,
its effect on net supply of terrorism; open markets and
likelihood of war, domestic insecurity; costs of going to war.
Robert D. Hormats (2007).
The Price of Liberty: Paying for America’s Wars. (New
York, NY: Times Books, 384 p.). Vice Chairman of Goldman Sachs
(International), Managing Director of Goldman, Sachs & Co.
United States. Dept. of Defense--Appropriations and
expenditures; Debts, Public--United States; Finance,
Public--United States--History; War--Economic aspects--United
States; National security--United States--Finance--History;
United States--Armed Forces--Appropriations and expenditures.
How leaders (Madison,
Lincoln, FDR, Reagan) have followed Hamilton’s ideals (from
greenback, progressive income tax to Victory Bond, Victory
Garden campaign, cost-sharing with allies); rampant borrowing to
pay for war in Iraq, short-sighted tax cuts in face of long-term
war on terrorism run counter to American tradition, place
country’s security in peril.
Solomon Hughes (2007).
War on Terror, Inc.: Corporate Profiteering from the Politics of
Fear. (New York, NY: Verso, 262 p.). Defense industries;
Defense industries--Political aspects; Military
readiness--Economic aspects; Military-industrial complex; Great
Britain--Defenses--Economic aspects; United
States--Defenses--Economic aspects. Private contractors doing
governments' dirtiest work; who is behind companies that reap
dividend of war? how close are they to political
decision-makers? do they actually deliver at cost-effective
price?; how to justify delivering area of public life which
requires very highest standards of scrupulousness, integrity
into hands of market forces.
Jonathan Kirshner (2007).
Appeasing Bankers: Financial Caution on the Road to War.
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 248 p.). Professor
of Government (Cornell University). War--Economic aspects; Banks
and banking--History--20th century; Military history,
Modern--20th century--Economic aspects. Financial communities favor
caution, demonstrate marked aversion to war; value economic
stability; interest in peace both pronounced, predictable;
states that pursue appeasement when assertiveness is warranted
are often appeasing their bankers.
Armin Krishnan (2008).
War as Business: Technological Change and Military Service
Contracting. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 207 p.). Research
Assistant at Salford Business School (University of Salford,
UK). War--Economic aspects--United States; Technology--Military
aspects; Defense contracts--Economic aspects--United States;
Defense industries--Technological innovations--Economic
aspects--United States; Security, International.
Privatization of the defense
sector - due to technology (weapons and logistics, computer
software behind them, have become so complicated, armed forces
cannot keep up, have to employ contractors); government at war
can lower casualties among its soldiers (pay for contractors to
guard embassies, convoys, airports).
Edward S. Miller (2007).
Bankrupting the Enemy: The U.S. Financial Siege of Japan before
Pearl Harbor. (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 323
p.). Former CFO of a major international mining corporation,
U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation. Economic sanctions,
American--Japan--History--20th century; United States--Foreign
economic relations--Japan; Japan--Foreign economic
relations--United States; Japan--Economic conditions--1918-1945.
United States forced Japan
into international bankruptcy to deter its aggression but
deprivations facing Japanese people in financial limbo led to
its choice of war at Pearl Harbor.
T. Christian Miller (2006).
Blood Money: Wasted Billions, Lost Lives, and Corporate Greed in
Iraq. (New York, NY: Little, Brown, 334 p.). Reporter
(Los Angeles Times). Bush, George W. (George Walker), 1946- ;
Iraq War, 2003---Economic aspects; Iraq War, 2003---Moral and
ethical aspects--United States; Iraq War, 2003---Equipment and
supplies; Petroleum industry and trade--Political
aspects--United States; United States--Politics and
government--2001-. Bungling of government
spending and private contracts, some $30 billion committed to
rebuilding Iraq, greater sum than for Marshall Plan.
James C. Mulvenon (2001).
Soldiers of Fortune: The Rise and Fall of the Chinese
Military-Business Complex, 1978-1998. (Armonk, NY: M. E.
Sharpe, 283 p.). Deputy Director, Advanced Analysis (Center for
Intelligence Research and Analysis, Defense Group Inc.). China.
Zhongguo ren min jie fang jun; Military-owned business
enterprises--China. Rise, fall of Chinese military's multi-billion dollar
international business empire.
Paul Poast (2005).
The Economics of War. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 240
p.). Lecturer in Economics (Ohio State University).
War--Economic aspects; War--Economic aspects--United States.
Examples of war to explain
economic concepts (macroeconomics of public spending on
war, game theory from cold war strategy, market monopoly and
industrial structure of arms industry).
Vernon W. Ruttan (2006).
Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and
Technology Development. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 219 p.). Regents Professor Emeritus in the Department of
Applied Economics and Adjunct Professor in the Hubert H.
Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs (University of Minnesota).
Technological innovations--Economic aspects; High
technology--Military aspects; Economic development; Defense
industries--Economic aspects--United States; Technological
innovations--Economic aspects--United States; High technology
industries--United States. Relationship, if any, between U.S. government's preparation for or engagement in warfare,
creation of new general-purpose technologies that contribute to
increasing rate of economic growth.
Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley (1995).
The Economics of Defense. (New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press, 387 p.). Robert R. and Katheryn A. Dockson
Chair of International Relations and Economics (University of
Southern California); Professor of Economics and Director,
Centre for Defence Economics (University of York, UK). Economic
conversion--United States; United States--Defenses--Economic
aspects; United States--Military policy. Economic analysis of defense and
Ayesha Siddiqa (2007).
Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy. (Ann
Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 292 p.). Military government--Pakistan;
Civil-military relations--Pakistan; Military-owned business
enterprises--Pakistan; Pakistan--Politics and government. Hollow
economic growth of armed forces-dominated economy; military
capital estimate of $20.7 billion; Pakistan military as
oppressive holding company, in charge of economic development.
Peter W. Singer (2007).
Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry.
(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 360 p [rev. and updated).
Fellow, Brookings Institution. Defense industries;
Military-industrial complex; Privatization; Defense
industries--United States; Military-industrial complex--United
States; Privatization--United States; United States--Military
policy. Corporations sell
skills, services that, until recently, only state militaries
possessed; products range from trained commando teams to
strategic advice from generals; new "Privatized Military
Industry" encompasses hundreds of companies, thousands of
employees, billions in revenue.
Joseph E. Stiglitz and Linda J. Bilmes (2008).
The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq
Conflict. (New York, NY: Norton, 311 p.). 2001 Nobel
Prize in Economics, University Professor (Columbia University);
Professor of Public Finance (Harvard's Kennedy School of
Government), former assistant secretary for management and
budget in the U.S. Department of Commerce. Iraq War, 2003- --
Finance -- United States; War -- Economic aspects -- United
States; War -- Economic aspects -- Iraq. White House has kept Congress,
Comptroller General from clear idea on war's true costs; expense
items hidden from U.S. taxpayer (replacing military equipment
used up at six times peacetime rate, cost of caring for
thousands of wounded veterans for rest of their lives); cost in
lives, economic damage within Iraq, region; what U.S. taxpayer's
money would have produced if instead it had been invested in
further growth of U.S. economy.
William Urban and Introduction by Terry Jones
Medieval Mercenaries: The Business of War. (London, UK:
Greenhill Books, 304 p.). Lee L. Morgan Professor of History
(Monmouth College). Mercenaries; Middle Ages; Soldiers of
Fortune. VVital importance
of mercenary to medieval power-broker, from the Byzantine
Varangian Guard to fifteenth-century soldiers of fortune in the
Mark R. Wilson (2006). u>
The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State,
1861-1865. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 306 p.). Teaches American History (University of North
Carolina at Charlotte). United States.
Army--Mobilization--History--Civil War, 1861-1865; Contracting
out--United States--History--19th century; United
States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Economic aspects.
History of army procurement arena
in United States during third quarter of nineteenth century;
military struggles of Civil War rested on giant project of
economic mobilization that was object of high-stakes struggles