November 11, 1851
- Alvan Clark, of Cambridge, MA, received patent for a
"Telescope"; Alvin Clark Company became one of foremost
producers of some of largest lenses for telescopes.
Hisashige Tanaka opened telegraph equipment factory, Tanaka
Seizo-sho (Tanaka Engineering Works), in Shimbashi, Tokyo;
Japan's first manufacturer of telegraphic equipment; 1890
- Ichisuke Fujioka, Shoichi Miyoshi established Hakunetsu-sha &
Co., Ltd. in Kyobashi, Tokyo, manufactured Japan’s first
electric incandescent light bulbs; 1899 -
Hakunetsu-sha & Co., Ltd. renamed Tokyo Denki (Tokyo Electric
Co.); 1904 - Tanaka established Shibaura
Seisaku-sho (Shibaura Engineering Works); one of Japan's largest
manufacturers of heavy electrical apparatus; 1939
- Tokyo Electric Company merged with Shibaura Engineering Works
Co., Ltd., formed Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd., integrated
electric equipment manufacturer; August 5, 1958 -
Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha registered "Toshiba"
trademark (electric household refrigerators); September 2,
1958 - Tokyo Shibaura Elect Company Ltd. (d.b.a. Toshiba
Corporation) registered "Toshiba" trademark (electric power
equipment, electric communication equipment, electric lamps and
discharge lamps, electric heaters and cookers, electron tubes
and discharge tubes, electric fans); 1978 - name
changed to Toshiba Corporation.
- founder Toshiba
March 4, 1877
- Emile Berliner announced his invention of microphone.
September 23, 1889
- Fusajiro Yamauchi established Nintendo Koppai in Kyoto, Japan; began manufacturing "Hanafuda
('flower cards')," Japanese
playing cards in Kyoto; 1903 - established
unlimited partnership, Yamauchi Nintendo & Co.;
1929 - Sekiryo
Yamauchi (son-in-law) succeeded; 1947
- began distribution company, Marufuku Co. Ltd ;
1951 - name changed from Marufuku Co. Ltd. to Nintendo
Playing Card Co. Ltd.; 1963 - name changed to
Nintendo Co. Ltd., started manufacturing games in addition to
playing cards; 1975
- moved into video arcade game industry with EVR Race (designed
by Genyo Takeda, company's first game designer);
March 2, 1976 -
Nintendo Co., Ltd. registered "Nintendo" trademark (copying
machine [duplicator] utilizing the wet system with diazo
solution and fluorescent lamp); June 1985
- introduced American version of Nintendo Entertainment
System (NES or Nintendo), 8-bit video game console (designed by
Masayuki Uemura, launched in Japan in 1983), at Consumer
October 18, 1985
- released in United
1891 - Gerard Philips (Philips and Co) began operations
at Eindhoven in Holland; first products - carbon-filament light
bulbs; 1895 - Anton Frederik Philips joined
company as salesman (CEO from 1922-1939); 1912
- company named N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken; 1918
- introduced medical X-ray tube; began product
diversification; 1927 - began producing radios
(one million sold by 1932); 1933 - produced
100-millionth radio valve; started production of medical X-ray
equipment in United States; 1939 - launched
first Philips electric shaver; 45,000 employees worldwide;
June 27, 1944 - registered "Norelco" trademark
first used October 13, 1943 (X-Ray apparatus for industrial
inspection and testing and laboratory experimentation);
1950s - rotary heads invented by Philips Research; led
to development of Philishave electric shaver; 1965
- produced first integrated circuits; 1972 -
established PolyGram music record label; 1991 -
name was changed to Philips Electronics N.V.; 1974
- acquired Magnavox; 1975 - acquired
Signetic; 1980s - acquired GTE Sylvania's
television business, Westinghouse lamps business; 1983
- launched Compact Disc jointly with Sony; 1984 -
produced 100-millionth TV set; 1991 - name
changed to Philips Electronics N.V.; 1995 -
produced 300-millionth Philishave electric shaver; 1997
- released DVD, fastest growing home electronics product in
history; 2004 - launched new brand promise with
massive advertising campaign: 'sense and simplicity';
September 2006 - 80.1% of Semiconductors business
acquired by consortium of private equity partners; shifted from
cyclical markets to focus on Healthcare, Lifestyle, Technology;
January 1, 2008 - formed three sectors:
Healthcare, Lighting and Consumer Lifestyle.
1899 - NEC founded as Nippon Electric Company, Limited;
first Japanese joint venture (Western Electric Company) with
November 13, 1900
- Valdemar Poulsen, of Copenhagen, Denmark, received a patent
for a "Method of Recording and Reproducing Sounds or Signals"
("Methods and Apparatus for Effecting the Storing Up of Speech
or Signals by Magnetically Influencing Magnetizable Bodies");
magnetic tape recording.
- Frank A. Poor purchased half interest in Merritt Manufacturing
Company (Middleton, MA) from
Matthew Merritt; repaired (refilled), renewed (burnt out)
carbon incandescent electric lamps ("refilled" lamp lasted as
long as originals, much less expensive); acquired company in
full, moved it to old shoe factory in Danvers, MA, renamed The
Bay State Lamp Company; 1904
- produced about 1,000 lamps/day; Edward J. poor (brother)
joined company; 1909
- started The Hygrade Incandescent Lamp Company; sold new carbon
lamps made by Bay State Company;
1911 - produced 3000 lamps a day; Walter E Poor
(brother) joined company; took over manufacture of tungsten
lamps; 1912 -
discontinued manufacture of carbon lamps; produced tungsten,
vacuum, gas-filled lamps; 1931
- merged with Nilco, Sylvania; formed Hygrade Sylvania
Corporation (Nilco founded in 1906 as Novelty Incandescent Lamp
Company in St. Mary’s, PA; made miniature specialty, decorative
lamps for various markets; concentrated on specialty lamps for
both medical, budding automotive industries; acquired by General
Motors in 1910; acquired by General Manager Bernard G. Erskine,
two partners in 1922; renamed NILCO Lamp Works; formed Sylvania
Products Company in 1924 to manufacture radio tubes; registered
"Sylvania" trademark, first used December 29, 1924 [radiotubes]),
on May 11, 1926); 1939
- introduced first linear, or tubular, fluorescent lamp ever
made, under Sylvania name; 1941
- opened fluorescent lamp factory, world’s first;
1942 - name changed
to Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.;
October 19, 1954 - Osram G. M. B. H.
Kommanditgesellschaft Corporation registered "Osram" trademark
in U.S. [electric ray lamps, drying ray lamps, electric lamps,
gaseous discharge lamps, especially fluorescent and incandescent
lamps, electrical display]); 1959
- Sylvania acquired by General Telephone and Electronics
Corporation; 1971 -
name changed to GTE Sylvania, Incorporated;
January 1993 - GTE Sylvania’s North
American operations acquired by OSRAM GmbH; (name derived from
names for Osmium, metal, Wolfram, German word for tungsten;
result of 1919 merger between AEG, Siemens & Halske Auer-Gesellschaft,
all pioneers in development of electric light); formed
1910 - Namihei
Odaira started Hitachi, Ltd. as electrical repair shop in
Miyatashibauchi, in village of Hitachi; focused on building
electrical machinery using original Japanese technology;
manufacturing three 5hp (3.6775 kW) electric motors as company
first products; 1924
- completed first large-scale DC electric locomotive
manufactured in Japan; 1959
- established Hitachi America, Ltd.;
July 19, 1960 - Hitachi Limited
Corporation registered "Hitachi" trademark (Electric Generators;
Electric Motors; Synchronous Frequency Modifiers; Phase Shift
Condensers; Electric Converters; Electric Transformers; Voltage,
Current and Motor Speed Controlling Apparatus; Electric Controls
for Automotion Processes; Electrical Power Distribution
Equipment; Electric Precipitators; Air Cleaners and Sterilizers;
Electric Painting Equipment; Electric Welders; Electric Hand
Operated Portable Tools; Household Electric Appliances-Namely,
Kitchen, Laundry and Lighting; Telephone Sets and Equipment for
Telephone Systems; Radio and Television Broadcasting Equipment;
Radio and Television Receiving Sets; Electron Discharge Tubes
- founder, Hitach, Ltd.
October 1, 1910 -
Frederick Whitney Horn, Japanese partners began manufacturing
recorders (had imported machine tools, recorders in Yokohama
since 1896; had established Japan-U.S. Recorders Manufacturing"
in 1907, had started special-purpose factory in 1909 to
manufacture records; had set up recording studio); established
Nippon Chikuonki Shoukai (Japan Recorders Corporation) to
supervise sales of recorders; 1912
- merged with Japan-U.S. Recorders Manufacturing;
1927 - Columbia
Records invested; 1928 - established Japan Columbia Recorders;
1946 - renamed
"Nippon Columbia Company Limited";
1947 - acquired Japan Denki Onkyo, which would
help make the "DENON" brand come true later on, in its network
of affiliates. (known as Denon - founded in 1939, by group of
engineers in business-purpose audio equipment, as Japan Electric
Recorders Mfg.; developed, manufactured turntables, cartridge
tape-recorders for NHK and other broadcast stations); 1951 -
sold first stereo records, stereo systems in Japan;
November 14, 1967 -
Nippon Columbia Co., Ltd. registered "Denon" trademark first
used September 10, 1959 (radio receivers, television receivers,
industrial television apparatus, cathode ray tubes, television
cameras, television broadcasting and receiving sets for
industrial use); 1972
- launched the world's first practical 8 -channel digital
recorder; 1982 -
introduced first consumer-use CD player (DCD-2000); first to
release home cinema component supporting Dolby Digital decoding
for multi-channel content; October
2, 2001 - 41.7% interest in Nippon Columbia and
Denon (audio/visual hardware business, high-fidelity line of
audio equipment) acquired by RHJ Industrial Partners LP, unit of
Ripplewood Holdings; Denon spun off, formed Denon Ltd. (98%
owned by Ripplewood Holdings, 2% by Hitachi);
May 14, 2002 -
Denon acquired by Marantz, formed D&M Holdings, joint holding
company to create global leader in premium home theatre,
audio-video (AV) market.
September 15, 1912
- Tokuji Hayakawa (19) leased house in center of Tokyo, set up
small metalworking shop with 50 yen, 2 employees; produced snap
buckle for Western style pant belts (saw movie of people with
their belts tied, ends hanging down in front), called "Tokubijo"
snap buckle; allowed user to adjust belt length, even if there
were no holes; received patent for invention, started company to
produce buckles; 1915
- invented mechanical pencil made of nickel that used
replaceable lead cores to stay sharp all the time; called
"Hayakawa mechanical pencil", patented and marketed as "screw
pencil" or "propelling pencil"; success in US, Europe, huge
orders from trading companies; established new company, Hayakawa
Brothers Shokai, to manufacture metallic mechanical pencils;
renamed Ever-Sharp Pencil, later shortened to Sharp pencil
(origin of company name); 1923
- more than 200 employees, sales of 50,000 yen per month;
April 1925 -
assembled Japan's first working crystal radio set;
May 1, 1935 -
incorporated Hayakawa Metal Works Institute Co. (founded 1924)
with capital of 300,000 yen; June
1936 - renamed Hayakawa Metal Works Co.;
1942 - renamed
Hayakawa Electric Industry Co.;
January 1953 - Sharp model TV3-14T became
Japan's first commercially produced television (priced at
175,000 yen (salaries for government workers with high school
education started at 5,400 yen per month);
October 8, 1959 - Hayakawa Electric co.,
Ltd. registered "Sharp' trademark in U.S. first used January 17,
1931 (electric shavers); 1961
- established Central Research Laboratories to support R & D;
first company in Japan to develop microwave oven;
1964 - introduced
world's first all transistor-diode electronic desktop
calculator, CS-10A, priced at 535,000 yen (manufactured 400
million of 1.6 billion calculators produced throughout world as
calculator became most familiar electronic tool in history);
1970 - name changed
to Sharp Corporation; September 15,
1970 - Senior Executive Director Akira Saeki
became new president; 1971 - developed its first microcomputer;
1972 - entered
photocopier business; 1975
- produced 10 millionth electronic calculator;
1977 - introduced
world's first card-sized, sensor-touch electronic calculator (5
mm thick); 1979 -
established Sharp Manufacturing Company of America (SMCA) in
Memphis, TN; manufacturing division of Sharp's American sales
subsidiary, first overseas manufacturing facility in
industrialized world; 1979
- began to produce VCRs in Japan;
1984 - exports rose to 61.7%, highest level
ever, company's consolidated account balance rose to one
trillion yen for first time; produced its 10 millionth microwave
oven; September 1993
- US manufacturing base reached 20-million mark in sales of
color TVs, microwave ovens (14 years after establishment);
October 1994 -
worldwide production of microwave ovens broke 40 million mark;
1996 - VCR total
production exceeded 10 million units;
April 2000 - total worldwide copier
production reached 10 million (only second copier manufacturer
to achieve this); consolidated net sales for fiscal 2000
exceeded 2 trillion yen (2.128 trillion yen, up 8.5% from
previous year) for first time;
December 21, 2007 - announced an agreement to
collaborate closely with Toshiba Corporation in their respective
strengths of LCD, semiconductors to enhance both companies'
corporate value, profitability, global competitiveness.
- founder Sharp Electronics
1915 - Edwin S.
Pridham, Peter L. Jensen (Napa, CA) invented moving-coil
loudspeaker, called "Magnavox (rather than loudspeaker);
December 10, 1915 -
first public demonstration in Golden Gate Park (San Francisco);
August 3, 1917 -
formed Magnavox Company in San Francisco;
1974 - consumer electronics division
acquired by Philips.
Edwin S. Pridham, Peter L. Jensen
1915 - Melville
Eastham founded General Radio Company in Cambridge, MA with
$9,000 in capital; one of America's first equipment
manufacturers for radio, electronics industry;
1916 - published
first catalog of measuring instruments;
1969 - introduced first commercial
computer-controlled logic circuit analyzer, created automatic
testing industry; 1975
- renamed GenRad; 2001
- acquired by Teradyne for $260 million.Philips.
February 22, 1916
- Ernst F. W. Alexanderson, of Schenectady, NY, received a
patent for a "Selective Tuning System" ("selection of
oscillations of a given wave length from mixed oscillations, and
comprises systems suitable for tuning out interferences in
radio-telegraphy"); selective radio tuning system.
1919 - Radio
Corp. of America introduced radio receiver; marked beginning of
consumer electronics sales in U.S.
April 1, 1927
- His Master's Voice introduced first automatic record changer.
September 7, 1927
- Philo Farnsworth first transmitted image of horizontal line
from San Francisco laboratory to receiver in next room
through purely electronic means, used device called an
image dissector; led to electronic television; August 26,
1930 - received patents for aelevision receiver,
television system; 1935 - courts ruled on patent,
named him "father of television" (vs. RCA effort to credit one
of its television engineers); upheld on appeal.
September 25, 1928
- Paul V. Galvin, Joseph E. Galvin incorporated Galvin
Manufacturing Corporation to market a "battery eliminator,"
product that allowed battery-operated radios to run on household
electric current; five employees, first year net sales of
$63,000, net earnings of $6,015; September 30, 1930
- registered "Motorola" trademark first used May 7, 1930 (radio
receiving sets); name
Paul Galvin for company's new car radio, linked "motor"
(motorcar, motion) with the suffix "ola" (sound) = sound in
motion; 1947 - name changed to Motorola, Inc.;
June 1955 - introduced a new logo, stylized "M"
May 16, 1930
- John Clarence Karcher, Eugene McDermott, former employees of
Amerada Petroleum Corp., incorporated Geophysical Service Inc.
(reflection seismograph system - searched beneath earth's
surface for structures, domes hiding reservoirs of oil, gas);
January of 1939 -
name changed to Coronado Corporation (GSI became subsidiary);
1941 - acquired by
Stanolind Oil & Gas Company (later Amoco) for $5 million;
December 6, 1941 -
Cecil Green, Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, H. Bates Peacock
(former GSI employees) acquired GSI;
spring of 1946 - Laboratory and
Manufacturing (L&M) division formed;
1948 - sales neared $5 million,
electronics manufacturing accounted for less than $1 million in
1951 - name changed to Texas Instruments
- acquired transistor license;
October 1, 1953 - listed on NYSE (started
trading at $5.25 per share, market capitalization of $21
million); 1955 - introduced first commercial product
(recti/reiter recorder); September
12, 1958 - Jack S. Kilby (inventor of integrated
circuit, Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000) performed successful
laboratory demonstration of first simple microchip (received
patent on invention on June 23, 1964);
1959 - merged with Metals & Controls
(M&C) Corporation; 2004
- 100 shares bought in 1953 equaled 24,000 shares; market
capitalization more than $42 billion.
1930 - Philo
Farrnsworth, of Berkeley, CA, received a patent for a
"Television System" ("an apparatus and process for the
instantaneous transmission of a scene or moving image of an
object located at a distance in which the transmission is by
electricity"); television system and a television receiver;
assigned patent to television Laboratories, Inc. of San
June 27, 1932
- Baird Laboratories (Britain) exhibited range of domestic TV
sets; screen size was 9 inches by 4 inches.CA.
December 26, 1933 -
Edwin H. Armstrong, of New York, NY, received a patent
for "Radio Broadcasting and Receiving"
("separation of entertainment
programs from undesired advertising talks, by tje automatic
operation of the receiving apparatus so that the listener is
spared the effort of manually operating his set"); FM radio.
April 1, 1935 - General Electric Co. announced
first radio tube made of metal; smaller, lighter than glass
vacuum tubes used in earlier radios; improved short-wave radio
August 6, 1935
William D. Coolidge, of
Schenectady, NY, received a patent for a "Cathode Ray Tube";
assigned to General Electric Company.
December 20, 1938
Russian immigrant Vladimir
Zworykin, of Wilkinsburg, PA, received patent for a "Television
System"; kinescope, now known as the cathode-ray tube; assigned
to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company.
December 6, 1941-
Cecil Green (chief of a seismographic field crew for Geophysical
Service Inc., GSI), J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott and H.B.
Peacock bought GSI when they heard owners planned to sell
oil production unit (founded in May 1930 in Dallas, Texas as one
of first independent prospecting companies established to
perform reflection seismic exploration for petroleum); became
geophysical exploration service leader; 1951 -
name changed to Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI); GSI became
wholly owned subsidiary.
June 13, 1944
- Marvin Camras and William Korzon, of Chicago, IL, received a
patent for "Recording and Reproducing of Vibrations"; Camras
received a patent for a "Method and Means of Magnetic
Recording"; received a patent for a "Magnetic Recorder"; two
patents for a "Magnetic Recording Head"; magnetic tape recorder
(recording method that underlies most electronic and digital
media, including audio and video cassettes, floppy disks, credit
card magnetic strips); received a patent for a "Method of and
means for Neutralizing Inductive Disturbances in Magnetic
Reproducers"; received a patent for a "Combination Oscillator
Coil and Erasing Head for Magnetic Recorders"; received a patent
for a "Method and Means of Controlling High
Frequency Voltage in Magnetic Recorder Heads"; received a patent
for "Method of and means for Energizing Magnetic Recorder
Heads"); all patents assigned to Armour Research Foundation.
- Radio dealer Dr. Max Grundig built first two
Grundig appliances: Tubatest tube tester, Novatest testing
device; 1946 - created Heinzelmann, radio kit with
only one circuit, for short, medium, long wave; became
best-seller; 1948 - made first complete radio,
Weltklang (four tubes, six circuits); 1949 -
150,000th radio produced; 1950 - 1,000 employees;
1958 - introduced appliance where both record player, tape
recorder play in stereo (Stereo Concert Cabinet SO 200);
1984 - portion of company acquired by Dutch Philips
group (sold in 1997); 1986 - introduced first
mass-produced color television with 100 Hertz technology (no
more flickering screens).
- Grundig AG
- Tadao Kashio set up business called Kashio Seisakujo, small
subcontractor factory that made microscope parts and gears, in
Mitaka, Tokyo; 1954 - with brother, Toshio,
completed Japan's first electric calculator (lacked continuing
multiplication function); June 1957 - Kashio
brothers established CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. as development,
production company for relay calculators; signed contract with
Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd. as exclusive dealer; June 1965
- Exclusive dealer contract with Uchida Yoko Co., Ltd.,
discontinued; took over 50 sales outlets; September 1966
- electronic desktop calculators exported overseas for first
time; November 14, 1972 - registered "Casio"
trademark (mechanical and manual calculators, and parts
therefor); November 1974 - CASIOTRON
electronic wristwatch released; January 1984 -
databank wristwatch that can store telephone numbers released;
May 1985 - pocket-size LCD TV released;
November 1997 - CASSIOPEIA handheld PC released in North
America; April 2002 - first to deliver cellular
phone with built-in digital camera, equipped with GPS.
(from left to right) -
Toshio, Kuzuo, Tadao, Yukio
- CASIO Computers
7, 1946 -
Masaru Ibuka (38), Akio Morita (25) established Tokyo Tsushin
Kogyo K.K. (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation),
in Nihonbashi, Tokyo capital of just 190,000 yen, approximately
20 employees; September 1949 - first magnetic tape
recorder prototype completed; March 1950 -
launched Japan's first magnetite-coated, paper-based recording
tape, “Soni-Tape”; July 1950 - launched first magnetic tape
recorder; February 1955 - decided to use SONY logo
on Totsuko products; January 1958 - company name
changed to Sony Corporation; February 1960 - Sony
Corporation of America established; October 18, 1960
- registered "Sony" trademark first used May 9, 1955 (radio,
television, tape recorder, and accessories and parts thereof);
June 1961 - first Japanese company to offer shares in
United States in form of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs);
March 1968 - established CBS/Sony Records Inc., 50-50
joint venture with CBS Inc. (renamed CBS Sony Inc. in August
1973; renamed CBS/Sony Group Inc. in August 1983; became
wholly-owned Sony subsidiary in January 1988; renamed Sony Music
Entertainment Inc. in April 1991); October 1968 -
introduced “Trinitron” color TV; September 1970 -
listed on New York Stock Exchange; October 1982 -
introduced world's first CD player (portable CD player in
November 1984); January 1988 - acquired CBS
Records Inc., records group of CBS; June 1989 -
acquired Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. (renamed Sony
Pictures Entertainment Inc. in August 1991); July 1997
- launched home-use PC (VAIO); October 2001 -
established Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications; August
2004 - established Sony BMG Music Entertainment;
2005 - acquired, in consortium, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer
Akio Morita, Masaru Ibuka - Sony
May 16, 1946
- Jack Mullin demonstrated world's first magnetic tape recording
device to Institute of Radio Engineers in San Francisco;
modified version of German Magnetophones with ac biasing (added
dc biasing); August 1947 - won contract to record,
edit Bing Crosby's radio shows, "Philco Radio Time" on ABC
radio; Crosby appointed Mullin as his chief engineer; invested
$50,000 in AMPEX (founded in San Carlos, CA in 1944, acronym for
Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence - AMPEX) so that company could
expand commercial production of Mullin's prototype reel-to-reel
tape recorder (Bing Crosby Enterprises became its West coast
distributor); 1948 - American Broadcasting Company
used Ampex Model 200 audio recorder for first-ever U.S. tape
delay radio broadcast of The Bing Crosby Show; recorders used by
radio networks, leading recording studios.
February 1, 1947
- Toshio Iue, brother-in-law of Konosuke Matsushita, former
president of shipbuilding subsidiary of Matsushita, founder of
Panasonic Corp., founded
SANYO ("three oceans")
Electric Works (Honmachi,
Moriguchi City, Osaka), with a loan of 500,000 yen from Sumitomo
Bank plus 700,000 of his own capital, as bicycle-lamp maker;
first model of bicycle generator lamp (Model 47) launched;
February 1, 1947 - first SANYO Electric Plant started
operation; April 1950 - founded SANYO Electric
Co., Ltd. (took over all business related to dynamo-powered
bicycle lamps); 1952 - launched first plastic
radio, SS-52; 1953 - launched Japan’s first
pulsator-type washing machine, SW-53 (priced at about half of
agitation-style machines); 1960 - introduced first
tape recorder model, S-21MR; 1966 - launched first
video tape recorder model for home use, VTR-1000; 1967
- established mass production system for color TVs, released
Japan's first truly affordable model; 1976 -
introduced CX-8176L thin calculator, first product employing
lithium batteries,1980 - licensed lithium battery
technology to Duracell Co., Ltd.; 1999 - in-house
company management system introduced; eight business segments
reorganized into five companies; 2004 -
restructured; 2006 - received $2.6 billion bailout
from Goldman Sachs Group-led consortium, result of
grow-at-any-cost strategy, interests in too many product
markets; 2007 - grandson of founder stepped down
as President; ended family's leadership of company;
December 17, 2008 -
three largest shareholders agreed to sell 70% control to Panasonic Corp. (for $9.01
Toshio Iue - founded
- In-Hwoi Koo founded Lak Hui Chemical Industrial Corp.;
1952 - first Korean company to enter plastics industry;
1953 - established Lak Hui Industry (pronounCed
- established Goldstar Co., Ltd.; 1959 - produced first radio in Korea;
1960 - produced Korea's first electric fans;
1961 - developed first telephone in Korea; 1965
- developed first refrigerator in Korea; 1966 -
developed first black and white TV in Korea; 1967
- Lak Hui Oil and Fat Industry developed first shampoo in Korea;
1968 - developed first room air conditioner in
Korea; 1969 - developed first elevator, escalator,
washing machine in Korea; 1977 - developed color
television; 1979 - developed first videotape
recorder in Korea; 1981 - Lucky Engineering
developed first computer in Korea; 1982 -
developed first color video camera in Korea; 1983
- developed first compact disc player in Korea; 1987
- developed first silicon wafer in Korea; 1995 -
renamed LG Electronics Inc. (Lucky Goldstar); acquired Zenith, largest electronics company
in United States; 2005 - world's largest seller of optical storage devices; fourth-largest
supplier of mobile handsets market worldwide.
In-Hwoi Koo -
founder, LG Group
December 23, 1947
John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, scientists at Bell Telephone
Laboratory in Murray Hill, NJ, first demonstrated transistor
(name came from its electrical property known as
trans-resistance); replaced bulkier vacuum tube, referred to as
electronic engineer's dream; simple, tiny device utilized
electronic semiconducting properties of germanium wafer,
represented significant advance in technology incorporated into
electronic equipment as functional replacement for vacuum
tube, provided great savings in space, electrical power
consumption; made possible small portable, battery-powered
transistor radios sold to public by late 1954.
January 27, 1948
- Wire Recording Corporation of America announced 'Wireway'
machine, first magnetic wire recorder; built-in oscillator, sold
September 7, 1948
- Louis W. Parker, of Woodside, NY, received a patent for a
"Television Receiver" ("an improved way of separating and
reproducing the video and audio components of the received
television signal"); "intercarrier sound system" used in all
television receivers in world.
October 1, 1949
- Kimble Glass Co., subsidiary of Owens-Illinois, delivered
first practical rectangular television tube made in U.S.; sold
for about $12; bulb face of tube measured approx. 12in. by 16in.
March 30, 1950
- Dr. John Northrup Shive, of Bell Telephone Laboratories
(Murray Hill, NJ), announced invention of phototransistor,
operated by light rather than electric current; used tiny chip
of germanium, semiconductor material, but only single collector
October 3, 1952
- Jack Mullin (electronics division of Bing Crosby Enterprises,
Inc., Los Angeles, CA) made first U.S. video recording on
magnetic tape; used 12-head Video Tape Recorder (one-inch tape
running at 120 inches per second to record ten tracks of
monochrome video information, clock track to control
synchronization, FM audio track); gave credible results of
off-air black and white recordings, one-third less costly than
photographic methods, immediately available to reproduce on
standard TV monitor tube as soon as tape rewound.
November 11, 1952
- Inventors Jack Mullin, Wayne Johnson demonstrated first video
March 25, 1954
- RCA manufactured its first color TV set (12-inch screen for
$1,000), began mass production.
October 18, 1954
- Texas Instruments announced first Transistor radio.
- Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
(incorporated in 1935)
created PanaSonic name ("pan" meaning
"all" combined with "sonic" meaning "sound") for brand of audio
speakers; February 5, 1957
- Matsushita Denki Sangyo Kabushiki Kaisha Corporation (Osaka,
Japan) registered Panasonic trademark (loud speakers and
microphones and other public address systems, and magnetic
recorders); 1966 - English lettering adopted;
1971 - logo revised.
April 14, 1956
- Ampex Corporation of Redwood City, CA demonstrated VT-100,
first practical commercial black-and-white video recorder at
broadcast convention in Chicago and simultaneously in Redwood
City, CA; invented by Ray Dolby, Charles Ginsberg, Charles
Anderson; recorded both images and sound; size of deep-freeze
with additional five 6-foot racks of circuitry; 2-inch wide
magnetic tape moved at speed of 15 inches per second; single
14-inch reel could carry a 65-min. recording; Columbia
Broadcasting System purchased three at $75,000 for each unit.
April 16, 1956
- Admiral Corporation, Chicago, IL first sold Sun Power
Pak, radio made to run either on batteries or solar-cell power
(electrical power from sunlight using a silicon "solar cell
element"); used six transistors instead of vacuum tubes, six
ordinary flashlight batteries could give 700 to 1,000 hours of
- First solar powered radios sold.
October 18, 1958 - William
Higinbotham, nuclear physicist,
head of Brookhaven National Laboratory’s
created first video game,
"Tennis for Two";
electronic tennis game with separate
controllers that connected to analog computer, used oscilloscope
- Dr. Henry Singleton, Dr. George Kozmetsky formed Teledyne ("Power Through Communication") to capitalize on coming
revolution in digital technology (replace analog devices,
June 24, 1963
- Norman Rutherford, Michael Turner, of Nottingham Electronic
Valve Company (NEVC), developed Telcan fixed-head
longitudinal videotape, open-reel, recorder for
home-taping of television programs, first demonstrated at BBC
Studios, London; mounted on top of television cabinet,
machine used quarter-inch tape running at 120 ips (10 feet/sec)
past fixed heads, carried two low-resolution black and white
15-minute tracks; never went on sale; Telcan, NEVC collapsed.
June 7, 1965
- Sony Corporation unveiled videocassette recorder (VCR) FOR
February 1972 -
Andreas Pavel tested "stereobelt" in Switzerland; March
1977 - filed patent for device in Milan; came to
be known as "Walkman".
June 27, 1972 - Nolan Bushnell, Ted Dabney
incorporated Atari, Inc. (named for Japanese word for 'check' in
Go board game); introduced Pong;
simulated table tennkis; September
1972 - first coin-operated Pong arcade game
installed at Andy Capp's, tavern in Sunnyvale, CA;
1975 - introduced
home version; November 28, 1978
- registered "Pong" trademark first used in August 1972
(electronic amusement game apparatus having video output
- Atari released Atari 2600, Video Computer System (VCS); first
successful video game console to use plug-in cartridges (9
available) instead of having one or more games built in; price
$199; January 1980 - introduced Space Invaders;
first company to port arcade game to cartridge.
February 14, 1978
- Graham S. Tubbs, of Houston, TX, received a patent for a
"Digital Microprocessor System with Shared Decode" ("electronic
digital processor system"); first "micro on a chip"; assigned to
Texas Instruments Incorporated.
July 1, 1979
- Sony introduced Sony Walkman; 1980 - began
royalty negotiations with Andreas Pavel; 1986 -
agreed to limited fee arrangement; 1989 -
initiated new royalty suit in Britain; 1996 - case
dismissed; 2003 - Sony settled out of court (cash
settlement for damages reported to be in low 8 figures plus
royalties on some Walkman sales).
October 10, 1979
- Namco released Pac-Man arcade game to Japanese market.
June 17, 1980
- Atari's "Asteroids", "Lunar Lander" first two video games
registered in Copyright Office.
March 22, 1981
- RCA first put SelectaVision VideoDisc on sale (exactly 10
years after RCA applied for first patents); based on electronic
capacitance technology, marvel of mass-production research and
development, able to play two-hour movie on twelve-inch,
fifteen-dollar record on $500 player; arrived on market too late
to compete (VCR's had dropped in price during development
phase); April 1984 - manufacturing abandoned.
January 20, 1982
- Hitachi, JVC, Philips, Matsushita, Sony agreed to
cooperate on construction of camcorder:
August 17, 1982
- N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken, Hanover, Germany, produced
compact disc of "The Visitors" by Abba; November 1982 - went on
sale; beginning of digital era in sound and image.
October 1, 1982
- CBS/Sony introduced compact discs (CD) optical disc media in
Japan with 112 different CD titles, CD player (Sony's CDP-101);
120-mm (4.7-in.) diameter plastic disk, used tiny pits read by
laser to reproduce sound or other information; two major CD
plants: PolyGram's Hanover, West Germany plant, Sony's plant in
Japan; advantages over phonograph record, recording tape:
smaller size, greater dynamic range, extremely low distortion;
sold over 20,000 CD players; June 1983 - CBS
shipped first CD "prepacks; 1983 - sales totaled
about 30,000 players, 800,000 discs; 1984 - first
large US plant, Sony subsidiary, Digital Audio Disc Corporation
(DADC), opened in Terre Haute, IN; 1985 - sales
totals to 22 million discs; 1987 - over 200 labels
issued CDs, over 100 million discs for market of 9 million CD
players; 1991 - music carrier of choice, sales
exceeded those of audiocassettes.
January 17, 1984
- U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that private use of home video
cassette recorders to tape TV programs did not violate federal
October 30, 1987
- In Japan, NEC released first 16-bit home entertainment system,
September 27, 1989
- Sony Corp. completed acquisition of CBS Records, world's
biggest record company, for $3.4 billion; deal included CBS's
global manufacturing plants, subsidiary companies, 10,000
employees, Columbia House, direct-mail music club.
November 26, 1990
- Matsushita Electronic Industrial Co. acquired MCA in $6.6
billion deal (Sony Inc. had purchased Columbia Pictures in
November 17, 1994 - Sony took $2.7 billion write-off
on Columbia Pictures (since renamed Sony Pictures); acquired
Columbia in 1989 for $5 billion to enter
"entertainment software" market, seen as lucrative
opportunity for product synergy; second quarter of 1994 -
losses of $3.2 billion.
November 25, 1994
- Akio Morita announced his decision to step down as CEO of
Sony due to poor post-Columbia Pictures performance; Sony
floundered through early 1990s.
September 29, 1998
- Keith E. Thurston, of Ottawa, ON, Kenneth G. Thurston;,
of Gloucester, ON, received a design patent for a "Hand
Controller for Video Game".
November 7, 2008 - Samsung Electronics Co.
(South Korea) overtook Motorola Inc. as leading vendor of
handsets in U.S. for first time in third quarter ( 22.4% of
market compared with Motorola's 21.1%, LG Electronics Co. 20.5%;
source: Strategy Analytics Inc.);
offered carriers full portfolio of devices (high-end products to
lower-end phones given free to customers who signed up with
particular carrier); Research in Motion - 10.2% share of high
end of U. S. market (vs. 5.7% for Apple's iPhone; 6.9% globally
vs. 6% global share for RIM.
- U.S. revenues for videogames amounted to $20 billion, twice as
much as Hollywood blockbuster; world-wide videogame revenues at
$110 billion (source:
budget to produce A-level console videogame (Gears of War, Red
Dead Redemption, Halo) between $10 million-$50 million.
May 12, 2009
- Hitachi, Japan's biggest electronics maker, posted $8.1
billion loss for fiscal year through March (vs. 58.1 billion yen
loss in 2008) on 11% decline in revenues to 10 trillion yen, 63%
decline in operating profit to 127.1 billion yen.; biggest ever
annual loss by Japanese manufacturer (source: Shinko Research
Institute Co.); stock price lowest level for almost 29 years;
second-largest in Japanese corporate history after an 834.6
billion yen loss reported by telecommunications giant Nippon
Telegraph and Telephone Corp. for fiscal year ending March 2002.
(AMP), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1997).
The Legend of AMP. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff
Enterprises, 169 p.). AMP Incorporated--History; Electronic
(Atari), Scott Cohen (1984).
Zap!: The Rise and Fall of Atari. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 177 p.). Atari, Inc.--History; Electronic games
(Atari), Nick Monfort and Ian Bogost (2009).
Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 180 p.). Associate Professor in the
School of Literature, Communication, and Culture (Georgia
Institute of Technology). Computer games --Programming; Video
games --Equipment and supplies; Atari 2600 (Video game console);
Video games --United States --History. Relationship between
platforms, creative expression; video game console released in
October 1977 credited with popularizing use of
microprocessor-based hardware, cartridges containing game code;
credited with making plug-in concept popular among game-playing
(CASIO), Kashio Tadao (1992). Kyo¯dai ga
ite. (Tokyo, Japan: Nihon Keizai Shinbunsha, 189 p.).
Founder, Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Kashio, Tadao, 1917- ; Kashio
Keisanki Kabushiki Kaisha--Biography;
(Clairtone Sound), Nina Munk and Rachel
The Art of Clairtone: The Making of a Design Icon, 1958-1971.
(Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart,, 171 p.). Contributing
Editor at Vanity Fair; Writes on Design for the Globe and Mail.
Clairtone Sound Corporation --History; Electronic industries
--Canada --History; Design, Industrial --Canada; Design
--Canada. Candid, in-depth
look at company’s skyrocketing success, sensational collapse;
iconoclastic company that once seemed to represent promise of
Canada; known for iconic designs, masterful advertising
(General Radio), Frederick Van Veen (2007).
The General Radio Story. (Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com, 261
p.). General Radio; Measurement instruments -- history; Test
equipment; Electronics --History.
One of true pioneers of electronics: wavemeters, signal
generators, voltmeters, frequency standards, etc. to automatic
test equipment, automatic circuit-board test systems.
(Inmos), Mick McLean and Tom Rowland (1985).
The Inmos Saga. (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 199 p.).
Inmos (Firm); Electronic industries--Government policy--Great
Britain. Largest British-owned semiconductor manufacturer.
(LG Electronics India), Yasho V. Verma (2007).
Passion: The Untold Story of LG Electronics India.
(Mumbai: Biztantra, 191 p.). Director of Human Resources and
Management Support (LG Electronics in India). LG (Firm:
Korea)--History; LG --India--history. Non-traditional growth of LG in
India; 1997-2005 - compounded annual growth rate of 62%, annual
revenue of $1.456 billion; 2005 - 2,900 employees; focus on
customers, sales, HR practices, innovation, cultural
issues between expatriates and Indians; target-driven,
(LG Kumsok), p'yonjibin Elchi Kumsok 60-yonsa
P'yonch'an Wiwonhoe (1997). Elchi Kumsok 60-yonsa, 1936-1996.
(Soul T'ukpyols: LG Kumsok, 1997, 672 p.). LG Kumsok (Firm :
Korea)--History; LG (Firm : Korea)--History.
(LucasArts), Rob Smith; foreword by George
Rogue Leaders: The Story of LucasArts. (San Francisco,
CA: Chronicle Books, 256 p.). Editor-in-Chief of Playstation:
The Official Magazine. LucasArts (Firm) --History; Video games
industry --United States --History. 1982 - George Lucas saw
potential in fledgling videogame industry, created
interactive-entertainment company; creative talent behind videogame
classics, games that were never publicly
(Motorola), Harry M. Petrakis (1991).
The Founder's Touch: The Life of Paul Galvin of Motorola.
(Chicago, IL: J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co., 242 p. [3rd ed.]). Galvin,
Paul, 1895-1959; Motorola, inc.--History; Industrialists--United
States--Biography; Electronic industries--United
Paul V. Galvin and Joseph E.
Galvin - Motorola
(Motorola), Kathi Ann Brown (1992).
Critical Connection!: The MSS Story. (Forest Park, IL:
Motorola, 253 p.). USMSS, Inc; Motorola, Inc.; radio
(Motorola), Guenter Schoenborn (2006).
Entering Emerging Markets: Motorola’s Blueprint for Going Global.
(New York, NY: Springer, 188 p. [2nd rev. ed.]). Motorola,
Inc.--History; Motorola, Inc.--Globalization; Electronic
industries--Emerging Markets. Strategies and processes of multi-national US corporation applied in entering emerging
(NEC), NEC (1984).
NEC Corporation: The First 80 years. (Tokyo, Japan: The
Corporation, 103 p.). Nihon Denki Kabushiki Kaisha--History.
Kunihiko Iwadare - NEC
(NEC), Koji Kobayashi; with a foreword by
Peter Drucker (1991).
The Rise of NEC: How the World's Greatest C&C Company Is Managed.
(Cambridge, MA: B. Blackwell Business, 213 p.). Nihon Denki
Kabushiki Kaisha--History; Electronic
(Nintendo), David Sheff (1993).
Game Over: How Nintendo Zapped an American Industry, Captured
Your Dollars, and Enslaved Your Children. (New York, NY:
Random House, 445 p.). Nintend¯o Kabushiki Kaisha; Electronic
games industry; Nintendo video games.
(Nintendo), Osamu Inoue; translated by Paul Tuttle Starr.
Nintendo Magic: Winning the Videogame Wars. (New
York, NY: Vertical, 221 p.). Reporter for Nikkei Business
Online. Nintendo of America Inc.; Electronic games industry;
Nintendo Wii video games. Powerhouse industries should never understimate modest competitor; 1980s - Nintendo ruled
home-entertainment market with NES (Nintendo Entertainment
System); rival Sony introduced PlayStation (featured
advancements, cutting-edge technology); Nintendo quickly lost dominant market share to Sony,
floundered; 2006 - Nintendo released Wii at same time Sony
introduced highly-anticipated, much-vaunted PlayStation III,
Microsoft launched XBox 360; what went right - business
strategies, marketing savvy that won.
(Nintendo), Daniel Sloan (2011).
Playing to Win: Nintendo and the Video Game Industry's Greatest
Comeback. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 256 p.). Former
President of the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Japan. Nintendo
Co., Ltd.; entertainment systems; interactive entertainment --
history. Turnaround strategy of worldwide innovator in creation
of interactive entertainment; key succession issue for Nintendo,
development of DS, Wii (2006) mega-hit consoles, creation of
remarkable new gaming software; drove Nintendo to top of
industry; portrait of Hiroshi Yamauchi, one of world’s most
enigmatic corporate leaders.
(Panasonic Industrial Corp.), Francis McInerny
Panasonic: The Largest Corporate Restructuring in History.
(New York, NY: Truman Talley Books/St. Martins Press, 400 p.).
Managing Director, North River Ventures, LLC. Panasonic
Industrial Corp.--Reorganization; Matsushita Denki
Sangyo--Reorganization; Electronic industry--Japan; Corporate
reorganizations--Japan. 11-year restructuring (1995-2006) of $72 billion company: 1)
accomplished without recruiting outside CEO; 2) reordered
complex, tradition-bound organization in country thought to
deeply resist radical change; 3) how Japanese companies adapt to
(Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken), P. J. Bouman
[translated from the Dutch] (1970).
Growth of an Enterprise The Life of Anton Philips.
(London, UK: Macmillan, 272 p. [2nd ed.]). Philips, Anton
Frederik, 1874-1951; Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken.
(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), Frederik
45 Years with Philips: An Industrialist's Life. (Poole:
Blandford Press, 280 p.). Philips, Frits, 1905- ;Philips'
Gloeilampenfabrieken -- History; Businessmen -- Netherlands --
(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), A. Heerding
The History of N.V. Philips'
Gloeilampenfabrieken, Volume 1: The Origin of
the Dutch Incandescent Lamp Industry. (New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press, 329 p.). Philips'
Gloeilampenfabrieken -- History; Electric lamp industry --
Netherlands -- History.
(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), A. Heerding;
translated by Derek S. Jordan (1989).
The History of N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Volume 2:
A Company of Many Parts. (New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press, 329 p.). Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken --
History; Electric lamp industry -- Netherlands -- History.
(Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken), Pieter
Lakeman (1991). 100 Jaar Philips: de Officieuze Biografie.
(Amsterdam, Netherlands: Lakeman Publishers, 240 p.). Philips’
Gloeilampenfabrieken--History; Electric lamp
(Samsung), Anthony Michell (2010).
Samsung Electronics and the Struggle for Leadership of the
Electronics Industry. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 246 p.).
Head of Korea Associates Business Consultancy, Visiting
Professor of Strategy and Management (KDI Graduate School of
Policy and Management). :Samso(ng Cho(nja; Success in business;
Electronic industries. Rise of Samsung Electronics from
origins as small subcontractor, assembler of consumer
electronics to dynamic multinational corporation; problems of
early growth, crisis of 1990s; 1996-2007 - partnership of Lee
Kun-hee (Samsung Group Chairman), Yun Jong-yun took company to
new heights; decade leading to company's fortieth anniversary in
2009 (dramatic challenge to Sony's supremacy in consumer
electronics, problems and tensions associated with aging of
company, quest for new strategy to continue dynamic, growth);
relationship between Samsung Electronics, Samsung Group;
tensions between Korean government and chaebol.
(Sanyo), Hayashi Tatsuhiko (1985).
Jitsuroku, Iue Gakko: Kansai Keieisha o Sodateta shiso to
Tetsugaku. (Tokyo, Japan: Daiyamondo Serusu Henshu¯ Kikaku:
Hatsubaimoto Daiyamondosha, 223 p.). Iue, Toshio, 1902-1969;
Sanyo¯ Denki Kabushiki Kaisha--Biography.;
(Sinclair), Rodney Dale (1985).
The Sinclair Story. (London, UK: Duckworth, 184 p.).
Sinclair, Clive, Sir, 1940- ; Electronic industries -- Great
Britain -- History; Businessmen -- Great Britain -- Biography.
(Sinclair), Ian Adamson and Richard Kennedy
(1986). Sinclair and the Sunrise Technology: The
Deconstruction of a Myth. (Hammondsworth, UK: Penguin, 262
p.). Sinclair, Clive, Sir, 1940- ; Businessmen -- Great Britain
-- Biography; Electronic industries -- Great Britain -- History.
(Sony), Nick Lyons (1976).
The Sony Vision. (New York, NY: Crown, 235 p.). Son¯i
Kabushiki Kaisha; Electronic industries -- Japan -- History.
Akio Morita - Sony founder
(Sony), Akio Morita with Edwin M. Reingold and
Mitsuko Shimomura (1986).
Made in Japan: Akio Morita and Sony. (New York, NY:
Dutton, 309 p.). Morita, Akio, 1921- ; Son¯i Kabushiki Kaisha --
History; Industrialists -- Japan -- Biography; Electronic
industries -- Japan -- History.
(Sony), Paul du Gay ... [et al.] (1997).
Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman.
(Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, in association with The Open
University, 151 p.). Professor of Sociology and Organization
Studies (The Open University, UK). Soni¯ Kabushiki Kaisha;
Cassette tape recorders--Technological innovations; Cassette
tape recorders--Technological innovations--Social aspects;
(Sony), John Nathan (1999).
Sony: The Private Life. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin,
347 p.). Film-maker, Japan expert at University of California.
Sony Corporation, Consumer Electronics.
(Sony), Sea-Jin Chang (2008).
Sony vs Samsung: The Inside Story of the Electronics Giants'
Battle For Global Supremacy. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 250
p.). Kumho Asiana Group Endowed Chair Professor of Business
Administration (Korea University). Soni¯ Kabushiki Kaisha;
Samsung Group; Electronics -- History. 2002 - market capitalization of Sony fell below that of Samsung
for the first time; key strategic decisions by Sony and Samsung
with respect to technology, marketing, organizational
infrastructure, globalization strategies from mid-1990s to 2006;
performance differences attributed t strategies, organizational
processes, executive leadership; each company’s approach to
global expansion, key factors for success, failure.
(Sony), Norio Ohga; translated by Brian
Doing It Our Way: A Sony Memoir. (Tokyo, Japan:
International House of Japan, 123 p.). Ohga, Norio, 1930-; Soni
Kabushiki Kaisha --Biography; Executives --Japan --Biography.
(Tektronix), Marshall M. Lee (1986).
Winning with People: The First 40 Years of Tektronix.
(Beaverton, OR: Tektronix, 323 p.). Tektronix, Inc.--History;
Electronic industries--Northwest, Pacific--History.
(Teledyne), George A. Roberts, Robert J.
Distant Force: A Memoir of the Teledyne Corporation and the Man
Who Created It. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Teledyne
Corporation, 316 p.). Former Chairman (January 1991-March 1993).
Teledyne Corporation; Singleton, Dr. Henry E.;
Henry Singleton created, built Teledyne Corporation into
diversified 4 billion dollar corporation; controversial but
successful in generating high returns to shareholders.
Cecil H. Green -
co-founder Texas Instruments
Eugene Haggerty -
co-founder Texas Instruments
J. Erik Jonsson -
co-founder Texas Instruments
Eugene McDermott -
co-founder Texas Instruments
(Texas Instruments), Robert R. Shrock (1989).
Cecil and Ida Green: Philanthropists Extraordinary.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 463 p.). Green, Ida M.; Green Cecil
Howard, 1900- ; Philanthropists--United States--Biography;
Science--Study and teaching--United States--Finance--History;
Medical education--United States--Finance--History.
(Texas Instruments), Caleb Pirtle (2005).
Engineering the World: Stories from the First 75 Years of Texas
Instruments. (Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University
Press, 266 p.). Texas Instruments Incorporated--History;
(TV), George Everson (1949). The Story of
Television, The Life of Philo T. Farnsworth. (New York, NY:
Norton, 266 p,.). Farnsworth, Philo Taylor, 1906-1971;
Philo Farnsworth - "father of television"
(TV), Elma G. "Pem" Farnsworth (1990).
Distant Vision: Romance and Discovery on an Invisible Frontier.
(Salt Lake City, UT: PemberlyKent, 333 p.). Wife of Philo
Farnswortjh ("father of television"). Farnsworth, Philo Taylor,
1906-1971; Television--History; Inventors--United
(TV), Donald G. Godfrey; foreword by
Christopher H. Sterling (2001).
Philo T. Farnsworth: The Father of Television. (Salt
Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 307 p.). Farnsworth,
Philo Taylor, 1906-1971; Television--Biography;
Inventors--United States--Biography; Electric engineers--United
(TV), Evan I. Schwartz (2002).
The Last Lone Inventor: A Tale of Genius, Deceit, and the Birth
of Television. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 322 p.).
Former Reporter (BusinessWeek). Farnsworth, Philo Taylor,
1906-1971; Television--Biography; Inventors--United
States--Biography; Electric engineers--United States--Biography;
(TV), Daniel Stashower (2002).
The Boy Genius and the Mogul: The Untold Story of Television.
(New York, NY: Broadway Books, 277 p.). Farnsworth, Philo
Taylor, 1906-1971; Sarnoff, David, 1891-1971;
Television--History; Electric engineers--United
Ralph H. Baer ... [et al.] Burnham;
contributors, Van (2001).
Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age, 1971-1984.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 439 p.). Contributing Editor at Wired
magazine and a member of the Video Arcade Preservation Society.
Video games--History; Video games--History--Pictorial works.
Ralph H. Baer (2005).
Videogames: In the Beginning. (Springfield, NJ: Rolenta
Press, 258 p.). Electronic Engineer; Holds Pioneer Patent
Covering Video Games. Baer, Ralph H.; Video games--United
States--History; Electronic games industry--United
today’s $11-billion per year videogame industry began.
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., with the assistance
of Takashi Hikino and Andrew von Nordenflycht (2001).
Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the Consumer
Electronics and Computer Industries. (New York, NY: Free
Press, 321 p.). Isidor Straus Professor of Business History,
Emeritus (Harvard Business School). Electronic industries;
Computer industry; Competition, International.
Heather Chaplin and Aaron Ruby (2005).
Smartbomb: The Quest for Art, Entertainment, and Big Bucks in
the Videogame Revolution. (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin
Books of Chapel Hill, 288 p.). Electronic games industry.
Computer technology fused with
Tom Chatfield (2010).
Fun Inc.: Why Games Are the 21st Century’s Most Serious Business.
(London, NY: Virgin, 258 p.). Arts-and-Books Editor (Prospect
magazine). Electronic games industry. Rapidly evolving art form;
U.S. is world’s biggest video games market, manufacturer (over $20 billion annually in software, hardware sales—more than quadruple size in mid
1990s); 'World of Warcraft' boasts over 11 million players
worldwide, over $1 billion per year in revenues; has flourished as career, creative industry
U.S. colleges, universities in 37 states offer courses, degrees in computer and video game design, programming,
art); 68% of American
households play computer or video games, average
game player is 35 years old, has played games for
12 years; 43% of online U.S. game
players are female; U.S. military spends around $6
billion/year on virtual, simulated training programs (based
on video games, virtual worlds); budgets for
developing biggest games can top $100 million, can attract some of biggest names in film
(Stephen Spielberg to Peter Jackson).
Philip J. Curtis (1994).
The Fall of the U.S. Consumer Electronics Industry: An American
Trade Tragedy. (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 337 p.).
Zenith Radio Corporation; RCA Corporation; Radio supplies
industry -- United States; Television supplies industry --
United States; Electronic industries -- United States.
Tristan Donovan (2010).
Replay: The History of Video Games. (East Sussex, UK:
Yellow Ant Media Ltd, 516 p.). Electronics industry --
entertainment; video games -- history. Birth, evolution of most
important development in entertainment since television; from research labs of 1940s to success of Wii;
rise and fall of Atari, cottage industry spawned by computers of
Sir Clive Sinclair, Japan's rapid ascent to top of gaming tree,
impact of Doom; how creative vision of game designers across
globe gave rise to one of world's most popular, dynamic art
forms (includes gameography - more than 800 of most notable
games ever made; 26-page guide to consoles, computers of
gaming's past and present).
Harold Goldberg (2011).
All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How 50 Years of Videogames
Conquered Pop Culture. (New York, NY: Three Rivers
Press, 352 p.). Reviewed Video Games for 15 Years. Video games
--History; Video Games --Social aspects. 50 years of video game
history; creativity, controversy, passion; behind video games' meteoric rise to top of pop-culture pantheon;
forces behindevolution from curiosities to fads to
trends to $50 billion industry, one of world's most popular
forms of mass entertainment.
Dick Hanson (1982).
The New Alchemists: Silicon Valley and the Microchip Revolution.
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 364 p.). Microelectronics industry
-- California -- History; Silicon Valley and the
Bob Johnstone (1999).
We Were Burning: Japanese Entrepreneurs and the Forging of the
Electronic Age (New York, NY: Basic Books, 422 p.).
Electronic industries--Japan--History; Electronic
Michael Kane (2008).
Game Boys: Professional Videogaming’s Rise from the Basement to
the Big Time. (New York, NY: Viking, 300 p.).
Entertainment Features Writer (New York Post). Computer games
--Social aspects; Video gamers as businesspeople.
E- sports, competitive videogaming - Team
3D and CompLexity video-gaming teams battle for supremacy in
Cyberathlete Professional League (CPL, formed in 1997);
business-meets-popculture narrative; entrepreneurial ingenuity
involved in bringing gaming onto broadcast TV (X-Games,
Steve L. Kent;
foreword by Peter Molyneux (2001).
The Ultimate History of Video Games: From Pong to Poke´mon
and Beyond: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives
and Changed the World. (Roseville, CA: Prima Pub., 608
p.). Weekly columnist about Electronic Entertainment (Los
Angeles Times syndicate, MSNBC, Japan Times). Video
novelty to cultural phenomenon.
Stephen Kline, Nick Dyer-Witheford, and Greig
de Peuter (2003).
Digital Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and
Marketing. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen’s University
Press, 368 p.). Video games--Social aspects; Video
games--Economic aspects. Major study of video, computer game industry.
George Kozmetsky and Piyu Yue (1997).
Global Economic Competition: Today's Warfare in Global
Electronics Industries and Companies. (Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic, 426 p.). Electronic industries; Computer
industry; Competition, International.
David L. Morton, Jr. and Joseph Gabriel
Electronics: The Life Story of a Technology. (Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press, 201 p.). Electronics--History. Origin,
development of electronics; history, workings of vacuum tubes,
transistors, lasers, logic chips, cathode ray tubes,
photovoltaics, diodes, microprocessors, other milestones of
Simon Partner (1999).
Assembled in Japan: Electrical Goods and the Making of the
Japanese Consumer. (Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 303 p.). Assistant Professor of History (Duke
University). Electronic industries--Japan; Consumers--Japan.
Hans Queisser; translated by Diane Crawford-Burkhardt
The Conquest of the Microchip. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 200 p.). Microelectronics -- History.
Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson (1997).
Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age. (New
York, NY: Norton, 352 p.). Physicist; Historian of Science.
Ed. Mark J.P. Wolf (2007).
The Video Game Explosion: A History from Pong to Playstation
and Beyond. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 400 p.).
Associate Professor in the Communication Department (Concordia
University Wisconsin). Video games--Social aspects; Video
games--History. Growth of
global phenomenon that has become integral part of popular
culture; leading video game innovators, technological advances
that made games of late 1970s, those of today possible,
corporations that won, lost billions of dollars pursing
Business History Links
Consumer Electronics Association
Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) membership unites 2000
companies within the U.S. consumer technology industry. CEA's
mission is to grow the consumer electronics industry. industry
authority on market research and forecasts; consumer surveys;
legislative and regulatory news; engineering standards; training
resources and more.
The Philo T. Farnsworth Archives
Official site about Philo Farnsworth, credited with inventing
television in the 1920s. Find a brief chronology, photos of
Farnsworth (who died in 1971) and his wife Pem (who died in
2006), early television tubes, and the controlling patent for
television. Includes a list of patents held by Farnsworth and a
bibliography. Site created and maintained by the Farnsworth
History of the Transistor
"The Transistor was probably the most important invention of the
20th Century, and the story behind the invention is one of
clashing egos and top secret research." - Ira Flatow,
Center for the History of Electronic Games
The Strong is a "highly interactive,
collections-based educational institution devoted to the study
and exploration of play." One of its programmatic "arms" is the
International Center for the History of Electronic Games (ICHEG)
- 17,000 different items related to the history of gaming;
divided into seven categories (including "Console Games",
"Handhelds", and "Arcade Games"). Each item contains a brief
description, game’s manufacturer, materials, and country of
origin; can investigate the physical appearance of arcade
classics like Donkey Kong, Popeye, and Dug Out.Transistorized!
To teach science, art and history
through pinball, and to preserve and promote this important part
of American culture; dedicated to the promotion and preservation
of one of America's great pastimes.
Video Game Revolution
Over the past 30 years, video games have become an integral part
of our culture, and the video game industry has become a
multi-billion dollar behemoth. Follow the journey of video games
from university laboratories to our living rooms.