Burbage became first Englishman to obtain theatrical license
(first Elizabethan theatrical entrepreneur);
1576 - borrowed
1000 marks (£666. 13s. 4d.) from John Braynewith
(father-in-law), built 'The 'Theatre' with John Brayne
(brother-in-law) on land leased from Giles Allen; first theater
in London (similar to small Roman amphitheatre); created
blueprint for Globe theater; 1597
- Cuthbert and Richard Burbage (sons) took over; lease of 'The
Theatre' expired; dismantled building, used timber in
construction of Globe playhouse on Bankside, Southwark.
- 'The Theatre', 1576
Catherine De Medici commissioned first ballet, "Ballet Comique
de la Reine," in Paris,
to celebrate marriage of
November 1, 1604
- William Shakespeare's tragedy Othello presented for the first
time, at Whitehall Palace in London.
October 12, 1609 -
Thomas Ravenscroft, London teenage songwriter, published "Three
November 1, 1611 -
William Shakespeare's romantic comedy The Tempest presented, for
first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.
1618 - Avedis I
discovered secret process for treating alloys (fusing of copper,
tin and silver), applied it to art of making cymbals of
extraordinary clarity; used in Turkey for daily calls to prayer,
religious feasts, royal weddings, Ottoman army; Sultan Osman II
called Zildjian founder of craft of Turkish cymbal making,
bestowed name 'Zildjian' (cymbal smith in Armenian);
1623 - Sultan
Murad IV allowed Avedis to leave Ottoman palace to start cymbal
foundry outside Constantinople;
1929 - Avedis Zildjian III left candy business,
incorporated, opened cymbal factory in Quincy, MA;
1930 - developed
close relationship with Gene Krupa, made thinner marching
cymbals to adapt to emerging drum set; invented, named many of
cymbals used in modern drumming (splash, ride, crash, hi-hat,
1743 - George Frideric Handel's oratorio
''Messiah'' had London premiere.
March 5, 1750 - First Shakespearean play
in America presented at Nassau Street Theatre in New York City,
"King Richard III".
1759 - Lawmakers in Pennsylvania adopted law
forbidding performance of plays (response to pressure from
religious groups, particularly Baptists, who found theatrical
performances immoral); fined 500 pounds if found guilty.
September 18, 1769
- Boston Gazette described first piano-like instrument, known in
U.S. as a spinet (built by John Harris).
August 3, 1778 -
La Scala (Teatro alla Scala), opera house, opened in Milan,
Italy, with performance of Antonio Salieri's ''Europa
May 1, 1786
- Mozart's opera ''The Marriage of Figaro'' premiered in Vienna.
October 29, 1787
- Mozart's opera Don Giovanni received its first performance in
May 27, 1796
- James Sylvanus McLean, of New Jersey, received first U.S.
patent for "Piano Forte".
March 11, 1818 - Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
(21) published "Frankenstein", or The Modern Prometheus;
frequently called world's first science fiction novel (scientist
animated a creature constructed from dismembered corpses;
gentle, intellectually gifted creature is enormous and
physically hideous; rejected cruelly rejected by its creator, it
wanders, seeking companionship and becoming increasingly brutal
as it fails to find a mate; explores philosophical themes and
challenges Romantic ideals about the beauty and goodness of
February 7, 1827
- Mme. Francisquy Hutin, French danseuse, introduced ballet to
U.S. at Bowery Theater, with performance of "The Deserter".
February 27, 1827
- First Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans.
April 5, 1827 -
James H. Hackett became first American actor to appear abroad;
performed at Covent Garden in London, England.
Christian F. Martin Sr. set up luthier shop in New York City;
first guitar maker to craft Stauffer style headstock in America;
1840s - created, perfected X-bracing to give
strength to guitar top to handle pressure of taut strings, heavy
playing while still maintaining very high quality Martin tone
(still considered best bracing pattern, imitated by luthiers
around world); 1873 - C. F. Martin Jr. took
command; 1888 - Frank Henry Martin (22, grandson)
assumed control; 1890s - began production of
mandolins; 1917 - built first steel-string
Hawaiian guitars played with steel bar; 1918 -
discontinued use of elephant ivory, used celluloid ("ivoroid");
1922 - first line of guitars for steel strings;
1845 - C. F. Martin III (great grandson) took over;
1969 - discontinued hard-to-obtain Brazilian
rosewood for most stock models, replaced with rosewood from East
India; 1986 - C. F. "Chris" Martin IV (great great
grandson) took over; 1990 - completed 500,00th
guitar; 1999 - completed 700,00th guitar;
2004 - completed 1,000,000th guitar.
Christian F. Martin Sr.
- C F. Martin & Co.
1839 - Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, "Oberto,
conte di San Bonifacio", debuted in Milan at La Scala, Italy's
most prestigious theater.
December 7, 1842 - New York Philharmonic gave
1846 - Antoine-Joseph (Adolphe) Sax, of Paris,
FR, received a French patent for a new System of wind
instruments called Saxophones ("instrument, which by the
character of its voice can be reconciled with the stringed
instruments, but which possesses more force and intensity than
the strings...able to change the volume of its sounds better
than any other instrument").
November 22, 1847 - Astor Place Opera
House opened; New York City's first operatic theater.
June 19, 1849 -
Charles Austin, of Concord, NH, received a patent for a
"Melodeon Reed"; melodeon, small reed organ, with
treadle-operated bellows to draw air through the reeds.
1853 - Heinrich
Engelhard Steinweg, German immigrant, master cabinetmaker,
founded Steinway & Sons in Manhattan loft; first piano sold for
$500; 1864 - name
anglicized, Steinway; William Steinway (son) builtnew showrooms
housing over 100 pianos; 1866
- opened Steinway Hall in back of showrooms, became New York
City's artistic, cultural center;
1972 - acquired by CBS;
1985 - acquired by Steinway Musical
Properties Inc.; 1988
- made 500,000th piano; 1995
- Steinway Musical Properties merged with Selmer Company, formed
Steinway Musical Instruments; 1996
- renamed Steinway Musical Instruments, went public.
January 19, 1853 -
Verdi's opera ''Il Trovatore'' premiered in Rome.
December 5, 1854 -
Aaron H. Allen, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an "Opera
Chair" (a "Seat for Public Buildings", a "new and Improved
Self-Adjusting Opera Seat"); folding chair for theatres or other
public buildings; pivoted seat constructed with weights or
springs to assume, retain vertical position when pressure upon
it is relieved as occupant rises from it.
October 9, 1855 -
Joshua C. Stoddard of Worcester, MA, received a patent for a
"Musical Instrument" ("Apparatus for Producing Music by Steam or
Compressed Air"); a calliope; consisted of 15 whistles, of
graduated sizes, attached in a row to the top of a small steam
boiler, a long cylinder with pins of different shapes driven
into it so that when the cylinder revolved, the pins pressed the
valves and blew the whistles in proper sequence; later, Stoddard
replaced the cylinder with a keyboard; wires running from the
keys to the valves enabled the operator to play the instrument
like a piano.
- Rudolph Wurlitzer founded The Wurlitzer Company; imported
musical instruments and opened sales outlets in all big American
cities; 1880 -
started production of pianos in America;
1896 - introduced 'Tonophone', first
coin-operated piano; 1933
- built first jukebox.
Rudolph Wurlitzer, Sr.
August 12, 1856
- Anthony Faas, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for an
February 5, 1861 - Coleman Sellers, of
Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for "Exhibiting Stereoscopic
Pictures of Moving Objects"; kinematoscope - a photographic
attempt to show motion (box in which rolled film moves past a
light); inventor wished to show pictures such as human motion or
the revolving wheels of machinery.
February 5, 1861 -
Samuel D. Goodale, of Cincinnati, OH, received a patent for a
"Stereoscope"; first peep show machine; Mutoscope was operated
by hand and gave a stereoscopic image; pictures were fastened by
one edge to an axis in such a way that they stood out like
spokes; different images appeared to present an image in motion
as the shaft rotated.
April 23, 1867 - William E.
Lincoln, of Providence, RI, received a patent for a "Toy";
Zoetrope; machine showed animated pictures by mounting a strip
of drawings in a wheel; appeared to move when viewed through a
slit; became standard fixtures in entertainment arcades of late 19th, early 20th centuries.
May 1, 1869 - Folies
Bergere opened in Paris.
August 10, 1869 - O. B. Brown,
of Malden, MA, received a patent for an "Optical Instrument"
("by means of which figures represented in different relative
attitudes are seen successively, so as to produce the appearance
of objects in motion"); moving picture projector.
1870 - Henry R. Heyl, using his Phasmatrope,
presented animated photographic picture projection before
theatre audience in Philadelphia for first time; disc with 16
openings near the edge, each carrying a photographic plate
rotated in front of converted projecting lantern; series of
plates showed dancers who appeared to move as rotating disc
showed successive positions; pictures in continuous loop that
did not change.
1877 - Thomas A. Edison unveiled phonograph (to
record, play back sound); experimented with stylus on tinfoil
cylinder; December 6, 1877
- demonstrated first sound recording at his Menlo Park
Laboratory; recited "Mary Had a Little Lamb" into large horn
which transmitted vibrations to needle which scribed recording
on cylinder rotated by hand; first surviving recording of human
February 19, 1878
- Edison received patent for a "Phonograph of Speaking Machine";
phonograph; used spirally grooved, tinfoil-coated cylinder with
mouthpiece for recording sound by scratching "hill-and-dale"
impressions in the foil with an attached needle; crank rotated
the cylinder; funnel horn replaced mouthpiece for listening;
established Edison Speaking Phonograph Co. (5 stockholders
including Gardiner G. Hubbard, Alexander Graham Bell's
1880 - Emile Berliner, of Boston, MA, received a
patent for a "Microphone".
December 20, 1880 - Charles F. Brush
successfully demonstrated arc lamps along Broadway in New York
City; first lighting of Broadway by electricity; became
known as "Great White Way" (preceded Edison's incandescent light
bulb in commercial use).
June 14, 1881 - John McTammany, Jr., of
Cambridge, MA, received a patent for a "Mechanical Musical
Instrument"; player piano; mechanism for automatic playing of
organs using narrow sheets of perforated flexible paper which
governed the notes to be played; February 27, 1879 - Edward H.
Leveaux received English patent for Angelus, first completely
automatic piano player; February
1897 - first to be manufactured in U.S.;
October 4, 1881
-received U.S. patent for an "apparatus for storing and
transmitting motive power."
September 30, 1881 - Clement Adler
received a German patent for first stereo system, telephonic
October 4, 1881 - Edward H. Leveaux, of Sussex,
UK, received a patent for an "Apparatus for Storing and
Transmitting Motive Power"; first completely automatic piano
player manufactured in U.S.
- Friedrich Gretsch, immigrant from Mannheim Germany, founded
small shop in Brooklyn; started making banjos, tambourines,
other instruments; 1895
- Fred Gretsch (son) took over;
1942 -Fred, Jr. and William "Bill" Gretsch
(sons) assumed leadership; 1948
- Fred Gretsch, Jr. took over;
1967 - acquired by Baldwin Music Company, music
industry giant; 1985
- reacquired by Fred W. Gretsch (great-grandson); one of world's
most well-known drum, guitar manufacturers;
2002 - struck deal
with Fender Musical Instruments Corp. to handle Gretsch
May 1, 1883
- Buffalo Bill (William F. Cody) staged his first Wild West
Show; July 4, 1883
- staged outdoor event, called "Wild West, Rocky Mountain, and
Prairie Exhibition" in North Platte, NE;
May 9, 1887 - opened in London at Earls
Court show ground, gave Queen Victoria, her subjects first look
at real cowboys and Indians; 1913
- show collapsed from financial pressures.
1883 - Original Metropolitan Opera House in New
York held grand opening with performance of Gounod's ''Faust.''
March 26, 1885
- Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company of Rochester, NY
manufactured commercial motion-picture film negatives; first
film produced in continuous strips on reels.
February 3, 1886
Bell, associates incorporated Volta Graphophone Co. in Virginia
to demonstrate, promote the graphophone; 1886 -
Bell & Charles Sumner Tainter established American Graphophone
Co. to manufacture, sell graphophones in United States, Canada
under license from Volta Graphophone Co.; Jesse H. Lippincott,
Pittsburgh businessman who had made a lot of money in glass
business, acquired exclusive right to rent or sell the
Graphophone under Bell and Tainter patents.
May 4, 1886 -
Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainter, of
Washington, DC, received a patent for "Reproducing Sounds from
Phonograph Records"; received second patent for "Transmitting
and Recording Sounds by Radiant Energy" ("new method of and
means for throwing a beam of light or other radian energy into
vibrations corresponding to sound-waves, and also to a new
method of and apparatus for producing a photographic record of
such vibrations"); Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainter
received a patent for "Recording and Reproducing Speech and
Other Sounds"; cardboard cylinder coated with ozocerite, type of
wax, incised by a needle (wax cylinder as an improved sound
recording medium); Sumner Tainter received a patent for an
"Apparatus for Recording and Reproducing Sounds" ("to increase
the general efficiency of apparatus for recording and
reproducing speech and other sounds, commonly known as
'phonographs'"); manufactured first practical phonograph from
November 30, 1886
- "Folies Bergere" debuted in Paris.; featured women in
February 1, 1887 - Harvey H. Wilcox,
prohibitionist from Kansas, filed a map of his 160-acre ranch in
Southern California (Rancho La Brea, seven miles west of Los
Angeles) with the county recorder for subdivision purposes for a
town called Hollywood (named after a Dutch settlement);
1903 - community
- lack of water forced annexation by city of Los Angeles.
- 'founded' Hollywood
May 9, 1887 -
Buffalo Bill's Wild West show opened in London, first
international performance at the Earls Court show ground; gave
Queen Victoria and her subjects their first look at real cowboys
and Indians; July 4, 1883
- staged an outdoor extravaganza called the "Wild West, Rocky
Mountain, and Prairie Exhibition" in North Platte, Nebraska;
1913 - show
collapsed from financial pressures.
October 10, 1887 -
Thomas Edison reorganized Edison Speaking Phonograph Co. as
Edison Phonograph Company; October
28, 1887 - transferred his phonograph patents to
Edison Phonograph Company in exchange for 11,960 shares of
company stock; July 14, 1888
- Lippincott organized North American Phonograph Company as
sales network of local companies licensed to lease phonographs,
graphophones as dictation machines (bought control of Edison
patents for $500 000, exclusive sales rights of phonograph in
United States for $250 000).
November 8, 1887 - Emile Berliner,
German immigrant working in Washington DC, received a patent for
a "Gramophone" ("a novel method of and apparatus for recording
and reproducing all kinds of sounds, including spoken words, and
is designed to overcome the defects inherent in that art as now
practiced"); successful system of sound recording; first
inventor to stop recording on cylinders, start recording on flat
disks or records.
December 27, 1887
- Charles Sumner Tainter, of Washington, DC, received a patent
for an "Apparatus for Recording and Reproducing Speech and Other
Sounds" ("speech and other sounds known as 'graphophones'");
April 3, 1888 - received a patent for a
"Graphophone"; July 10, 1888 - received a patent
for a "Graphophonic Tablet" ("for use in 'graphophones', or
instruments used in recording and reproducing vocal and other
sounds, the tablet being the medium in or upon which the
sound-record is cut by the recording-style. Such tablets are
composed generally of a base or foundation of a material more or
less rigid and a surface coating of wax or waxy composition
suitable for recording the vibrations of the style");
November 20, 1888 - received a patent for a
"Tablet for Use in Graphophones" ("preparation of a recording
surface or medium for graphphones"); February 18, 1890
- received a patent for a "Graphophone-Tablet" ("the
sound-record is cut or graven by a cutting style in a surface,
such as wax or waxy composition"); May 27, 1890 -
received a patent for a "Machine for the Manufacture of
Wax-Coated Tablets for Graphophones"; first to introduce method
of cutting a zig-zag spiral groove in wax surface of record to
improve sound quality.
Charles Sumner Tainter
- Recording Patents
January 10, 1888 -
Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince, of New York, NY, received a
patent for a "Method of and Apparatus for Producing Animated
Pictures of Natural Scenery and Life" ("on Glass, Canvas or
other Prepared Surfaces"); moving pictures.
May 15, 1888
- Emile Berliner, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a
"Process of Producing Records of Sound" ("production of a record
of sound-waves in solid resisting material, principally metal,
by the process of direct etching, whereby a solid unchangeable
sound-record is obtained more cheaply and more readily, either
upon a flat or upon a curved surface, without the delicate and
intricate manipulations incidental to the process of
photo-engraving"); May 16, 1888 - gave first
demonstration of flat disc recording and reproduction at
Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.
January 15, 1889
- Edward D. Easton and Roland F. Cromelin, Stenographers to Supreme
Court, organized Columbia Phonograph Company as regional
distributor (selling agency) under license from North American
Phonograph Company with exclusive rights for District of
Columbia, Maryland, Delaware (original objective to sell product
to congressmen, others for dictaphone use); 1890 -
North American Phonograph Company bankrupt, 1894 -
phonograph rights reverted to Edison; 1896 -
reorganized as National Phonograph Co. to manufacture and
distribute phonographs for home use; Columbia Phonograph Co.
(distribution and sales) acquired control of American
Graphophone Co. (development and manufacturing); Edison forced
by court decision to sign an agreement with Easton to share
patents; allowed Easton to make, sell music cylinders of Edison
type under graphophone name; rose to become one of Big 3
phonograph companies, produced Edison-type cylinders that played
on low cost spring-motor machines.
February 12, 1889 - Thomas Edison received a
patent for a "Phonograph" ("to permit of the use upon the
tapering phonogram-cylinder of the phonograph of
slightly-tapering or true cylindrical phonograms, such as paper
cylinders covered with indenting material").
April 2, 1889 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent
for a "Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer"; assigned to Edison
Phonograph Company; received a patent for "Phonograph"; received
a patent for a "Phonogram-Blank"; received two patents for
a "Method of Making Phonogram Blanks".
6, 1889 - Thomas Edison showed his first motion picture.
November 23, 1889
Louis Glass, business associate, William S. Arnold, introduced
jukebox; placed coin-operated Edison cylinder playback
phonograph with no amplification (Edison Class M Electric
Phonograph with oak cabinet) in Palais Royale Saloon in San
Francisco (303 Sutter St.); for a nickel patron could listen via
one of four listening tubes; known as "Nickel-in-the-Slot",
machine an instant success, earned over $1000 in nickels by May
1890; May 27, 1890 - Glass and Arnold, of San
Francisco, CA, received two patents for a "Coin Actuated
Attachment for Phonographs" ("a suitable device by which the
phonograph may be exhibited and heard by any one upon the
deposit of a suitable coin").
May 13, 1890
- Mrs. Andrew Carnegie laid cornerstone for Carnegie Hall;
May 5, 1891 -
Carnegie Hall (then named Music Hall) opened in New York City;
took year to build, cost $1 million for land and construction;
Peter Tchaikovsky participated in five-day inaugural music
1890 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a
"Phonograph" ("means for providing a double record of matter to
be recorded by the phonograph, so that one record can be
preserved while the other is sent to the person for whom the
matter is intended"); received a second patent for a
"Phonograph" ("use of flexible phonogram-blanks which may be
sheets of flexible material capable of being indented by the
recording point of the phonograph"); received a patent for a
"Phonograph-Recorder" ("recorder of my improved phonograph is
provided with a cutting-tool recording-point presenting a
cutting-edge in advance of the stock of the tool"); received a
third patent for a "Phonograph" ("to increase the effectiveness
and convenience in use of the phonograph...to provide means for
indicating upon the record a point at which a pause is made in
dictating to the instrument...and to provide means for removing
from the phonogram-surface the fine chips or shavings which are
produced by the cutting action of the recording-point");
received a patent for a "Method of Making Phonogram-Blanks ("to
simplify the construction of phonogram-blanks. to make them more
durable, and especially to so construct them that they shall not
crack by reason of expansion or contraction due to large changes
in temperature to which they are often subjected"); received a
second patent for a "Phonogram Blank".
June 9, 1891 -
Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonograph"
("adjusting a phonograph reproducing-point into exact alignment
with the phonogram-record").
September 29, 1891 - Thomas A. Edison,
of Menlo Park, NJ, received a patent for a ""Phonogram-Blank
Carrier" ("devices for supporting and protecting
phonogram-blanks or recording-surfaces on which a phonographic
recording has been or is to be recorded").
- Emile Berliner
established United States Gramophone Company in Washington, DC;
caretaker of rights to 1887 patent.
February 1, 1893 -
Thomas Edison opened America's first film-production studio,
"Black Maria" (aka Kinetographic Theater after Kinetograph,
forerunner of movie camera), in West Orange, NJ on grounds of
Edison's laboratories; dark room covered in tar paper with
retractable roof built at cost of $637.67;
1903 - demolished.
March 14, 1893
- Thomas Edison received a patent for an "Apparatus for
Exhibiting Photographs of Moving Objects";
motion picture projector,
the Kinetograph (optical
and a separate viewing machine, the Kinetoscope;
May 9, 1893 - gave first motion picture exhibition in
Brooklyn, New York, to an audience of 400 people at the Dept. of
Physics, Brooklyn Institute (using Kinetograph); showed moving
images of a blacksmith and his two helpers passing a bottle and
forging a piece of iron; each filmstrip had 700 images, each
image shown for 1/92 seconds; event was reported in May 20, 1893
issue of Scientific American.
1893 - Thomas A. Edison received patent for a
"Phonograph"; June 27, 1893
- received three more patents for a "Phonograph".
1894 - Orville Gibson, restaurant clerk in
Kalamazoo, MI, began making mandolins, guitars in his home
workshop; 1902 - group of Kalamazoo businessmen
organized The Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Co., Ltd. (Orville Gibson
not a partner); initially focused on mandolins; maintained
industry leadership role as musical tastes changed to banjo
(1920s), guitar (1930s); 1923 -name changed to
Gibson, Inc.; 1935 - introduced its first electric guitar;
1952 - introduced Les Paul Model, company's first
solidbody electric guitar; 1994 - acquired
January 9, 1894
- William Kennedy Laurie Dickson copyrighted first motion
picture; featured 47 images of a man sneezing.
April 14, 1894
- Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope viewer, using celluloid film,
first appeared in New York City arcade; peep-show film machines
accommodated one viewer at a time, showed short films of
entertainers like Annie Oakley and Buffalo Bill; camera based on photographic principles discovered
by still-photograph pioneers Joseph Nicephone Niepce, Louis
Daguerre of France.
February 13, 1895
- French inventors Louis and August Lumiere
received patent for the Cinematographe, combination movie
March 22, 1895
showed their first movie to
invited audience in Paris; generally regarded as first public
display of movie projected onto screen;
"La Sortie des Ouvriers de L'usine Lumière", showed workers
leaving Lumière's factory in Lyon which made photographic
products; workers streamed out, most on foot, some with
bicycles, followed by those with cars.
February 19, 1895 - Emile
Berliner, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a
"Gramophone", an improvement on his May 15, 1888 patent;
assigned to The United States Gramophone Company.
March 26, 1895
- Charles Francis Jenkins, of Richmond, IN, received a patent
for a "Phantoscope" ("for exhibiting a series of pictures of an
object by means of which an impression of real action and
movement of the object is conveyed to the eye of the observer");
continuously moving film and a number of lenses on a rotating
disk - early motion picture projector; Thomas Armat supplied
capital; September 1895 - Showed Phantoscope at
the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta, GA.
April 21, 1895
- Woodville Latham demonstrated motion picture projection in New
York; improved George Eastman's invention of motion picture
film, made it project upon screen.
July 2, 1895
- Thomas A. Edison received two patents for a "Phonograph" ("to
enable such devices to work satisfactorily not withstanding
irregularities in the surface of the phonogram blank or
October 5, 1895
- Emile Berliner (minority
established Berliner Gramophone Company of Philadelphia, PA
copyright for 1887, 1888, 1895 patents),
with help of group of businessmen
in Philadelphia who invested $25,000.00; produced records and
record playing machines; October 29, 1895 -
Berliner received a patent for a "Sound Record and Method of
Making Same" ("production of copies or duplicates of the flat
sound-records as made by gramophone"); 1896 -
signed contract with Eldridge Johnson to
improved spring motor for an improved gramophone (developed by
machinist Levi Montross).
1895 - Birth of film industry: French film
pioneers Auguste and Louis Lumiere publicly unveiled their
camera/projector, the Cinematographe (first real cinema) at the
Grand Cafe on the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris; about 30
people paid to see short films showing scenes from ordinary
French life (feeding of a baby, game of cards, street activity,
working blacksmith, soldiers marching); brothers made 2,000
short films during next five years.
- William Selig established Selig Polyscope motion picture
company in Chicago, IL; shot first film, 'Tramp and the Dog';
August 1909 -
established second studio, first permanent studio in Los Angeles
(had moved from temporary studio on Olive St. in downtown LA),
with director Francis Boggs, in rented bungalow in Edendale
district (two studios arrived in LA with six months: Bison unit
of The New York Picture Co. made westerns, American Mutoscope
and Biograph Company (Biograph) with D.W. Griffith - first
company to shoot movie in Hollywood, CA in 1910, 'In Old
- produced new filmed version of 'The Wonderful Wizard of Oz';
produced first commercial two-reel film, 'Damon and Pythias',
successfully distributed pictures in Great Britain (maintained
office in London for several years);
1911 - Boggs was murdered by Japanese
gardener, Selig wounded; 1913
- produced 'The Adventures of Kathlyn', in collaborative
partnership with Chicago Tribune; introduced dramatic serial
plot device (known as the cliffhanger); opened large public zoo
in in Lincoln Heights (northeast of downtown Los Angeles);
1917 - Edendale
facility acquired by producer William Fox; Selig moved movie
studio to zoo in east Los Angeles;
1918 - Selig Polyscope ceased
operations; best known for wild animal shorts, historical
subjects, early westerns.
1896 - Charles Jenkins
lost Phantoscope patent dispute to Thomas Armat (declared joint
vs. sole patent); sold his interest; Armat altered improved
Phantoscope, renamed it
Vitascope; sold rights to Edison, who marketed the invention;
became basis of Thomas Edison's Vitascope projector; George
Eastman's invention of roll film, followed by transparency film,
enabled the same camera to make multiple photographs in a
April 23, 1896 - Projected movie shown as
commercial attraction for first time as commercial
attraction at Koster and Bial's Music Hall, vaudeville theater
in New York; showed short moving images, used projector called
the Vitascope, invented by Thomas Armat and Francis Jenkins;
projector inspired name of one of first motion picture
companies, Edison Vitagraph Film Company, later called
January 12, 1897 - Thomas A. Edison received a
patent for a "Phonograph" (two-point recorder or reproducer
adapted to make or travel in a double track or on a
phonogram-blank or recording-surface").
March 2, 1897 - Thomas Armat, of Washington,
DC, received a patent for a "Vitascope" (had sold rights
May 16, 1897 - Stuart Blackton, Albert E.
Smith, of newly formed Vitagraph film company, shot their first
fictional film, The Burglar. on the Roof, on roof of New York
City building; company flourished in silent film era, introduced
future stars like Rudolph Valentino, Norma Talmadge; 1925
- acquired by Warner Bros.
31, 1897 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a
"Kinetographic Camera" ("to produce pictures representing
objects in motion throughout an extended period of time which
may be utilized to exhibit the scene including such moving
objects in a perfect and natural manner by means of suitable
exhibiting apparatus such as that described in patent received
March 14, 1893"); motion picture camera, based on photographic
principles discovered by still-photograph pioneers Joseph
Nicephone Niepce and Louis Daguerre of France; Edison's
Kinetoscope and Kinetograph used celluloid film (invented
by George Eastman in 1889); 1917 - Edison Company
left film industry.
8, 1898 - Levi H. Montross, of Camden, NJ, received a
patent for a "Spring Motor" ("which may be easily and
quickly wound up and which will impart power evenly and
uniformly and may be rewound whenever desired without in any way
affecting the speed of the operation"); spring-motor gramophone
for the Berliner company.
March 8, 1898
- Joseph W. Jones, of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a
"Sound Recording and Reproducing Instrument" ("especially that
class of instruments known as 'gramophones'"); June 14,
1898 - received a patent for a "Sound-Reproducing
Machine"; December 5, 1899 - received a design
patent for "Design for a Frame for Graphophones"; December
10, 1901 - received a patent for "Production of
Sound-Records" ("stylus vibrating laterally and engraving a
groove of approximately uniform depth"); lateral disc recording
in wax; December 2, 1902 - received a patent for a
"Duplicating Apparatus" ("relates to production of sound-records
of the type characterized by spiral grooves of uniform depth
having lateral undulations corresponding to sound-waves and
produced upon a flat tablet or disk, the type being known as
"zigzag" disk sound-records or "zigzag" records"); May 12,
1903 - received patent for a "Sound-Recording Tablet"
("making the original record-groove of full size in or upon a
surface suitable for recording and which at the same time is
itself an electrical conductor, then electroplating the
record-surface, and finally using the matrix so obtained as a
die or stamp"); assigned to American Graphophone Company;
June 28, 1904 - received a patent for "Production
of Sound-Records"; received a patent for a "Sound-Recording
Apparatus" ("novel form of cutting-tool employed...consisting or
lateral undulations"); assigned to American Graphophone Company.
March 22, 1898
- Eldridge R. Johnson, of Camden, NJ, received a patent for a
"Gramophone and Actuating Device Thererfor" ("relates to certain
improvements in gramophones and sound recording and reproducing
machines of like nature in which a record disk or cylinder is
propelled by power, and has for its principal object to provide
an improved form of mechanism for effecting the rotation of the
disk under the reproducing stylus") ; launched disc talking
machine in America.
May 13, 1898 -
Thomas Edison sued American Mutoscope and Biograph Pictures
(company formed by W.L.K. Dickson, one of his former assistants
designed the Kinetograph and the Kinetoscope); claimed that the
studio has infringed on his patent for the Kinetograph movie
camera; 1902 -
U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Thomas Edison did not invent
the movie camera, but allowed that he had invented the sprocket
system that moved perforated film through the camera;
1909 - Edison,
Biograph joined forces with other filmmakers, created Motion
Pictures Patents Corp., organization devoted to protecting
patents, keeping other players from entering film industry;
1917 - Supreme
Court dissolved trust, Edison Company left film industry.
1898 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a
"Phonograph" ("means for throwing a phonograph-recorder out of
operative position and throwing the reproducer into operative
position, or vice versa, in that class of phonographs which have
a separate diaphragm for the recorder and for the reproducer").
October 25, 1898
- Edison Film Company filmed for first time at Lick Observatory.
February 5, 1899 - Thomas A. Edison received U.S.
patent for a "Phonograph Recorder and Reproducer."
March 28, 1899
- William B. Fleming, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for
"Electrical Action for Musical Instruments"; player piano using
July 18, 1899
- National Phonograph Company registered "Thomas A. Edison"
trademark first used December 15, 1897 (phonographs, parts of
phonographs, phonographblanks, and other phonographic supplies,
such as the containing-cases).
4, 1899 - The Gramophone Company (founded 1897 by Emile
Berliner) paid 50 pounds for Francis Barraud painting of
his dog, Nipper (titled "His Master's Voice"),, 50 pounds for
copyright to painting; July 10, 1900 - Emile
Berliner registered "His Master's Voice" trademark first used
May 1900 (gramophones).
- Sam, Lee Shubert, from Syracuse, NY, moved to New York City,
rapidly acquired theatres, produced shows; leased Herald Square
Theatre (first New York City venue); founded Shubert Brothers;
1905 - Sam died,
Lee and Jacob J. Schubert managed business;
1913 - Sam S.
Shubert Theatre opened; 1916
- nation's most important, powerful theatre owners and managers;
1924 - went
public; 1927 -
owned, operated 104 theatres, managed or booked over 1,000
houses across United States; 1931
- Schubert Theatre Corporation filed for bankruptcy;
1933 - re-formed
as Select Theatres Corporation;
1950 - charged by U. S. government with
violating Sherman Antitrust Act;
1956 - entered into consent degree with
government after six years of litigation;
1973 - reorganized as The Shubert
Organization (Gerald Schoenfeld, Chairman, Bernard B. Jacobs,
President); 2008 -
owned, operated 16 Broadway theatres in New York City.
J.J. and Lee Shubert
The Shubert Organization
1900 - Edwin S. Votey, of Detroit, MI, received
a patent for a "Pneumatic Piano Attachment" ("to provide
self-playing piano attachment of practical and economical
construction which can be quickly applied to and removed from
any piano"); pianola, first truly musical piano-playing device
in world; August 29, 1905
- The Aeolian Company registered 'Pianola" trademark
(pneumatically-controlled players for keyboard instruments).
- Eldridge R. Johnson opened Eldridge R. Johnson Manufacturing
Company in Camden, NJ (above; had purchased his employer's
interest in Standard Machine Shop and changed the name);
March 22, 1898 -
received a patent for "A Granophone and Actuating Device
Therefor"; September 1900
- formed The Consolidated Talking Machine
Co. to produced machines for playing disc records;
1901 - merged with US division of Emile Berliner's Berliner
Gramophone Company (developed flat–disc records that could be
mass-produced in hard rubber or shellac from a master record;
lost legal battle over rights to manufacture flat-disc
Gramophones), incorporated The Victor Talking Machine Company,
leading American producer of phonographs, phonograph records, in
Camden, NJ; March 24, 1914
- Victor Talking Machine Company registered "His Master's Voice"
(HMV) trademark first used May 24, 1900 (sound recording or
reproducing machines and parts thereof);
1924 - acquired controlling interest in
Berliner Gram-o-phone Company;
March 9, 1926 - Victor Talking Machine Company
registered "Victor" trademark (radio apparatus, parts and
appurtenances); March 15, 1929
- acquired by RCA.
Eldridge R. Johnson
- Victor Talking Machine Co.
May 20, 1901
- Claude Grivolas, one of Pathe's main shareholders in Paris,
France, invented projector that produced three-dimensional
June 11, 1901
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Phonographic
Recording Apparatus" ("to relieve the diaphragm of all or
substantially all stress now resulting from the pressure
necessary to properly engage the cutting or recording tool with
the record-surface to the requisite depth").
December 10, 1901
- Joseph W. Jones, of New York, NY, received a patent for
"Production of Sound-Records" ("stylus vibrating laterally and
engraving a groove of approximately uniform depth"); lateral
disc recording in wax; acquired by Columbia.
- Columbia Phonograph Co. acquired patents originally belonging
to Joseph Jones, former Berliner employee; December 8,
1903 - cross-licensing agreement between the American
Graphophone Company (Columbia) and Victor Talking Machine Co.
(Berliner patents and Jones patents; ultimately not satisfactory
phonographic industry; 1906 - American Graphophone
company reorganized, name changed to Columbia Graphophone
Company; leader in recording cylinders for coin-operated
phonographs; first company to produce pre-recorded records (vs.
blank cylinders); June 3, 1907 - new
cross-licensing agreement; 1922 - sold
British subsidiary, Columbia Phonograph Co., Ltd., to its London
manager; Louis Sterling; 1923 - receivers
appointed; 1925 - acquired by Columbia Gramophone
Company of Great Britain (Sterling); reorganized it as as
Columbia International in London, General Phonograph Co. Inc. in
U. S.; 1931 - American Columbia operations sold,
due to anti-trust concerns, to Grigsby Grunow Company (makers of Majestic Radio);
May 1931 -
Columbia and HMV, UK's
biggest record companies, merged under Sir Louis Sterling;
formed Electric and Musical Industries (EMI); biggest record
company in world for nearly 50 years; 1934 - acquired by American
Record Corporation for $75,000; 1938 - acquired by
Columbia Broadcasting System for $700,000.
Sir Louis Sterling - Columbia Records
Amusement arcades began opening small storefront theaters called
Nickelodeans (so called because admission cost 5 cents); showed
short silent films (usually less than 15 minutes), accompanied
by a live pianist; 1907 - some 2 million Americans
had visited a Nickelodean.
March 10, 1902
- U.S. Court of Appeals ruled in Edison v. American Mutoscope
Company that Thomas Edison did not invent movie camera; admitted
that Edison invented sprocket system that moved perforated film
through movie camera.
April 2, 1902
- Thomas L. Tally opened first permanent movie theater designed
specifically for exhibition of films, 262 South Main Street in
Los Angeles; dubbed "The Electric Theater"; earliest pictures
included "New York in a Blizzard"; admission cost about 10 cents
for one-hour show; Henry Miles of San Francisco began renting
films to theaters, formed basis of today's film distribution
Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack L. Warner,
sons of Benjamin Eichelbaum, immigrant Polish cobbler and
peddler, began in film business as traveling exhibitors;
moved throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania with portable projector;
1907 - operated Cascade Theatre, converted store
in Newcastle, PA; 1908 - had acquired 200 film
1904 - William Fox (born Wilhelm
Fuchs) acquired 146-seat Brooklyn storefront Nickelodeon theatre
for $1,660.67, started Greater New York Film Rental Company;
1912 - Supreme Court ruled against movie monopoly of
Motion Picture Patents Company (Thomas Edison); 1913
- Theater "chain" pioneer William Fox (born Wilhelm Fuchs)
established Greater New York Film Rental, distribution firm, Fox
Office Attractions Company, production company.; 1915
- consolidated companies,
formed Fox Film
Corporation; concentrated on acquiring, building theaters;
1916 - moved company to 13 acres in Hollywood, CA;
March 3, 1929 - acquired Loew's Corporation's 500
theatres (added to existing nationwide circuit of 1100
theatres), large equity position in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture
Studios; July 1929 - Fox seriously injured in car
accident; October 1929 - net worth valued over
$400 million wiped out; 1930 - Fox forced out as
31, 1935 - president Sidney Kent, new owners merged
company with Twentieth Century Pictures, formed 20th Century
Fox; 1936 - Fox forced into personal bankruptcy;
1942 - began jail time for felony conviction of
bribing judge during bankruptcy proceedings; 1985
- Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation acquired by News
Corporation; renamed Fox, Incorporated; 1989 -
film production unit renamed the Fox Film Corporation;
October 7, 1996
- Fox News Channel made its debut.
- 20th Century Fox
18, 1904 - Thomas Edison received a patent for
"Photographic Film for Moving Picture Machines"; motion picture
December 27, 1904 - Peter Pan, by James
Barrie, opened at Duke of York's Theater in London.
May 23, 1905 - Thomas Edison received a patent for
a "Process of Duplicating Phonographic Records" ("from a matrix
or mold, and particularly to production of an improved master
from which the matrices or molds are made").
June 19, 1905 - Pittsburgh showman Harry Davis
opened world's first nickelodeon, showed silent film called The
Great Train Robbery (storefront theater boasted 96 seats,
charged 5 cents). Nickelodeons soon spread across the country,
typically featured live vaudeville acts as well as short films;
1907 - some two million Americans had visited a
nickelodeon, remained main outlet for films until replaced
around 1910 by large modern theaters.
- American Graphophone company reorganized, name changed to
Columbia Graphophone Company; leader in recording cylinders for
coin-operated phonographs; first company to produce pre-recorded
records (vs. blank cylinders).
April 6, 1906 - First animated cartoon
1906 - One month after San Francisco's earthquake, Sarah
Bernhardt performed role in Racine's intense verse drama
"Phèdre" in opening of Cal Performances, Berkeley, CA performing
arts organization, in grand open-air Greek Theatre in the
Berkeley hills; Putnam's Monthly called it "one of the great
performances in world dramatic history"; donated "Phèdre"
proceeds to earthquake victims.
June 12, 1906
- John Ballance, of New York, NY, received a patent for
"Combined Phonograph and Stereopticon"; sound movies.
August 9, 1906 -
The Victor Talking Machine Company of Camden, NJ introduced the
Victrola, first internal horn phonograph, for $200; instant
success, produced over 500 machines by year's end; speaker horn,
turntable mechanism totally concealed in cabinet made by Pooley
Furniture Company of Philadelphia; set pattern of wood cabinetry
enclosures later imitated by radios and television sets well
into the 1950s; March 24, 1914
- registered "HIS MASTER'S VOICE" trademark first used May 24,
1900 (sound recording or reproducing machines and parts thereof,
talking-machine needles, talking-machine horns and amplifiers,
and talking-machine reords).
December 26, 1906
- 'Story of the Kelly Gang' presented in Town Hall at Melbourne,
Australia (filmed at cost of £450); subject was Ned Kelly,
bandit who lived 1855 to 1880; World's first full-length feature
film (70 minutes).
1907 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a
"Diaphragm for Talking-Machines" ("both for recording and
producing...to provide an improved diaphragm that will be
readily responsive to vibrations of comparatively great
amplitude"); assigned to New Jersey Patent Company.
July 8, 1907 -
Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. opened Ziegfeld Follies at the New York
Theater's rundown roof garden; combination of creative visual
spectacle, topical comedy and beautiful girls; $13,800
production netted over $130,000 at the box office;
1922 - 541
- 520 performances; spent $170,000 on revue;
1931 - Follies
November 28, 1907
- Eliezer Lazar Mayer (22, from Minsk, Russia), scrap-metal
dealer, opened 600-seat movie theater in converted burlesque
house in Haverhill, MA; owned largest theater chain in New
England; distributed films within few years;
1917 - started
production company, became part of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)
through mergers, named general manager of MGM;
1918 - changed
name to Louis B. Mayer; August 16,
1927 - Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corporation
registered "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) trademark first used July 25,
1924 (motion-picture films); 1951
- Mayer ousted.
- Selig Film Manufacturing Company became first major film
company to move to Los Angeles; 1909 -
permanent film studio.
28, 1908 - Author and activist Julia Ward Howe,
composer of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," became first
woman elected to American Academy of Arts and Letters.
July 14, 1908
- Biograph Pictures released D.W.
Griffith's first film, The Adventures of Dollie; became most
influential director of early cinema, played major role in
growth of films as narrative medium.
September 9, 1908
- Leading movie studios (Biograph, Vitagraph, Edison Studio)
created Motion Picture Patents Co. to consolidate control over
fledgling movie industry: refused to let other companies
use their patented film equipment, distributed films only to
theater owners who agreed to their terms; Kodak agreed to sell
raw film stock only to members of the company; 1912
- U.S. government started cracking down on company for unfair
trade practices; 1917 - company's power had
1909 - Winsor
McCay, newspaper cartoon artist, created Gertie the Dinosaur,
first animated character to appear regularly on screen;
1918 - produced The Sinking of the Lusitania, first
January 25, 1909 - Harry Reynolds granted
cinerma licence to operate Theatr Colwyn (built in 1885 in
Colwyn Bay, UK, called a Public Hall); oldest operating cinema
in UK, one of first to receive cinema licence.
February 25, 1909
- Movie studios (Biograph, Vitagraph, Edison Studio, Pathe,
others) began submitting films to New York-based Board of
Censorship for review;
set up by movie
studios to help avoid government censorship;
made up of
private citizens who screened movies and pointed out
objectionable material; 1916 - changed
name to the National Board of Review.
1909 - Gustav Mahler conducted New York
Philharmonic for his first time.
April 12, 1909 - Carl Laemmle
established Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP); defied
Motion Picture Patent Company; fought more than 280 lawsuits
from Patent Company; June 8, 1912
- Laemmle (Independent Motion Picture Company), Pat Powers
(Powers Picture Company), Mark Dintenfass (Champion Films), Bill
Swanson (American Ã‰clair) merged studios, formed Universal
Motion Picture Manufacturing Company;
1925 - name changed to Universal
Pictures Company, Inc.
- William and Theo Ludwig formed Ludwig & Ludwig in Chicago to
manufacture foot pedals capable of playing faster tempos without
loss of force or volume; 1929
- acquired by C. G. Conn Company (Elkhart, IN);
1937 - organized
W. F. L. Drum Company; first product - Speed King Pedal;
1938 - Bill
Ludwig, Jr. joined company; 1955
- acquired Ludwig-Leedy division of Conn Company, name changed
to Ludwig Drum Company; 1966 - acquired Musser Marimba Company
(manufacturers of vibes, marimbas, bells, chimes, xylophones);
became total percussion company;
1981 - Ludwig Industries acquired by Selmer
Company (synergy in school music markets).
August 22, 1910 -
National Amusement Company opened Howard Theatre in primarily
African-American area of Washington, near Howard University (sat
- acquired by Abe Lichtman, white owner of theaters that catered
to African-Americans; billed as "largest colored theater in the
World"; featured vaudeville, live theater, musicals, local
talent shows; 1929
- closed during Depression; 1931
- reopened by Shep Allen, theater manager from Atlantic City, as
movie house, live entertainment venue (Duke Ellington played on
reopening night); 1941
- underwent massive remodeling, in Streamline style;
1970 - closed,
shuttered; 1973 -
Howard Theater Foundation formed, raised funds were to refurbish
aging theater; April 1975
- reopened (Red Foxx, Melba Moore);
1970s-early 1980 - used sporadically as
venue for live entertainment; 2007
- Ellis Development Group, Four Points, LLC. formed Howard
Theatre Restoration, Inc. to raise $10-14 million (of $25
million project) to restore Theatre for 100th Anniversary (after
$8 million D.C. grants, $6 million of tax credits).
October 8, 1910 -
Several film exchanges established American Film Manufacturing
to distribute films, compete against Motion Picture Patents
Company (Carol Laemmle had established Independent Motion
Picture Company in 1909 [had to buy film stock overseas]; Motion
Picture Patents Company filed 280 lawsuits filed against him).
July 19, 1911
- Pennsylvania became first state to pass laws censoring movies;
first specifically allowing censorship by a government body;
1915 - U.S. Supreme Court upheld laws, agreed that
government bodies may censor pictures; studios feared increased
government censorship, began to censor their own films,
established a self-policing association, the Motion Picture
Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA); 1930
- adopted the Production Code.
August 8, 1911
- The newsreel became standard feature at American movie
screenings; French film company Pathy begins releasing weekly
black-and-white newsreels to theaters.
1920s - early sound newsreels appeared, Fox began using
Movietone system (most well known
reels - only newsreel producer to capture 1941 Japanese attack
on Pearl Harbor, 1937 explosion of Hindenburg);
1948 - color newsreels first appeared.
1912 - Frederick Rodman Law, world's first movie
stuntman, performed for newsreel; jumped off Statue of Liberty
1912 - Adolph Zukor created Famous Players Film
Company; 1905 -
partnered with Marcus Loew, developed Loew's cinema chain;
July 12, 1912 -
opened "Queen Elizabeth", 4-reel film (first full-length drama
shown in US); June 28, 1916
- merged with Jesse L. Lasky Company; formed Famous
Players-Lasky Corporation; began using Paramount Pictures name.
June 2, 1912 - Carl Laemmle merged
his movie studio, Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP,
started in 1909), with several others; created Hollywood's first
major studio, Universal; 1915 - studio bought a
230-acre lot and founded Universal City in San Fernando Valley;
1962 - acquired by MCA; 1991 -
Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co. purchased MCA; 1995
- sold the company to The Seagram Co.; 1996 -
company was renamed Universal Studios ; 2004 - GE,
parent company of NBC, has owned 80 percent of the company; the
remaining 20 percent is owned by Vivendi, which acquired
Seagram's entertainment holdings in 2000.
July 12, 1912
- "Queen Elizabeth", starring Sarah Bernhardt, Lon Tellegen,
prermiered; first foreign-made film to debut in U.S.
August 16, 1912 -
U.S. government sued Motion Picture Patents Company; week later,
court ruled that company could not claim exclusive rights to
machines used in movie cameras; ended effective monopoly; within
four years company's power had dissolved (had been formed in
1908 by nine leading film companies, refused to let other
companies use their patented film equipment, distributed films
only to theater owners who agreed to their terms [Kodak agreed
to sell raw film stock only to members of company]).
August 20, 1912 -
Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Phonographic Apparatus"
("to provide a diaphragm adapted to be used in a sound recorder
10, 1912 - Eugene T. Kieffer, of Philadelphia,
PA, received a design patent for a "Design for a Cabinet for
22, 1912 - Thomas A. Edison received patent for
a "Phonograph-Stylus" formed of crystallized boron (much harder
than sapphire); could operate on sound records formed from hard
materials without wearing away.
October 31, 1912 - 'The Musketeers of
Pig Alley', directed by D.W. Griffith, debuted; followed career
of gangster nicknamed the Snapper Kid; first gangster film.
March 25, 1913
- The Palace Theatre, home of vaudeville, opened in New York
May 26, 1913
- The Actors' Equity Association organized.
June 12, 1913
- John Randolph Bray released The Artist's Dream (also known as
The Dachsund) in which a dog eats sausages until it explodes;
first animated cartoon made in the U.S. by modern techniques;
invented, patented process and many of his improvements on the
animation process, including use of translucent paper to make it
easier to position objects in successive drawings.
September 25, 1913
- Charlie Chaplin (24) signed with Keystone, production company
known for silent comedies, for $175 bonus; 1915 -
refined his signature character, Charlie the Tramp, signed on
with Essanay Company for $1,250 a week, plus $10,000 bonus;
1916 - signed with Mutual for $10,000 a week, plus
$150,000 bonus (contract required him to make 12 films annually,
granted him complete creative control over pictures); 1918
- signed contract with First National for $1 million for eight
films; 1919 - founded United Artists Corporation
with Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, director D.W. Griffith.
November 26, 1913
- Jesse Lasky formed Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company in
partnership with his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish (later
Goldwyn) and his friend Cecil B. DeMille; first production, The
Squaw Man, directed by DeMille, was an instant hit; first
feature shot in Hollywood.
1914 - Hal
Roach began producing comedies; 1919 - acquired 10
acres at $1,000 an acre from Harry Culver, built Hal Roach
Studios in Culver City, CA; l955 - acquired by Hal
Roach, Jr.; 1962 - taken over by creditors;
1963 - acquired, become part of Landmark Industrial
February 7, 1914
- Charlie Chaplin (24) made first appearance in popular
"Little Tramp" role, in Kid Auto Races at Venice.
February 13, 1914
- Group of prominent music creators founded The American Society
of Composers, Authors and Publishers at the Hotel Claridge in
New York City; 2004 - 2006 - has distributed
nearly $1.7 billion dollars in royalties.
February 19, 1914
- Pittsburgh movie theaters required to establish seating
section for unaccompanied women, some of whom, attending movies
alone, had complained of harassment.
April 12, 1914
- Strand movie theater opened in New York City; first movie
"palace," seating for 3,000 people and a second-floor balcony.
May 8, 1914 -
W.W. (William Wadsworth) Hodkinson organized
Pictures, Inc. as film financing, distribution company;
1907 - opened first film exchange in Ogden, UT;
became Special Representative to General Film Company
representing Motion Picture Patents Company in Salt Lake City,
Los Angeles; April 1911 - reorganized San
Francisco area for General Film; May 1913 -
dismissed; formed Progressive Company, west coast-based
distributor of films of independent production companies;
May 15, 1914 - Famous Players Film Co., The Lasky
Corporation and Bosworth, Inc., contracted with Paramount Co.
for distribution all pictures produced for period of five years
from August 31, 1914; March 1, 1915 - Zukor
renegotiated new 25 year distribution deal with Paramount;
May 2, 1915 - Paramount Pictures Corporation acquired
51% of nine
corporations (from Zukor and Lasky); remaining 49% acquired
December 4, 1916; May 20, 1916 - Zukor, Lasky
acquired 50% of Paramount Co. (balance acquired December 1916);
June 13, 1916 - Hodkinson forced to resign;
July 1, 1916- Famous Players , Jesse L. Lasky Feature
Play Company combined, renamed Famous Players-Lasky Corporation;
July 19, 1916 - Famous Players-Lasky Corporation
organized under laws of New York state primarily as holding
company to acquire, hold capital stock of Famous Players Film
Co., Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Co, other domestic, foreign
began buying movie
theaters. 1927 - name changed to Paramount Famous
Lasky Corp.; 1930 - changed name to Paramount
Publix Corp.; 1933 - declared bankruptcy;
- reorganized, re-established under name Paramount Pictures
Corp.; 1966 - studio acquired by Gulf and Western;
1989 - name changed to Paramount
Communications; 1994 - control acquired by Viacom.
June 9, 1914
- Thomas A. Edison received three patents for a "Phonograph
Reproducer" ("an improved mounting for the stylus lever in order
that the same may have great freedom of movement in tracking the
grooves of the sound record"; "the stylus may have great freedom
of movement tracking the grooves of the record"; "an improved
quality of sound and reproduction may be obtained with the use
of a floating weight...that the fulcrum of the stylus lever may
be placed nearer to the stylus than would otherwise be
August 11, 1914
- John R. Bray, of New York, NY, received a patent for the
"Process of and Articles for Producing Moving Pictures" ("a kind
of moving picture which may be designated as animated cartoons
to distinguish them from the ordinary moving pictures";
animation cels; revolutionized animation, made mass production
of animation possible; November 9, 1915 - received
second patent on the process; April 11, 1916 -
received a third patent on the process.
September 29, 1914
- Thomas A. Edison, of West Orange, NJ, received a patent for a
"Phonograph Record" ("having a surface of wear resisting
material, such as celluloid").
Dr. Herbert T. Kalmus founded Technicolor Motion Picture Corp.;
produced motion pictures using two-color process; December
3, 1922 - first successful Technicolor motion picture
film released ("The Toll of the Sea", adaptation of Madam
Butterfly); used early two-color System 2; 1932 -
"Flowers and Trees" first full-color production from The Walt
Disney Company, first Disney feature to win an Academy Award.
February 8, 1915
- Director D.W. Griffith's film "Birth of a Nation" premiered at
Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles; Civil War epic cost $100,000,
ran nearly three hours, used revolutionary filmmaking techniques
(multiple camera angles); a financial success, drew long lines
to pay the unprecedented price of $2 a ticket; one of the songs
in the movie's score, "The Perfect Song," became the first
musical hit generated by a movie; 1919 -
co-founded United Artists with Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford,
and Charles Chaplin.
April 11, 1915
- The Tramp, Charlie Chaplin's third film, first comic
masterpiece, released; refined the character and added his
signature waddle. The endearing figure, with his bowler hat,
baggy suit, and expression of hapless innocence, came to be
Chaplin's trademark; 1919 - co-founded United
Artists Corporation with Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, and
director D.W. Griffith.
June 8, 1915
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Sound-Recording
Apparatus"; flexible circular diaphragm bearing against a stylus
at its centre that is held on a spring lever secured to a rigid
support; designed to provide sensitivity for recording sounds,
whether weak or strong, and to record them more truly; suggested
materials included acetyl cellulose or paper.
June 15, 1915
- Earl Hurd received a patent for a "Process of and Apparatus
for Producing Moving Pictures" ("method of producing moving
picture films from a series of films or drawings photographed in
sequence, and which give the effect of moving objects when
projected in the usual manner upon a screen"); animation "cel"
(transparent cellulose acetate sheets); allowed animators to
draw the motion of their characters without having to draw the
background for every frame.
October 1, 1915
- Federal court ruled that Motion Pictures Patents Co.
(established in 1909 by
Biograph film studios and
filmmakers to protecting patents, keep competitors from entering
film industry) violated antitrust rules, stifled fair
competition in fledgling film industry; 1917 -
Supreme Court dissolved trust.
1916 - National Board of Review, founded in 1909
as National Board of Censorship, agreed not to accept nudity in
films; volunteer group of film fans representing movie studios,
served as industry watchdog to help studios avoid government
censorship; 1921 -
New York State passed film-licensing law (deprived board of much
of its power).
1916 - Enrico Caruso recorded "O Solo Mio" for
Victor Talking Machine Company.
April 1, 1916 - Lewis Selznick founded
Lewis Selznick Pictures; 1923
- went bankrupt; 1928
- Myron, oldest son, became talent agent, eventually made him
one of most powerful personalities in Hollywood; David, younger
son, got job at MGM, eventually married boss's daughter, Irene,
left to work at Paramount, RKO;
1936 - founded Selznick International;
1938 - 20th
Century Fox banned Myron from lot, claimed he undermined film
industry by inflating actors' salaries;
1939 - David produced 'Gone with the
Wind', used 15 screenwriters to adapt Margaret Mitchell's novel;
became one of biggest box office hits in history;
1940 - brought
Alfred Hitchcock from England to direct Rebecca, Hitchcock's
first U.S. film.
David O. Selznick
May 23, 1916
- Thomas Edison received three patents for "Phonograph of
Talking Machine" ("particularly of the type on which disk or
flat records are operated upon, and preferably in which the
sound conveying and amplifying horn is inclose within a suitable
November 19, 1916
- Samuel Goldfish (born Schmuel
Gelbfisz in Warsaw, Poland, changed to Goldwyn in 1918) and
Edgar Selwyn established Goldwyn Company as independent
filmmaker; 1914 - entered film business with
his brother-in-law and Cecil B. De Mille; 1916
- merged with Adolph Zukor's Famous Players, Goldfish named
chairman of the board, partners bought him out soon afterward;
1922 - Goldwyn edged out of corporation;
1923 - formed Samuel Goldwyn
Productions; later merged with Metro Pictures and Louis
B. Mayer productions to form MGM.
March 7, 1917
- RCA Victor released the first gramophone record of a jazz
band, "Dixie Jazz Band One Step" recorded by Nick LaRocca
Original Dixieland Jazz Band.
January 27, 1918
- First Tarzan film, Tarzan of the Apes, released (silent
movie based on Edgar Rice Burroughs's novel); Olympic champion
swimmer Johnny Weissmuller starred in 11 Tarzan movies from 1932
to 1948, contributed Tarzan's signature yodel to the TV show,
which ran from 1966 to 1969.
March 10, 1918
- Warner Bros. (begun 1903) released first full-scale film,
"Four Years in Germany" (based on book by U. S. Ambassador to
1923 - studio incorporated; October 6, 1927
released "The Jazz
Singer", first feature with sound; became major studio.
January 21, 1919
- Thomas Edison received a patent for a "Swaging-Machine"
("...for fastening of the diamond split or other stylus within
its holder..." [for reproducing phonograph records].
April 17, 1919
- Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, David W.
(D. W.) Griffith launched United Artists Corporation to give
founders greater control of marketing of their films, to
distribute films made by independent producers; first studio
controlled by artists, not businessmen; agreed to share full
financial and artistic control; sought complete creative freedom
in their work; mid-1950s - original partners had
sold their shares of company; 1951 - acquired by lawyers,
Arthur Krim and Robert Benjamin; 1957 - went
public; 1967 - acquired by TransAmerica
Corporation; 1981 - acquired by MGM; 1983
- renamed MGM/UA Entertainment; 1992 - acquired by
French bank Credit Lyonnais, name changed back to
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. (United Artists name abandoned).
November 25, 1919
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Method and Means for
Improving the Rendition of Musical Compositions" ("to provide a
method and means for enabling a plurality of players of the
stringed instruments in an orchestra, to maintain substantially
uniform pitch and temp while rendering any musical composition
1920 - Harry
Cohn, Joe Brandt, Jack Cohn founded C.B.C. Sales Film
Corporation; one of so-called "Poverty Row" studios of
Hollywood's Gower Street; made low-budget westerns, B-movies,
serials; 1924 - renamed Columbia Pictures;
1934 - formed Screen Gems as cartoon division;
1946 - closed; 1948 - reopened as
television division; 1973 - David Begelman took
over floundering Columbia Studios; among first Hollywood agents
to cross over, rise to top of studio system; February 1977
- discovered to have embezzled; indicted for forgery, grand
theft (committed suicide in 1995); 1982 - acquired
by Coca-Cola; 1984 - first release from Nova,
joint production company (Columbia, HBO CBS); renamed Tri-Star
Pictures (Coca-Cola eventually bought remaining two thirds of
company); 1989 - Coca-Cola entertainment holdings
acquired by Sony (Sony Pictures Entertainment).
June 1, 1920
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for the "Composition of
Matter for Sound-Records or the Like and Process of Making Same"
("hard composition which does not adhere to a sound record
matrix or other mold, which has a high melting point, and which
is insoluble in the usual solvents...such a composition can be
formed by treating shellac with a condensing agent
[para=phenylene-diamin] so as to cause a molecular alteration or
condensation in the shellac").
1922 - Walt Disney formed his first film company
with commercial artist Ub Iwerks, Kansas City-based Laugh-O-Gram
Films; July 1923 - went bankrupt; October
1923 - signed contract with M.J. Winkler Productions, a
New York film distributor, to produce six short films of Alice's
Wonderland; moved to Hollywood to rear of a small office
occupied by Holly-Vermont Realty in Los Angeles.
1922 - Robin Hood, starring Douglas Fairbanks,
opened at Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood. Searchlights
crossed the sky for first time at Hollywood premiere.
November 26, 1922
- 'Toll of the Sea' debuted; general release film used two-tone
Technicolor for first time (used on one other film, 'The Gulf
Between', but picture not widely distributed); process used two
negatives, one with red tones, another with green, to create
color image; too expensive for most studios; most films remained
black and white until late 1930s.
1922 - First successful Technicolor motion
picture film released; used early two-color System 2 developed
by Dr. Herbert T. Kalmus, founder of Technicolor Motion Picture
Corp. in 1915.
- Hollywood Realty Company constructed advertisement sign for
"Hollywoodland" real estate development in foothills just below
sign; 1949 -
County of Los Angeles repaired sign's first nine letters,
removed last four; sign read HOLLYWOOD.
1923 - Lee de Forest, inventor, demonstrated
Phonofilm, first movie with sound recorded on film (music
recorded on narrow strip at edge of film); demonstration showed
man and woman dancing, four musicians playing instruments,
Egyptian dancer, all accompanied by music but no dialogue;
acquired by Fox; 1926
- Warner Bros. acquired the Vitaphone system for use in its
early sound movies (revived company's fortunes);
1927 - introduced
as Movietone sound process.
March 31, 1923 - First U.S. dance
marathon held in New York City; Alma Cummings set record of 27
May 29, 1923
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Stylus Mounting"
("mountings for phonograph styli formed of a jewel, such as
diamond or sapphire, and in which the sylus is partially
enclosed in a metal holder and projects from a reduced end
portion thereof"). provided for stylus to be firmly, rigidly
held to prevent it from loosening in use.
1924 - Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis
B. Mayer Productions merged, formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM);
owned by Loew's Inc., chain of theaters run by Marcus Loew; "Leo
the lion" logo (designed by Howard Dietz, publicist for Goldwyn
Picture Corporation, based on mascot of his alma mater, Columbia
University, incorporated slogan Ars Gratia Artis [Art for Art's
Sake] accepted as MGM logo; August
16, 1927 - Metro-Goldwyn Pictures Corporation
registered Ars Gratia Artis trademark first used July 25, 1924
(motion-picture films); 1930s
- most prestigious, glamorous, financially successful studio in
Hollywood; 1952 -
Supreme Court ruling forced Loew's theater chain to sell
ownership stake in MGM (power of studio system began to fade);
1973 - company
stopped distributing films, purchased by series of owners.
May 27, 1924
- Jules Stein founded Music Corporation of American in Chicago;
booked bands into clubs, dance halls; grew into leading talent
agency, later became entertainment conglomerate (owned Universal
International, Decca Records);
1962 - antitrust suit forced MCA to spin off
talent component separately; 1991
- MCA acquired by Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co.;
1995 - acquired by
The Seagram Co.; 1996
- renamed Universal Studios.
December 22, 1924
- Thomas A. Edison received U.S. design patent for a "Design for
a Phonograph Cabinet."
February 24, 1925
- Victor Talking Machine Company registered "His Master's Voice"
November 28, 1925
- The Grand Ole Opry made its radio debut on Saturday nights as
a country music hour on station WSM in Nashville, TN; originally
named "The WSM Barn Dance" (after a Chicago radio program called
the National Barn Dance that had begun broadcasting the previous
year); 1959 - name changed to "The Grand Ole Opry"; live 4 1/2
hour program, hosted by George Dewey Hay, featured folk music,
fiddling, and the relatively new genre of country-western music;
all live performers were required to dress in hillbilly costumes
and adopt old-time names; 1974 - show moved to a
new 4,400-seat theater "Opryland".
January 25, 1926 -
Central Casting Corporation opened (joint venture between most
major Hollywood studios until sold to private company in 1976);
provided pools of extras for film production;
1929 - more than
17,000 extras registered with bureau.
August 5, 1926 -
Warner Brothers debut of first 'Vitaphone'' sound-on-disc film,
"Don Juan" at Warner Theatre, New York; first mainstream film
that replaced traditional use of live orchestra or organ for
soundtrack (no dialogue in film).
- Koichi Kawai, seven colleagues formed Kawai Musical Instrument
Research Laboratory in Hamamatsu, Japan; faced shortage of
qualified craftsmen, continual scarcity of quality materials,
underdeveloped network of dealers for reaching potential
customers; early 1950s
-over 500 employees, produced over 1500 pianos per year;
1955 - Shigeru
Kawai (son) succeeded; constructed two factories (wood
processing plant, piano assembly plant - company's first modern
production line); built network of Kawai Music Schools;
initiated door-to-door sales program to encourage music
education through piano study;
1960s - nearly 2,000 door-to-door salesmen in
field, over 300,000 people participating in Kawai music schools
across Japan; 1963
- launched Kawai America; 1989
- Hirotaka Kawai (grandson) took over presidency;
multi-national corporation with nearly $1 billion annually in
worldwide sales, over 4000 employees across four continents.
1927 - Alfred Hitchcock's first film, "The
Pleasure Garden", released in England.
February 24, 1927
- Fox demonstrated new Movietone sound process to media, filmed
group of reporters in morning, showed film, with sound, at
night; no single audio standard for industry, cost to wire a
movie house for Warner Brothers' Vitaphone sound system = about
$20,000 (only about 200 theaters nationwide equipped).
1928 - Fox began making feature films with Movietone
March 11, 1927
- New York's Roxy Theater installed world's first
rear-projection screen (projector's lens was flawed, screen
could only be used to show silhouettes at first); 1931
- first theater specially designed for the rear-projection
March 26, 1927
- Gaumont-British Film Corporation formed.
April 15, 1927
- Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Norma and Constance Talmadge
became first celebrities to leave their footprints in cement at
Grauman's Chinese Theater.
May 4, 1927
- 36 members, including production executives and film
luminaries, organized The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences as a nonprofit corporation to advance the arts and
sciences of motion pictures; foster cooperation among creative
leaders for cultural, educational and technological progress;
recognize outstanding achievements; cooperate on technical
research and improvement of methods and equipment; provide a
common forum and meeting ground for various film-related crafts;
represent the viewpoint of actual creators of the motion
picture; and foster educational activities between the
professional community and the public; Douglas Fairbanks Sr.
May 11, 1927
- Louis B. Mayer, 36 members (production
executives and film luminaries) formed Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences
s nonprofit corporation to advance
the arts and sciences of motion pictures; foster cooperation
among creative leaders for cultural, educational and
technological progress; recognize outstanding achievements;
cooperate on technical research and improvement of methods and
equipment; provide a common forum and meeting ground for various
film-related crafts; represent the viewpoint of actual creators
of the motion picture; and foster educational activities between
the professional community and the public; Douglas Fairbanks Sr.
May 18, 1927 - Sidney Patrick Grauman (opened
first theater in Yukon in late 1890s) opened Grauman's Chinese
Theater on Hollywood Blvd. (named for Asian-influenced decor);
showed Cecil B. De Mille's "The King of Kings" (film version of
the life of Christ) as some 100,000 fans swamped the theater,
clamored to see Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford; soon became
famous for its sidewalk, where more than 180 film stars placed
their hand, foot, or paw prints in the cement during the next
seven decades; 1970 - acquired by Mann Theater
chain, renamed Mann's Chinese Theater.
6, 1927 - Warner Brothers' premiered "The Jazz
Singer" (Al Jolson) in New York City; first picture with sound
(though most theaters not equipped with sound technology; Warner
had invested $ half million in 1926, with Western Electric, in
Vitaphone [sound-on-disk] sound system); landmark 'talkie'
generated $3.5 million of profits at box-office.
27, 1927 - Fox Movietone News released first
newsreel with sound.
1928 - Laurens Hammond incorporated
Hammond Clock Company; April 24, 1934 - received a patent for an
"Electrical Musical Instrument"; organ;
1935 - Hammond Organ
first introduced; construction made possible for musicians to
create a dynamic, "billowing" organ sound;
1937 - became the
Hammond Instrument Company; 1953 - renamed Hammond Organ
Company; 1954 - semi-portable (400 pounds!) model B-3
introduced; brought organ to forefront of jazz, R&B and
rock'n'roll; 1977 - acquired by The Marmon Group, Inc. (owned by
Pritzker family of Chicago); 1986 - acquired by Hammond Organ
Australia, PTY Ltd. (then owned by Noel Crabbe);
1991 - acquired by
Suzuki Corporation, manufacturer of wide range of high-quality
- Amos 'n Andy, radio series about two southern African
Americans, debuted; starred two white actors: Freeman Gosden,
Charles Correll; ran until 1955, more than 40 million listeners
during its run, most highly rated comedy in radio history; NAACP
protested both the radio and the TV series for promoting racial
movie feature, ''The Lights of New York,'' previewed in New
July 30, 1928
- MGM lion roared for first time.
- William S. Paley (27) acquired United Independent Broadcasters
Inc., network of 16 independent radio stations; changed name to
Columbia Broadcast System, became President of Company.
September 18, 1928
- Disney Enterprises, Inc. registered "Mickey Mouse" trademark
first used on May 1, 1928 (motion pictures reproduced in copies
for sale); November 18, 1928
- First successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon, Walt
Disney's ''Steamboat Willie'', premiered in New York; starred
black-and-white, talking Mickey Mouse.
January 20, 1929
- First full-length motion picture in U.S. taken outdoors
released, titled "In Old Arizona"; first all-talking
sound-on-film feature; charming, happy-to-lucky bandit in old
Arizona plays cat-and-mouse with the sheriff trying to catch him
while he romances a local beauty; starred Warner Baxter as The
Cisco Kid, Edmund Lowe as Sergeant Mickey Dunn, Dorothy Burgess
as Tonia Maria.
February 1, 1929
- The Broadway Melody, Hollywood's first original film musical,
opened at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Los Angeles; became first
sound film to win Academy Award for Best Picture.
February 27, 1929
- Hearts in Dixie, first film created by major studio
specifically for an African-American audience, premiered in New
York; musical comedy, produced by Fox Movietone, featured
Stephen "Stepin" Fetchit and an almost entirely black cast.
May 16, 1929
Academy of Motion Picture
Arts and Sciences (founded in 1927), announced winners of the
first Academy Awards (for films made
between August 1, 1927 and July 31, 1928)
during a banquet at
the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; Best
Picture award to Wings (starring Clara Bow and Gary
Cooper), Best Actor to Emil Jannings for The Last Command
and The Way of All Flesh;
1931 - awards
nicknamed "Oscars" when a secretary at the academy noted the
statue's resemblance to her Uncle Oscar, and a journalist
printed her remark; 1953 - first televised Academy
May 28, 1929
- Warner Brothers debuted the first all-color talking picture,
"On With the Show."
1930 - Modern
dance pioneer Ted Shawn (first recognized Martha Graham's
potential) and his wife, Ruth St. Denis, leaders of Denishawn
Company (dissolved in 1931), bought rundown farm in the
Berkshires known as Jacob's Pillow, 1933 - founded
Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival as showcase for his company of Men
Dancers, as home for dance in the U.S.; March 1933
- gave first, historic, all-male performance in Boston;
July 9, 1942 - Ted Shawn Theatre opened, first
theatre in United States designed specifically for dance;
2000 - included on Dance Heritage Coalition's list of
America's Irreplaceable Dance Treasures, listed on National
Register of Historic Places; 2003 - federal
government named Jacob's Pillow a National Historic Landmark for
its importance in America's culture and history (country's first
and only Landmark).
January 21, 1930
- Thomas A, Edison received a patent for a "Mounting for
Diaphragms of Sound Boxes" "to obtain the best acoustic
results"); received second patent for "Production of Molded
Articles" ("such as phonograph record blanks").
March 31, 1930
- Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA)
formally adopted "Hays Code" (Production Code) in attempt to
avoid government censorship, satisfy public demand for morally
acceptable movies; named for William H. Hays, former U.S.
postmaster general under President Harding, past chairman of
Republican National Committee, hired by MPPDA to create
movie production code.
1931 - Adolph
Rickenbacker (operator of tool and die shop), George D.
Beauchamp (steel guitar player) founded Electro String
Instrument Corporation in Los Angeles to develop, sell
amplifiers, produce "Rickenbacker Electro Instruments", first
modern electric guitars; August 10, 1937 - George
D. Bauchamp, of Los Angeles, CA, received a patent for an
"Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument"; electric guitar;
assigned to Electro String Instrument Corporation; 1953
- acquired by Francis C. Hall, founder of Radio and Television
Equipment Company (Radio-Tel), formerly Fender's exclusive
distributor; modernized Rickenbacker guitar line; 1960s -
Beatles used several Rickenbacker models in early years (John
Lennon owned four; September 1984 - John Hall,
wife Cindalee, became sole owners; name changed to Rickenbacker
International Corporation (RIC).
March 14, 1931
- Trans-Lux Theater opened in Manhattan; first theater
specifically designed, built for rear projection of movies.
May 1931 -
Columbia and HMV, UK's biggest record companies, merged under
Sir Louis Sterling; formed Electric and Musical Industries
(EMI); biggest record company in world for nearly 50 years
(Columbia its flagship pop laabel).
September 17, 1931
- RCA (Radio Corporation of America) demonstrated very early
versions of 33 rpm long-playing records at the Savoy Plaza Hotel
in New York; product flopped - too expensive; RCA rival,
Columbia, began mass production of the plastic LP records in
1932 - Joseph Schenck, former president of United
Artists, Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Brothers, William Goetz
from Fox Films, Raymond Griffith formed Twentieth Century
Pictures as independent Hollywood motion picture production
company; Nicholas Schenck (brother), Louis B. Mayer (Goetz's
father-in-law), head of MGM Studios, provided financing;
distributed by United Artists; Zanuck chief executive, Schenck
head of production; May 31, 1935 - merged with Fox Film
Corporation; formed Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation
(hyphen dropped in 1985); June 1981 - acquired by TCF Holdings,
Inc. (Marvin Davis, Marc Rich) for $722 million;
October 1984 -
Davis bought other 50% from Marc Rich for $116 million;
1985 - News Corporation acquired 50% interest in Twentieth
Century Fox Film Corporation for $132 million, lent $88 million
to Fox; December 1985 - acquired remaining 50% interest for $325
million; renamed Fox, Incorporated.
March 25, 1932 -
'Tarzan the Ape Man' opened (Olympic gold medal swimmer
Johnny Weismuller in title role).
July 30, 1932 - Walt
Disney released "Flowers and Trees"; first cartoon in
in three-color Technicolor).
December 27, 1932
- Radio City Music Hall opened in New York City; brainchild of
billionaire John D. Rockefeller, Jr.; held $91 million, 24-year
lease on Manhattan property known as "the speakeasy belt";
decided to make theater cornerstone of Rockefeller Complex in
that neighborhood; formed partnership with Radio Corporation of
America (NBC radio, RKO films); largest indoor theatre in world
(seats 6,200 people); 1933
- Radio City Music Hall Christmas Spectacular debuted.
1933 - San
Francisco Opera Ballet founded to train dancers to appear in
lavish, full-length opera productions; oldest professional
ballet company in America; 1939
- William Christensen choreographed Company's first full-length
production, Coppelia; 1940
- staged first American full-length production of Swan Lake;
1942 - became
totally separate entity from the opera, renamed San Francisco
Ballet; Harold Christensen (brother) appointed director of San
Francisco Ballet School; 1944
- launched national holiday tradition with premiere of
Nutcracker, first complete version of ballet ever staged in
United States; 1956
- East Coast debut at Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival;
1957 - toured 11
Asian nations, first performances of an American ballet company
in Far East; 1972
- settled permanently in War Memorial Opera House for annual
residency; 1974 -
faced bankruptcy; Dr. Richard E. LeBlond, Jr. appointed
president and general manager of San Francisco Ballet
Association; July 1985
- Helgi Tomasson named artistic director.
- San Francisco Ballet
March 2, 1933 -
"King Kong" premiered.
May 7, 1933 - Walt Disney released 'Three Little Pigs'
cartoon; featured song "Who's
Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?"; became most popular animated
film up to that time.
May 16, 1933
- Richard M. Hollingshead Jr. (sales manager for Whiz Auto
Products in Camden, NJ) received patent for a "Drive-in Theater"; wanted to create a
theater where parents could bring children in their pajamas,
avoid baby-sitters, and relax in comfort of their own car while
watching a Friday night film; June 6, 1933 - first drive-in
movie theater opened on Crescent Boulevard in Camden, NJ;
admission 25cents/car, 25¢ per person; no car paid more
than $1.00; 1950 - May 16, 1933 patent declared invalid;
Drive-ins reached high of 4,063.
- first drive-in theater
1934 - School of
American Ballet founded on Madison Avenue, New York City;
Lincoln Kirstein as president, George Balanchine as
- American Ballet Company toured eastern United States, resident
ballet troupe for Metropolitan Opera;
1936 - Ballet Caravan founded; succeeded
by American Ballet Caravan; 1946
- Ballet Society founded to present performances for
subscription audience; 1948
- Morton Baum, Chairman of Executive Committee of New York City
Center, extended invitation to establish resident ballet
company, to be known as New York City Ballet, as part of City
Center of Music and Drama; October
11, 1948 -
New York City Ballet opened first season with three Ballanchine
ballets: Concerto Barocco, Orpheus, and Symphony in C.
Lincoln Kirstein, George
Balanchine - New York
- J Arthur Rank (Lord Rank), son of Joseph Rank, scion of flour
milling family, entered motion picture industry; 1935
- with Charles Boot and British & Dominions Film Corporation
established Pinewood Studios; 1941 - acquires
control of Odeon Theatre Group, Gaumont British Picture
Corporation; 1955 - Odeon Theatre Group changed
name to The Rank Organisation; 1956 - joined
forces with Haloid Corporation of America (later re-named Xerox
Corporation) to manufacture copying equipment; 1969
- Rank Xerox established as joint-venture company;
December 22, 1995 - Rank Group Plc established as public
limited company; 1997 - sold part of remaining interest in Rank
Xerox (total proceeds from 1995, 1997 sale of about £1.5bn);
2000 - sold Odeon Cinemas for £280m; sold Pinewood
Studios for £62m; 2001 - launched Rank.com to
exploit opportunities in on-line gaming; 2006 -
agreed to sell Hard Rock Cafes to Seminole Tribe of Florida for
January 26, 1934 -
Samuel Goldwyn bought film rights to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
by L. Frank Baum; 1939
- 101 minute film released; 1956
- an estimated 45 million people tuned in to watch the movie
debut on television; 1998
- ranked sixth in American Film Institute's poll of America's
100 Greatest Movies.
Apollo Theater in Harlem, NY
black-oriented variety show theatre; "Jazz a la Carte"
featured Ralph Cooper Sr.'s live version
of popular radio show, Amateur Nite Hour at the Apollo Theater, Benny Carter and his orchestra, Aida Ward,
Three Rhythm Kings, Norton and Margot, Troy Brown, Mabel Scott,
Three Palmer Brothers and "Sixteen Gorgeous Hot Steppers" (built
in 1913, leased for 30 years in 1914 by Jules Hurtig, Harry Seamon, burlesque theatre
operators, opened as Hurtig and Seamon’s New Burlesque Theater
(no African-Americans allowed); acquired in 1928 by Bill Minsky,
renamed 125th Street Apollo Theatre; acquired in 1932 by Sidney
S. Cohen, managed by Morris Sussman); all performance proceeds
donated to Harlem Children’s Fresh Air Fund;
May 13, 1935 -
taken over by Frank Schiffman, Leo Brecher (owned Harlem Opera
House since 1922, welcomed black patrons in 1925) after death of
Cohen; only New York City Theatre to hire black
entertainers for many years;
November 21, 1934 - Ella Fitzgerald (17) made
her singing debut at Apollo's "Amateur Night", won $25 prize;
1936 - Lena Horne
made Apollo debut; March 19, 1937
- Count Basie played Apollo for first time;
1942 - Sarah
Vaughan won Amateur Night; 1956
- James Brown won Amateur Night;
February 1964 - Jimi Hendrix won Amateur Night;
1969 - Jackson
(Michael Jackson, 9) won Amateur Night;
January 1976 -
Schiffman (son) closed theater;
- acquired by Percy Sutton (Inner City Broadcasting Corp.),
group of private investors; 1987
- Showtime at the Apollo debuted on national television;
1991 - Apollo
Theater Foundation, Inc. established to manage, fund, program
the theater; most famous performance venue associated with African American
April 24, 1934
- Laurens Hammond, of Chicago, IL, received patent for an
"Electrical Musical Instrument"; first pipeless organ
(manufactured by the Hammond Clock Company); two manuals and
pedals, weighed 275 pounds, cost less than one cent an hour to
operate; April 15, 1935 -exhibited at the
Industrial Arts Exhibition, New York City.
May 18, 1934
- Sidney Skolsky, syndicated gossip columnist, entertainment
reporter, first called Academy Award "Oscar" in print.
May 28, 1934 -
First curtain rose on Le Nozze di Figaro at Glyndebourne opera
house (UK, capacity 300), on estate of John Christie and Audrey
Mildmay (inherited in 1920) on first performance of Opera
Festival; first season ended with Glyndebourne's becoming
international institution; 1939
- Glyndebourne tradition, style, standard firmly established;
Glyndebourne founded Edinburgh Festival (subsidised by City of
Edinburgh); 1950 -
Christie helped by outside contribution for first time (British
industrial concerns ultimately relieved him entirely of personal
financial burden of maintaining Opera Festival);
Glyndebourne Festival Society formed to secure annual financial
support by subscription for each Festival;
1954 - Glyndebourne Arts Trust formed to
ensure future of company by establishment of endowment to
maintain, improve amenities; 1958
- George Christie (son) succeeded as Chairman of Glyndebourne
Productions Ltd (held position for 41 years);
spring of 1968 -
Glyndebourne Touring Opera made inaugural tour, visited
Newcastle, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Oxford;
May 28, 1994 - new
building opened (same calender date, same opera precisely 60
years earlier); first opera house constructed in UK since 1934;
1999 - Gus
Christie (second son of George) named Executive Chairman;
2001 - The Jerwood
Studio at Glyndebourne (rehearsal space) built; same size as
main stage, allowed singers to experience like-for-like
performance conditions; 2003
- Glyndebourne Touring Opera renamed Glyndebourne on Tour.
June 9, 1934
- Donald Duck made first film appearance in The Wise Little Hen,
short by Walt Disney.
July 6, 1934
- Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA)
appointed Joseph Breen head of Production Code
Administration ("Hays Office," after William H. Hays, head of
the MPPDA); tightened studio compliance with Production Code
(adopted in 1930 to impose strict guidelines on the cinematic
treatment of sex, crime, religion, violence, and other
- Enrique Carreras, Spanish immigrant, theater entrepreneur (started
Blue Halls circuit of theaters in UK with 1913)
joined forces with
William Hinds, owner of chain of jewelers shops (stage name Will
Hammer); registered Hammer Productions Ltd.; 1935
- formed Exclusive Films to distribute Hammer films, acquired
productions; James Carreras (son) joined company; January
1949 - registered Hammer Film Productions Limited for
business as independent film studio; associated with quality,
low budget filmmaking; 1955 - released The
Quatermass Xperiment (bought rights to TV sci-fi/horror hit The
Quatermass Experiment); 1957 - "The Curse of
Frankenstein" created 'Hammer House of Horror' brand; first
color horror film, massive box office success; only British
company with guarantee of US distribution; 295 title film
library; May 10, 2007 - acquired by private
European consortium, headed by Dutch based Cyrte Investments BV.
1935 - Philip
Smith built first drive-in theater outside Detroit; 1949
- more than 20; 1951 - operated first
shopping-center theatre, Framingham Cinema, in Framingham, MA;
1960 - went public; 1961 - Richard
Smith (36) took control; renamed General Cinema Corporation;
1964 - name changed to General Cinema Corporation;
1967 - owned about 100 shopping-center theaters; 150
theaters in 26 states; 1968 - entered soft-drink business;
became largest independent Pepsi bottler in U. S.; June 2,
1987 - 60% owner of The Neiman Marcus Group, Inc., (spun
off by Carter Hawley Hale in response to second hostile takeover
attempt by The Limited); 1989 - sold Pepsi
bottling operations; November 1991 - acquired
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 1993 - renamed Harcourt General,
Inc.; 1999 - spun off remaining stake in Neiman
Marcus Group to shareholders; October 2000 - GC
Cos. Inc., parent of General Cinema, filed for bankruptcy
protection (overbuilding of of multi-screen "megaplex" cinemas,
weak movie releases).
March 2, 1935
- Porky Pig, designed by animator Bob Clampett, debuted in short
"I Haven't Got a Hat"; name came from two brothers who were
childhood classmates of director Fritz Freleng (nicknamed
"Porky" and "Piggy); originally played by Joe Dougherty
(actually had stuttering problem); 1937 - Mel
Blanc won audition for character.
September 27, 1935
- Singer and actress Judy Garland (13) signed her first
contract with MGM; 1939 - became major star after
playing Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz; 1950 -
MGM fired her after she began showing up erratically for shoots;
1969 - she died from an overdose of sleeping
January 4, 1936
- Billboard magazine published first pop-music chart based
on national sales figures. A song called "Stop! Look! Listen!"
by jazz violinist Joe Venuti topped first chart.
July 30, 1936
- David O. Selznick (Selznick International Pictures) agreed to
pay $50,000 for film rights to Martha Mitchell's "Gone With the
Wind"; more than any studio had ever paid for rights to first
Mikhail Mordkin, former director of Bolshoi Ballet, formed new
Mordkin Ballet (previously founded, dsibanded in 1926); student
Lucia Chase helped finance company; she and Richard Pleasant
(Hollywood agent) took over management after first season;
1939 - organized Ballet Theatre; 1935 -
Oliver Smith became Co-director; 1957 - changed
name to American Ballet Theatre; 1980 - Mikhail
Baryshnikov became Artistic Director.
April 17, 1937
- Daffy Duck made his debut in Warner Bros. short, Porky's Duck
December 21, 1937
- Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Walt Disney's first
full-length (83 minutes), animated talking film opened;
and $1.5 million to create; first commercially successful film
of its kind.
- Leo Fender founded Fender's Radio Service in Fullerton, CA to
repair radios, phonograph players, home audio amplifiers, public
address systems, musical instrument amplifier (variations on
vacuum tube circuits used for amplification); joined Clayton Orr
Kauffman, formed K & F Manufacturing Corp. to design,
manufacture, sell electric instruments, amplifiers; December 7,
1948 - Clarence Leo Fender and Clayton Orr Kauffman, of
Fullerton, CA, received a patent for a "Pickup Unit for
Instruments"; lap steel guitar; 1946 - renamed Fender Electric
Instrument Company; 1965 - acquired by Columbia Broadcasting
System for $13 million; 1985 - acquired by employees, renamed
Fender Musical Instruments Corporation.
January 17, 1938
- Benny Goodman and his orchestra performed first jazz concert
at Carnegie Hall in New York; performers included Count Basie,
members of Basie, Duke Ellington orchestras; jazz originated
around 1900 but wasn't appreciated as a serious musical form for
February 3, 1938
- Vaudeville comedy team Bud Abbott and Lou Costello first
appeared as regulars on Kate Smith Hour radio program.
July 14, 1938
- British director Alfred Hitchcock signed contract with
David O. Selznick to direct movies in Hollywood; already
established reputation as England's foremost director with such
films as The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1934 (which he remade in
1956) and The Lady Vanishes in 1938; 1940 - first
American film, Rebecca, starring Laurence Olivier and Joan
Fontaine, opened, won Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best
1939 - German
emigres Alfred Lion and Francis Wolff established Blue Note Records as
artist-centered jazz record label;
1950s-1960s - heyday with clearly
defined Blue Note sound, rooted in hardbop, Blue Note look with
striking album design, photography;
1984 - re-launched after brief
hiatus; Bruce Lundvall, President;
longest- running label in jazz;
Norah Jones - best-seller in Blue Note history, one of
biggest-selling albums ever (more than 20 million copies
Alfred Lion, Francis Wolff
- Blue Note Records
July 13, 1939
- Frank Sinatra made recording debut with Harry James
band, sang "Melancholy Mood" , "From The Bottom of My Heart."
December 15, 1939
- Gone With the Wind debuted in Atlanta; instant hit, broke all
box office records in course of its run.
January 19, 1940
- Three Stooges film You Natzy Spy released (nine months
in advance of Charlie Chaplin's "The Great Dictator");
1923 - began as a vaudeville act billed as "Ted Healy
and His Stooges"; stooges were brothers Moe (Moses) and Shemp
Howard from Brooklyn; 1928 - Larry Fine joined;
1932 - Shemp left the act, replaced by brother Curly;
Three Stooges made a total of 190 short subjects with Columbia,
at least 20 feature-length films, hundreds of cartoons.
February 7, 1940
- Walt Disney's second feature-length movie, "Pinocchio,"
premiered (New York City).
May 21, 1940
- Walter E. Disney, of Los Angeles, CA, received patent for the
"Art of Animation" ("improvements in the art of producing what
are generally known as 'animated cartoons'"); assigned to Walt
July 27, 1940
- Bugs Bunny made his debut in Warner Bros. animated cartoon "A
Wild Hare"; featured Bugs as would-be dinner for frustrated
hunter Elmer Fudd; animated by Chuck Jones, accent came from
voice man Mel Blanc.
November 13, 1940
- Disney animated movie ''Fantasia'' had world premiere in
New York; no plot, an ambitious, artistic attempt to marry
music, animation; 1999 - film updated, re-released
as Fantasia 2000,.
July 1941 -
CBS, NBC switched from experimental broadcasts to fifteen hours
per week of scheduled programming.
February 10, 1942
- First gold record (sprayed with gold by record company RCA
Victor) presented to recording artist: Glenn Miller for
'Chattanooga Choo Choo' (performed in movie Sun Valley
Serenade; sales of 1,200,000).
June 4, 1942 -
Glenn Wallichs, owner of Music City record store on Vine St. in
Los Angeles, movie producer Buddy deSylva, songwriter Johnny
Mercer started Capitol Records.
February 20, 1943
- Movie studio executives agreed to allow Office of War
Information to censor movies informally to prevent disclosure of
vital information in war-themed films.
March 31, 1943 -
Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Oklahoma!" premiered in New York
City; played on Broadway for 2,248 performances.
March 31, 1945 -
''The Glass Menagerie'' by Tennessee Williams opened on
1946 - First annual Cannes Film Festival opened
at resort city of Cannes on French Riviera (originally scheduled
for September 1939, cancelled due outbreak of World War
II); 18 nations represented; entries included "The Lost Weekend
(Billy Wilder), "Open City" (Roberto Rossellini), "The Battle of
the Rails" (Reny Clement), "Brief Encounter" (David Lean);
1952 - Palais des
Festivals dedicated as permanent home for festival;
1955 - introduced
Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) award for best film of festival.
1947 - Paul Pacini
opened 'Whiskey a GoGo' in Paris; highlighted American
preference for for cocktails, hard liquor over French wine;
walls covered with lids from whiskey cases (Dewar's, Haig &
Haig); jazz piped in.
- Whiskey a Go-Go
1947 - Ahmet
Ertegun, Herb Abramson founded Atlantic Records in office in
derelict hotel on West 56th Street in Manhattan; borrowed
$10,000 from family dentist; 1954
- released "I Got a Woman (Ray Charles), "Shake, Rattle and
Roll" (Joe Turner); 1967
- acquired by Warner Brothers-Seven Arts for $17 million;
1969 - acquired by
Kinney National Service; one of only record labels of 1940s to
survive into 1990s, with founder still in charge;
1971 - founded New
York Cosmos soccer team.
April 6, 1947 - Frst Tony Awards (theater)
1947 - House Un-American Activities Committee
(HUAC) of U.S. Congress (chaired by Congressman Parnell Thomas)
opened investigation into communist infiltration of American
movie industry; hearings focused on identifying political
subversives among Hollywood actors, actresses, writers,
October 24, 1947
- Walt Disney testified to House Unamerican Activities
Committee; named Disney employees he believed to be communists.
November 24, 1947
- House of Representatives voted 346 to 17 to approve citations
of contempt against 10 Hollywood writers, directors, and
producers who had refused to cooperate at hearings held by House
Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) into influence of
communism in movie industry (became known as ''Hollywood
10''); men denounced questions as violations of their First
Amendment rights, sentenced to one year in jail; Supreme Court
later upheld contempt charges; 1951 - new HUAC
hearings started, Hollywood quickly buckled to committee's
demands; hundreds of performers, directors, writers, others
placed on "blacklist," effectively banned from employment.
November 25, 1947
- Movie studio executives meeting in New York agreed to
blacklist ''Hollywood 10''; eventually, some 300 people were
blacklisted on very slight evidence (collection
of names of Hollywood personalities suspected of having
communist ties; many
(those on the list rarely found work in the movies); blacklist
not completely broken until the 1960s.
December 27, 1947
- Howdy Doody Show debuted.
January 1, 1948 -
Warner Brothers-Pathe showed first U.S. motion picture newsreel
in color (using the Cinecolor process) of photos taken at
Tournament of Roses, Rose Bowl Game, Pasadena, California;
January 5, 1948 -
started showing newsreels to theatre audiences.
June 8, 1948 - The
''Texaco Star Theater'' made debut on NBC-TV (Milton Berle as
20, 1948 -
Records introduced first successful long-playing microgroove
phonograph records at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York
City; designed for the new speed of 33-1/3 r.p.m.; developed by
Dr. Peter Goldmark, head of CBS Labs; made of non-breakable
Vinilyte plastic; 12 inch record could play 23 minutes per side
(compared to only 4 minutes per side on the earlier 78 rpm
record); quieter surfaces, greatly increased fidelity; first LP
featured violinist Yehudi Menuhin; Columbia originated,
copyrighted term "LP".
1949 - RCA, Columbia introduced vinyl records in
U.S.: RCA's "single", 7-inch diameter 45 rpm, could play eight
minutes of sound per side, replaced 78 rpm records; RCA
manufactured special record-player with wide-diameter spindle to
automatically play stack of records; Columbia offered 33.3 rpm
1949 - First 45 RPM record released.
1949 - Rodgers and Hammerstein musical ''South
Pacific'' opened on Broadway.
June 1, 1949 - Lawrence Welk, band
leader from North Dakota, known for light dance music, band
began two-year stint as house orchestra for 'High Life Review'
radio show; often lampooned for saccharine style, developed army
of loyal fans, hosted one of longest running musical variety
shows in history; 1951
- moved to TV, launched own show on local Los Angeles station;
July 2, 1955 -
'The Lawrence Welk Show', musiccal variety, debuted on ABC on
Saturday nights (straightforward dance music); gained strong
following, stayed on air for 16 years;
1956-1959 - Saturday night show so
popular that ABC gave him second hour-long show, aired during
week; called 'Lawrence Welk's Top Tunes and New Talent';
1961 - topped
charts with "Calcutta"; 1971
- ABC cancelled show.
January 4, 1950 - RCA Victor announced would
start manufacturing long-playing (LP) records (long-playing
album debuted in 1948); one side of 12-inch LP played for 23
minutes (vs. four minutes for one side of a standard 78 rpm
record); took several years for standard to become universally
July 11, 1951
- Alan Freed, disc jockey, started new job in Cleveland as disk
jockey "The Moondog House", rhythm and blues show; called
himself "Moondog" (based on chosen theme song, "The Moondog
Symphony"); March 21, 1952
- threw 'Moondog Coronation Ball', rhythm and blues concert at
leveland Arena (drew about 25,000 people); first rock & roll
concert; 1953 -
threw 'The Biggest Rhythm and Blues Show', R&B tour; featured
Ruth Brown, Wynonie Harris; 1954
- Freed prohibited from using name when blind New York City
street musician, who had recorded "Moondog Symphony", won court
battle; renamed 'Alan Freed's Rock and Roll Party'; copyrighted
phrase "rock and roll" in partnership with Morris Levy, black
music legend, Lew Platt, veteran promoter, radio station WINS;
tidal wave of rock and roll soon made his copyright virtually
useless; January 14, 1955
- produced first rock and roll dance concert in New York at St.
Nicholas Arena; featured Drifters, Fats Domino, Joe Turner,
others; all musicians were black, least half audience was white.
October 16, 1951
- The New York Academy of Medicine Post Graduate Fortnightly
showed first 9 1/2 minute color motion picture in U.S. of inside
of living heart (of a dog) at Montefiore Hospital, New York
City; showed opening, closing of mitral valve.
- Sam Phillips launched Sun Records in Memphis, TN; named as
sign of his perpetual optimism: new day and new beginning;
March 27, 1952 - began releasing records.
1952 - The Mousetrap," murder-mystery written by
novelist, playwright Agatha Christie, opened at Ambassadors
Theatre in London; became longest continuously running play in
history, more than 10 million people attended more than 20,000
1953 - ''Bwana Devil'' opened in New York;
heralded 3-D fad of 1950s.
1953 - 'Man in the Dark' opened
at Globe Theater in New York; first 3D motion picture
(audience used spectacles with one red, one green lens to
produce illusion of depth); April 10, 1953
- 'The House of Wax' opened at Paramount Theater, next 3D feature movie, first color
three-dimensional picture (had to be viewed through special
1922 - Perfect Pictures made 'The Power of Love',
first 3D feature film; February 1947 - Russian
production of Robinson Crusoe, first 3D talking picture in
color, shown in Moscow.
January 4, 1954
- Elvis Presley, struggling young musician who worked in
machine shop, made recording for his mother's birthday; paid
$4 at Sun Records to record two songs: "Casual Love Affair",
"I'll Never Stand in Your Way"; impressd Marion Keisker, Sam Phillips's
assistant, so much that she brought copy of
recording to him; July 5, 1954 -
Elvis, Scotty Moore and Bill Black had first recording
session at Sun Records; recorded 'That's All Right' rhythm-and-blues debut single
song; July 7, 1954 -
station WHBQ aired first recording of song.
April 2, 1954
- Plans to build Disneyland announced.
April 12, 1954 -
Bill Haley and the Comet, recorded "Rock Around the Clock";
May 1954 - song
released, barely made pop charts, spent one week at No. 23;
became hit after producer James Myers sent copies of song to
dozens of Hollywood producers, suggested they use song in movie;
1955 - producers
of Blackboard Jungle, controversial film about juvenile
delinquency, selected song as theme for movie; sales of "Rock
Around the Clock" skyrocketed, sold 6 million copies;
July 1955 -
climbed to top of charts; first rock and roll song to reach No.
July 17, 1954
- George Wein founded "First American Jazz Festival" in Newport,
RI; featured performances by Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie,
Billie Holiday, Gerry Mulligan, Eddie Condon, Modern Jazz
Quartet, Oscar Peterson, others; sponsored by Elaine and Louis L
Lorillard (gave Wein $20,000 line of bank credit, never used);
broke even first year; 1960, 1969,
1971 - riots caused performance cancellations;
1972 - festival
moved to New York City; 1981
- resumed in Newport, became two-site festival associated U.S.
and international tours; 1984
- sponsored by JVC; 1986
- name changed to JVC Jazz Festival.
Louis and Elaine
Lorillard with George Wein
- Newport Jazz Festival
January 31, 1955 -
RCA demonstrated first music synthesizer.
1955 - Disneyland ($17 million theme park) opened in
Anaheim, CA, on land once occupied by orange groves, as
grand-scale "family park where parents, children could have
28,154 attended, 90 million watch on ABC.
- Opening Speech (Disneyland, July 17,
September 18, 1955
- Ed Sullivan's popular talk show, originally called "Toast of
the Town" in 1948, changed name to The Ed Sullivan Show.
November 22, 1955 - RCA announced it had
purchased recording contract for Elvis Presley from Sun
Records for record sum of $35,000; Presley also received
$5,000 advance (bought pink Cadillac for his mother); 1956
- first record on RCA included songs "I Got a Woman,"
"Heartbreak Hotel," "I Was the One."
January 28, 1956
- Elvis Presley made first-ever television appearance, on Dorsey
Bros Stage Show (TV musical-variety program); sang "Heartbreak
Hotel"; June 5, 1956 - Elvis introduced new
single, "Hound Dog," on The Milton Berle Show; scandalized
audience with suggestive hip gyrations; other show hosts,
including Ed Sullivan, denounced performance, swore he would
never invite Presley on his own show; Fall 1956 -
Sullivan booked Elvis for three shows.
February 22, 1956
- Elvis Presley entered music charts on Billboard magazine's Top
10 for first time, with "Heartbreak Hotel".
September 9, 1956
- Elvis Presley appeared on Ed Sullivan's "Toast of the Town";
sang "Don't Be Cruel", "Hound Dog"; scandalized audiences with
suggestive hip gyrations; became household name.
October 2, 1956 -
Inaugural performance of Joffrey Ballet at Frostberg State
Teachers College in Maryland; founded by Robert Joffrey, Gerald
Arpino; consisted of six dynamic, highly individual dancers;
Joffrey stayed in New York to teach ballet classes, earn money
to pay dancers' salaries; Arpino led troupe across America in
station wagon that pulled a U-Haul trailer;
performance in major city in Chicago at Eighth Street Theater;
1995 - made
Chicago permanent home, currently resident ballet company of
Auditorium Theatre of Roosevelt University.
- Joffrey Ballet
1956 - Love Me Tender, Elvis Presley's first
movie, opened at Paramount Theater in New York; covered its
production cost of $1 million in three days; Elvis appeared in
33 movies over next 13 years.
December 11, 1956 - Movie industry's
tight restriction of language, subject matter ("Hays Code" or
the Production Code), eased slightly for first time since
adoption in 1930; actors could now mention abortion, drugs,
kidnapping, prostitution; 1966
- new standards adopted, permitted more liberal portrayals of
sexual content, imposed heavier restrictions on violence;
1968 - movie
ratings system replaced code, greatly expanded range of
permissible subjects for film.
- MGM shut down its animation studio; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
animation directors William Hanna, Joseph Barbera changed name
of H-B Enterprises to Hanna-Barbera Productions (1944 - H-B
Enterprises founded as freelance television commercial
production company); made cartoons directly for small screen,
launched first production, Ruff and Reddy; 1960 -
produced first-ever animated prime-time family sitcom show, with
half-hour storyline, The Flintstones; also produced The Jetsons,
The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Yogi Bear Show, Jonny Quest,
Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Smurfs; 1991 - acquired
by Turner Broadcasting; 1992 - renamed H-B
Production Company; 1993 - renamed Hanna-Barbera
Cartoons; 1996 - Turner acquired by Time Warner;
Hanna-Barbera absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation.
Joseph Barbera, William Hanna
1957 - Jim Stewart
founded Satellite Records in wife's uncle's garage in north
Memphis, TN; 1958
- sister, Estelle Axton, took out second mortgage, bought out
Stewart's partners, financed purchase of Ampex recorde;
1961 - renamed
Stax (STewart + AXton) to avoid competing with another company,
in Califiornia, named Satellite Records;
1962 - created a subsidiary label, Volt
Records, used for rhythm and blues music;
1965 - signed formal national
distribution deal with Atlantic Records;
March 1968 - label acquired by Gulf and
Western; July 1970
- Stewart and Al Bell (Stax sales director) reacquired label;
distribution pact with Columbia Records (subsequently altered);
January 1976 -
ordered closed by bankruptcy judge;
December 18, 2006 - Concord Music Group
reactivated Stax label.
March 25, 1957
- Ricky Nelson cut his first records, "A Teenager's Romance" and
"I'm Walkin'' few weeks later, sang the songs on the TV series
and became an overnight pop star, despite his complete lack of
musical experience; one of the best-selling male singers of the
1950s - 53 Hot 100 hits, 17 in the Top 10.
April 19, 1957
- Brattle Theater in Cambridge, MA, presented its first showing
of Casablanca (1943); introduced new generation of film viewers
to Humphrey Bogart (died in January 195); marked the beginning
of a Bogart revival that would boost the star to cult-like
status in the 1960s and later.
July 6, 1957
- Paul McCartney (15) attended church picnic in the village of
Woolton, near Liverpool; met John Lennon (16). Lennon had formed
a band called the Quarrymen, which was playing at the picnic.
Between sets, McCartney played a few songs on guitar for the
band, and a few days later Lennon invited him to join. McCartney
didn't take the group seriously-in fact, missed his first
performance with the band because he had a scouting trip. Group
changed its name to Johnny and the Moondogs, recruited
McCartney's friend George Harrison. Changed the name again, to
Silver Beetles, after bassist Stu Sutcliffe joined; eventually
modified name to the Beatles. Tommy Moore joined the band as
drummer; 1960 - replaced by Pete Best. Label after
label rejected them. 1962 - Best left band, Ringo
Starr joined, and the Fab Four--McCartney, Lennon, Harrison, and
Starr--recorded "Love Me Do," the group's first Top 20 hit in
the United Kingdom. 1970 - band broke up.
1958 - Alvin
Ailey, group of young black modern dancers performed for first
time as members of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater at New
York's 92nd Street YM-YWHA; 1968 - performed
at White House for President Johnson; 1974 - Alvin
Ailey Repertory Ensemble created (professional dance company
with full touring schedule to help most talented students from
Alvin Ailey American Dance Center make leap from studio to
stage); November 15, 1978 - special performance
for President Jimmy Carter at White House; 1989 -
Judith Jamison became Artistic Director; 2005 -
seen by estimated 21,000,000 fans in 48 states, 68 countries on
1958 - Jimmy
Lyons (saxophonist), Ralph Gleason (San Francisco Chronicle's
music critic, founding editor of Rolling Stone magazine)
co-founded Monterey Jazz Festival (every third full weekend in
September) on Monterey Fairgrounds, Monterey, CA (Dizzy
Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, John Lewis, Shelly Manne, Gerry
Mulligan, Art Farmer, Ernestine Anderson, Harry James, Max
Roach, Billie Holiday); longest running jazz festival in world;
proceeds donated to musical education.
- Monterey Jazz Festival
- Monterey Jazz Festival
March 14, 1958
- Recording Industry Association of American created.
March 27, 1958 -
CBS Labs announced new stereophonic records.
1959 - Chris
Blackwell, music fan and entrepreneur, started Island label in
Jamaica with budget of £1,000;
July 1989 - acquired by Polygram (acquired in
1999 by Seagram, merged with MCA, became Universal Music Group)
for reported £180 million; April
2009 - Music Weekly, trade magazine, formally
declared Blackwell to be "the most influential UK-based industry
executive of the past five decades".
- Island Records
1959 - Berry Gordy, Jr. borrowed $800 from his
family's loan fund, quit $85/week upholstery trimmer's job at
Lincoln-Mercury assembly line, incorporated Tamla Records in
Detroit, MI (had hit pop charts for first time in November 1957
as songwriter with Jackie Wilson's "Reet Petite; had written,
produced songs for first signed act, The Matadors, changed their
name to The Miracles, Miracles lead singer Smokey Robinson
became vice president of company);
January 1960 - Motown moved headquarters
into house in Detroit; "Hitsville U.S.A." sign hanged outside;
basement made into studio; April
1963 - Mary Wells song "You Beat Me to the
Punch" first Motown record to receive Grammy nomination;
1966 - produced 14
songs that reached Top 10; January
25, 1968 - Marvin Gaye's "Heard It Through the
Grapevine" No. 1 on charts for seven weeks, longest run of any
Motown single to that time; 10 singles in 1968 in Top 10;
1971 - 11 singles
reach Top 10; August 1978
- The Commodores song "Three Times a Lady" first Motown
recording to register No. 1 on pop, R & B, adult contemporary
charts at same time; January 1987
- Lionel Ritchie first Motown artist to record country music hit
with "Deep River Woman"; June 1988
- acquired by partnership between MCA, Boston Ventures for $61
million; now subsidiary of Universal Motown Records Group
(subsidiary of Universal Music Group).
1959 - Plane crash near Clear Lake, IA claimed
lives of rock 'n' roll stars Buddy Holly (22), Ritchie Valens
(Valenzuela, 17), J.P. ''The Big Bopper'' Richardson (28); on
flight between tour dates during Winter Dance Party Tour; Holly
had just scored No. 1 hit, "That'll Be the Day," with his band,
May 4, 1959
- National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences announced
winners of first Grammy Awards: Henry Mancini won the Best Album
for The Music from Peter Gunn; Perry Como voted Best Male
Vocalist, Ella Fitzgerald Best Female Vocalist. "Volare," by
Domenico Modugno, won Best Record.
May 18, 1959 - Wilbert Harrison's
recording of blues hit "Kansas City" topped charts; first song
in history of Top 100 charts to debut at No. 100, climb all way
October 30, 1959
- Tenor saxophonist Ronnie Scott (born Ronald Schatt), tenor
saxophonist Pete King opened Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club (capacity
90, no liquor license) in basement at 39 Gerrard Street, in
London's Soho, with small loan from Scott's stepfather, to
provide place where British jazz musicians could jam (had helped
to open co-operative Club Eleven in Soho on December 11, 1948,
country's first club devoted solely to modern jazz); opening
night - Scott himself, Tubby Hayes Quartet, Jack Parnell, alto
saxophonist Peter King; quickly developed reputation of bringing
best of British modern jazz musicians to club; persuaded
Musicians’ Union ban on American visiting jazz musicians to lift
blanket ban on American performers in U.K. (dated from 1932,
classical music and vocalists exempt; had isolated UK from New
York’s post-war modern jazz revolution; embargo relaxed, at
concert level, in 1958, provided British musicians played
reciprocal gigs in America); 1961
- Zoot Sims, personal favourite of owner, first major American
artist to play there (British saxophonist Tubby Hayes went to
New York’s Half Note for month’s residency); first time American
jazz musician had officially played in British jazz club for
nearly 30 years; 1965
- moved to current location in Frith Street;
June 2005 -
acquired by theatre impresario Sally Greene (Old Vic
management); London's foremost jazz venue (same level as New
York’s legendary Village Vanguard).
May 3, 1960 -
Musical comedy, The Fantasticks, opened in off-Broadway
playhouse in New York's Greenwich Village; became
longest-running musical of all time; May 2000 -
15,562 performances, producers' initial $16,500
investment had earned $3 million.
August 1, 1960
- Chubby Checker released "The Twist".
November 4, 1960
- Filming wrapped on The Misfits, starring Marilyn Monroe and
Clark Gable, last film for both.
March 21, 1961
- The Beatles made their debut in appearance at
Liverpool's The Cavern; August 2, 1961 - Beatles
first gig as house band of Liverpool's Cavern Club; August
3, 1963 - last gig.
November 9, 1961
- Record store manager Brian Epstein went to Liverpool nightclub
(the Cavern) to hear Beatles; January 1962 -
became Beatles's manager; helped them land their first record
deal; September 1962 - recorded "Love Me
Do," group's first Top 20 hit in United Kingdom; debut album in
United States, Meet the Beatles, became fastest-selling
album in U.S. history to that time; scored more No. 1 hits on
Billboard charts (20) than any other group in history.
October 26, 1965 - appointed Members of Order of the
British Empire at Buckingham Palace; August 1967 -
Epstein died ofaccidental overdose of sleeping pills; 1970
- each member pursued solo career or formed a new group.
- Beach Boys' "Surfin' issued on X Records as promo and Candix;
February 17, 1962 - hit #5 on national pop charts.
January 13, 1962
- Chubby Checker's hit "The Twist" became first song to
reach the No. 1 spot twice in two years.
May 9, 1962
- Beatles signed first contract with EMI Pstlophone.
July 12, 1962
- The Rolling Stones gave their first public performance at
Marquee Club in London - called Rolling Stones after Muddy
September 11, 1962
- The Beatles recorded their first single, ''Love Me Do'',
''P.S. I Love You,'' at EMI studios in London;
October 5, 1962
- first hit, ''Love Me Do,'' released in
United Kingdom; February 7, 1963
- first record in U. S. with Beatles name released by Vee-Jay
Records ("Please Please Me b/w Ask Me Why").
1964 - Dr.
Amar G. Bose, professor of electrical engineering at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, founded Bose Corporation;
May 30, 1967 - Bose Corporation registered "Bose"
trademark first used May 1966 (acoustical transducer systems for
reproducing sound); 1968 - introduced 901®
Direct/Reflecting® speaker system (blend of reflected and direct
sound); introduced acoustic waveguide speaker technology
(performance of large, multi-component stereo system from
compact, all-in-one system).
January 11, 1964
- Elmer Valentine, Mario Maglieri opened Whiskey-A-Go-Go, Los
Angeles's first disco (the French word discotheque, record
library = recordings with no bands), at 8901 Sunset Boulevard;
chief entertainment consisted of dancing to simplified form of
rock; underground disco subculture turned into a national
sensation when film Saturday Night Fever released in 1977.
January 13, 1964
- Capitol Records released Beatles' first single in USA; "I
Wanna Hold Your Hand"; sold one million copies in first three
February 7, 1964
- The Beatles arrived in New York for first American tour,
touched off rock 'n' roll's ''British invasion''; February
1, 1964 - first No. 1 U.S. hit with "I Want to Hold Your
Hand"; February 9 - first appearance on Ed
Sullivan Show, popular television variety show (estimated 73
million U.S. television viewers, about 40% of U.S. population);
February 11 - first public concert appearance in
United States at Coliseum in Washington, DC.
March 28, 1964
- Beatles broke Elvis Presley's 7-year record for most hits on
Billboard's Hot 100 at same time (1956 - Presley had nine songs
on Hot 100); Beatles scored 10th hit; April 11 -
14 positions on chart; August - first
feature-film, A Hard Day's Night; 1970 - Beatles
disbanded, left legacy of 18 albums, 30 Top 10 U.S. singles.
April 13, 1964
- Sidney Poitier became first black performer in leading role to
winAcademy Award, for ''Lilies of the Field.''.
October 25, 1964
- British rock group Rolling Stones appeared on Ed Sullivan's TV
4, 1965 - Leo Fender sold Fender Guitar Company (guitar,
amplifier company) to CBS; 1985 - CBS shed
non-broadcast holdings, sold company to small contingent of
employees, investors led by William Schultz.
June 10, 1966
- Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? received Production
Code Seal of Approval; first film containing four-letter words
to be approved; also contained adult content ordinarily banned
from screen, but Warner Bros. promised to admit only viewers
October 19, 1966
- Gulf and Western Industries Inc. acquired Paramount Pictures
Corp.; responsible for Godfather and Indiana Jones trilogies;
renamed Paramount Communications;
March 11, 1994 - acquired by Viacom Inc.
October 22, 1966
- The Supremes became first all-female music group to attain No.
1 selling album (The Supremes A' Go-Go).
June 1, 1967
- Album "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" by Beatles
released; took four months, $75,000 to record, sold over 8
million copies, spent 15 weeks at No. 1.
1968 - Walter
J. Trumbull, working toward doctorate at Manhattan School of
Music, started boys' choir as after-school music program in the
basement of Ephesus Seventh-Day Advent School in Harlem;
1975 - incorporated as Boys Choir of Harlem; eventually
gave rise to Choir Academy of Harlem, 600-student school (full
academic program for grades 4-12); 1988 - founded
Girls' Choir of Harlem.
October 7, 1968
- Motion Picture Association of America adopted film-rating
system: G (for general audiences), M (for mature audiences), R
(no one under 16 admitted without an adult), and X (no one under
1970 - New system of movie ratings announced: MPG
replaced by PG (parental guidance suggested), R movies
restricted admission of people under age of 17 unless
accompanied by parent or guardian; 1984 - PG-13
rating added at request of moviemaker Steven Spielberg (to
address concerns raised by parents of preteens who thought some
of Spielberg's films, including "Indiana Jones" series and
Gremlins, were too scary for their children, even though they
fit within other guidelines for a PG movie);
26, 1990 - X rating phased out in favor of NC-17
(non-pornographic films with sexual content deemed inappropriate
for viewers under age 17).
Manfred Eicher, classically trained musician, founded Edition of
Contemporary Music (ECM) in Munich (he is recording producer,
publisher, editor); aimed for high sound quality associated with
classical recording; established early reputation with
standard-setting jazz, improvised music albums; interests extend
across the arts.
January 30, 1969
- The Beatles performed as group for last time in public in
45-minute gig on roof of their Apple Records headquarters in
London during filming of ''Let it Be.'' April 9,
1970 - Paul McCartney formally announced group's
August 15-17, 1969
- 3-day Woodstock Music and Art Fair, "An Aquarian Exposition"
(modeled after the Monterey Pop Festival) opened at Max Yasgur's
dairy farm in Bethel, NY - nearly a half a million people
converged on the concert site, many of the "counterculture"
("hippies") who rejected materialism and authority, experimented
with illicit drugs, actively protested against the Vietnam
War. Jimi Hendrix closed the concert with a freeform solo guitar
performance of "The Star Spangled Banner." Woodstock became a
symbol of the 1960s American counterculture and a milestone in
the history of rock music.
Richard Branson (20) established mail-order record company;
1971 - opened Virgin Record and Tapes, record shop on
second floor of building at 24 Oxford Street, London, UK;
1972 - with Simon Draper (cousin), Nik Powell opened
recording studio, near Oxford, UK; signed Mike Oldfield's
'Tubular Bells' (made the label); 1977 - signed
Sex Pistols; June 1992 - acquired by Thorn EMI for
reported $1 billion (used proceeds to fund Virgin Air); third
largest music company in world; 2008 - merged with
Capitol Records, created Capitol Music Group; went on to head of
one of world’s most universally recognized, respected groups of
February 21, 1970
- Jackson 5 made TV debut on American Bandstand.
March 21, 1971
- Andromeda Strain opened (scientists raced against time, alien
virus); first movie to use computer animation.
August 1, 1971 -
Concert For Bangladesh was event title for two benefit concerts;
played to total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New
York; first fundraising event of its kind; first benefit concert
that brought together an extraordinary assemblage of major
artists collaborating for a common humanitarian cause; set
precedent that music could be used to serve higher cause.
October 1, 1971
- Magic Kingdom park at Walt Disney World Resort opened in
Orlando, FL; October 23, 1971
- dedicated by Roy Disney; 1,076-piece marching band played 76
Trombones; Arthur Fiedler conducted World Symphony Orchestra
(musicians from 60 countries).
October 20, 1973 - Queen Elizabeth II
dedicated Sydney Opera House; $80 million structure, designed by
Danish architect Jorn Utzon, funded by profits of the Opera
House Lotteries, built on Bennelong Point, in Sydney, Australia;
contains several large auditoriums, presents average of 3,000
events a year to an estimated two million people.
May 2, 1975 -
Apple records closed.
March 2, 1976 -
Walt Disney World logged 50 millionth guest.
May 25, 1977 -
George Lucas's blockbuster Star Wars opened in American theaters
on Memorial Day weekend.
August 16, 1977 - Elvis Presley died at
Graceland Mansion in Memphis, TN, at age 42 (had been
highest-paid performer in history of entertainment business in
1965); made 28 films, considered frivolous, second-rate, grossed
- George Atkinson opened first video rental store in Los
Angeles; created the rental business model; bought 50 movies
recently made available on video, advertised them for rent
($10/movie) in one-inch ad in LA Times, customers came in
droves (to Video Station), went public in the early 1980's,
ultimately opened 600 affiliated video rental stores (2004 -
more than 24,000 video stores in U.S. rent 2.6 billion DVD and
VHS cassettes = $8 billion in revenue).
July 3, 1979
- Radio City Music Hall Corporation registered "Radio City Music
Hall" service mark.
December 8, 1980
- Rock musician John Lennon of Beatles was shot to death outside
his New York City apartment building by deranged fan, Mark David
Chapman, who shot him four times at close range with a
.38-caliber revolver. Lennon was 40. Chapman had received an
autograph from Lennon earlier in the day and voluntarily
remained at the scene of the shooting until he was arrested by
October 1, 1982
- EPCOT Center
Prototype Community of Tomorrow), combination of Future World
and World Showcase, opened at Walt Disney World in Orlando,
represented investment of over one billion dollars.
October 7, 1982
Andrew Lloyd Webber, Tim Rice's
musical, "Cats" (lyrics from T.S. Eliot's Old Possum's Book of
Practical Cats), opened on Broadway; began record run of 7,485
performances (nearly 18 years), brought in more than $400
million and played to more than 10 million people; featuring
music by Andrew Lloyd-Webber;
September 10, 2000 - show
1983 - Tokyo Disneyland opened in Urayasu,
Chiba, Japan, near Tokyo; first Disney park built outside of
27, 1983 - "A Chorus Line" opened, became longest
running show in Broadway history (opened October 19, 1975),
passed "Grease" (3,389th performance); April 28, 1990
- 6,137th and final performance.
August 10, 1985
- Michael Jackson bought ATV Music (all Beatle songs) for $47
September 20, 1985
- Walt Disney World received its 200-millionth guest.
April 28, 1987
- For first time, compact disc of an album released before vinyl
counterpart: "The Art of Excellence" by Tony Bennett.
November 18, 1987
- Sony Corp. agreed to acquire CBS Records for $2 billion
(included CBS's manufacturing plants, subsidiary
companies,10,000 employees, Columbia House, direct-mail music
club); capped major corporate makeover for CBS under chairman
Laurence A. Tisch (sold non-broadcast affiliates and divisions).
January 26, 1988
- Andrew Lloyd Webber musical ''Phantom of the Opera''
opened at Broadway's Majestic Theater (became longest-running
show in Broadway history).
July 5, 1988
- Warner Bros. Inc. registered Bugs Bunny's "What's Up Doc?"
(for use on T-shirts) trademark.
May 1, 1989
- Disney's MGM Studio theme park officially opened to public.
September 27, 1989
- Sony completed purchase of Columbia Pictures for $3.4 billion;
under the direction of producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber,
studio released series of costly flops, racked-up $3
billion in debt, Sony officials considered selling
November 19, 1990
- Pop duo Milli Vanilli stripped of Grammy Award after
revealed that neither performer sang on group's records.
March 20, 1991
- Michael Jackson signed $65M 6 album deal with Sony records.
January 23, 1992
- Smithsonian Institution awarded producer, director,
screenwriter Hal Roach its highest honor, the James Smithson
Medal; 1915 - formed his own production company
with D. Whiting, called The Rolin Company, after he inherited
$3,000 (later bought Whiting out and changed the studio's name
to Hal Roach Studios).
April 12, 1992
- Euro Disneyland, $4 billion theme park, opened in
July 31, 1995
- Walt Disney Company agreed to acquire Capital Cities/ABC for
November 21, 1995
- Disney released Toy Story (by Pixar); first entirely
computer-animated feature; grossed $300 million in one year.
December 19, 1997
- ''Titanic,'' highest-grossing movie of all-time, opened in
American theaters; March 23, 1998 - won 11
Academy Awards, including best picture, best director and best
song; tied record set by 1959's ''Ben-Hur.''
20, 1998 - U.S. movie box office hit quickest $1 billion
for year (51 days).
September 10, 2000
- Broadway's longest-running production, "Cats," closed after
more than 7400 performances.
January 13, 2002
- Off-Broadway musical ''The Fantasticks'' performed for last
time, ended run of nearly 42 years, 17,162 shows.
September 8, 2003
- Recording Industry Association of America, music industry's
largest trade group, filed 261 copyright lawsuits across country
against Internet users for trading songs online; accused them of
unauthorized sharing of files containing copyrighted material.
- Average cost of producing a film = $63.6 million; average cost
of marketing = $34.4 million. Average total cost = $98 million.
Domestic box office sales = $9.54 billion; foreign ticket sales
+ $15.7 billion (up 44% since 2003). Source: American Motion
March 13, 2005 -
Robert Iger named to succeed Michael Eisner as chief executive
of Walt Disney Co.
October 16, 2005
- Centennial issue of Variety listed 100 top-grossing films
(not adjusted for inflation) of all time in $millions):
1) Titanic ($602 domestic, $1,250 international; 2) Rings:
Return of the King 2003 ($377, $742); 3) Harry Potter:
Sorcerer's Stone 2001 ($318, $656); 4) Rings: Two Towers ($342,
$545); 5) Star Wars I: Phantom Menace 1999 ($431, $492); 6)
Jurassic Park 1993 ($357, $563); 7) Shrek 2004 ($437, $479); 8)
Harry Potter: Chamber of Secrets 2002 ($262, $615); 9) Rings:
The Fellowship of the Ring 2001 ($315, $557); 100 Finding Nemo
2003 ($340, $526).
January 9, 2006
- The "Phantom of the Opera" completed performance number 7,486
= longest running show in Broadway history; highest-grossing
entertainment venture in history - worldwide box office
receipts of more than $3.2 billion (vs. $1.8 billion earned by
January 24, 2006
- Walt Disney announced it would acquire Pixar Animation
Studios in a $7.4 billion stock deal; Steve Jobs (purchased the
graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd. in 1986 for $10 million,
renamed it Pixar) became non-independent director of Disney and
Disney's largest individual shareholder.
- Rolling Stones's "Bigger Bang" tour = highest grossing (most
commercially successful) rock tour of all time: since August
2005 - played to 3.5 million fans in 110 shows, grossed over
$437 million (according to Billboard magazine); U2's
"Vertigo" tour econd highest grossing tour - grossed $333
million (expected to top out at $377 million); 2005
- Stones's tour recorded $162 million in 43 dates (record);
1994 - Rolling Stones's "Voodoo Lounge" tour recorded
sales of $121.1 million; 2003 - Bruce Springsteen
and the E Street Band grossed $115.9 million; 2001
- U2's "Elevation" tour generated sales of $109.7 million.
March 2008 -
Blender.com list of 20 worst mistakes in recording industry
history: 1) major labels squashed Napster; 2)
Decca Records A&R exec, Dick Rowe, passed on Beatles,
brushed off their manager, Brian Epstein; 3) Motown sold
for pittance; 4) post payola - labels paid to get airplay
for huge artists stations would have spun anyway; 5)
Recording Industry Association of America sued 30 year-old,
single mother of two, earning $36,000 a year, for illegally
sharing mp3 files of 24 songs; 6) 1978 - Casablanca label
shipped million copies of four solo albums by each member of
Kiss ("shipped platinum"); hundreds of thousands unsold,
returned; 7) 1962 - Bob Dylan got out of 1961 publishing
deal with Leeds/Duchess (returned $1,000 advance); new
publisher, M. Witmark & Sons, received 237 songs (worth $ tens
of millions in future) in first three years; 8) Warner
Music dropped Ice-T ("Cop Killer"); sold Interscope to rival
Universal which soon became biggest record company in world;
9) 2005 - Sony BMG sold millions of CDs with copy-protection
software that automatically installed a "rootkit" on users’ PCs;
accused of spying on customers’ listening habits, forced to pay
several million dollars to settle class-action lawsuits; 10)
Columbia Records signed Alicia Keys for reported $400,000, tried
to change her style; she left, signed with J Records, sold more
than 20 million albums; dumped 50 Cent after shot nine times;
became an unstoppable one-man money factory at Interscope;
11) David Geffen signed Neil Young; filed a $3 million
breach-of-contract suit for not making "Neil Young" types of
records; Young countersued for $21 million; settled out of
court; 12) 1998 - Geffen Records paid Axl Rose $1 million
to complete Guns N’ Roses (32 platinum hits) fifth album +
million more if delivered soon; album never completed, at cost
to Geffen of $13 million; 13) 1996 - Warner Bros. signed
R.E.M. to 5-album contract for reported $80 million; most costly
record deal in history, allowed R.E.M. to keep masters of all
Warner releases; generated one of lowest returns, forfeited
future revenues generated by band’s ’80s and early-’90s popular
songs; 14) 1960 - Jerry Wexler (Atlantic Records) signed
contract with Stax label president Jim Stewart to market,
distribute all Stax releases; 1967 - Atlantic became owner of
any Stax release it handled (indicated by 'fine print') as Stax
had signed away its catalogue and future; 15) 1999
- MCA gave Irish teen Carly Hennessy $100,000 advance, $5,000 a
month in living expenses, apartment in Marina Del Rey, CA, spent
roughly $2.2 million in all on her 2001 record debut; sold 378
copies, = label's cost of $5,820 per copy sold; 16) June
2001 - Reprise label (AOL Time Warner subsidiary) paid about
$300,000 for Wilco album; didn't like it, fired band, let band
keep masters to album; Wilco signed with Nonesuch (AOL Time
Warner subsidiary); AOL paid twice; Wilco’s best seller to date;
17) Thomas Edison's Edison Records made two fatal errors
- records worked only on Edison’s players, personal taste
governed releases (no jazz, waltzes and foxtrots); October 1929
- closed; 18) 2000 - BMG forced Clive Davis, founder of
Arista label in 1975, to retire (company policy); artists
complained loudly; BMG gave Davis own label, J Records, invested
$150 million; 2002 - BMG paid $50 million to buy J Record; 2004
- ousted Davis's successor at Arista, hired Davis as CEO of BMG
North America; 19) early 1980s - music industry phased
out vinyl singles in favor of cassettes and later, CDs;
abandoned singles completely; consumers stopped going to record
shops, illegally downloaded singles; 20) 1989 - A&R
department at MCA Records signed Pretty Boy Floyd for about $1
million; debut album peaked at No. 130 on Billboard charts;
- label dropped band; missed chance to sign Nirvana.
(Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater), Alvin
Ailey American Dance Theater; foreword by Wynton Marsalis; text
by Robert Tracy (2004).
Ailey Spirit: The Journey of an American Dance Company.
(New York, NY: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 155 p.). Alvin Ailey
American Dance Theater; Modern dance--United States--History;
Dancers--United States--Interviews. From small group of young dancers
traveling country in station wagon to what is widely considered
premier modern dance company in world, national cultural
Alvin Ailey (http://www.alvinailey.org/sites/default/files/Ailey_Mngmnt_AAiley%20%281%29_146x99.jpg)
(American Film Manufacturing), Timothy J.
The Silent Partner: The History of the American Film
Manufacturing Company, 1910-1921. (New York, NY: Arno
Press, 256 p.). American Film Manufacturing Company.
(American International), Mark Thomas McGee.
Fast and Furious: The Story of American International Pictures.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 264 p.). American International
(American International), Robert L. Ottoson
American International Pictures: A Filmography. (New
York, NY: Garland, 425 p.). American International Pictures
(Firm); Motion pictures--United States--Catalogs.
(American International), Mark Thomas McGee
Faster and Furiouser: The Revised and Fattened Fable of American
International Pictures. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 350
p.). American International Pictures (Firm).
(Apollo Theater), Jack Schiffman (1971).
Uptown; The Story of Harlem’s Apollo Theatre. (New York,
NY: Cowles Book Co., 210 p.). Apollo Theater (New York, NY:
125th Street); African Americans --New York (State) --New York
--Music --History and criticism; Popular music --New York
(State) --New York --History and criticism.
(Apollo Theater), Ralph Cooper with Steve
Amateur Night at the Apollo: Ralph Cooper
Presents Five Decades of Great Entertainment. (New York, NY:
HarperCollins Publishers, 260 p.). Apollo Theater (New York, NY:
125th Street); African Americans --New York (State) --New York
--Music --History and criticism; Popular music --New York
(State) --New York --History and criticism.
(Apollo Theater), Ted Fox (2003).
at the Apollo. (Rhinebeck, NY: Mill Road Enterprises, 328 p.
[rev. ed]). Apollo Theater (New York, N.Y. : 125th Street);
African American theater --New York (State) --New York --History
--20th century; African American entertainers --Interviews;
Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.) --New York
(State) --New York; New York (N.Y.) --Buildings, structures,
etc.; Harlem (New York, N.Y.) --History; New York (N.Y.)
(Apollo Theater), Eds. Richard Carlin,
Kinshasha Holman Conwill; Foreword by Smokey Robinson (2010).
Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing: How the Apollo Theater Shaped
American Entertainment. (Washington, DC: Smithsonian
Books, 255 p.). Music Writer and Editor; Deputy Director of the
Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and
Culture. Apollo Theater; Harlem -- history.
75 year history of
the Apollo Theater, Harlem's landmark performing arts space,
iconic showplace for best in jazz, blues, dance, comedy, gospel,
R & B, hip-hop, more since it opened in 1934; 24 writers discuss
theater's history, its intersection with larger social,
political issues within Harlem and nation; setting for soaring
achievement and creativity in face of enormous challenges;
celebration of lasting contributions of African Americans to
nation's cultural life.
(Atlantic Records), Charlie Gillett (1974).
Making Tracks; Atlantic Records and the Growth of a
Multi-Billion-Dollar Industry (New York, NY: Dutton, 305
p.). Atlantic Recording Corporation; Popular music--United
States--History and criticism.
Ahmet M. Ertegun -
(Atlantic Records), Dorothy Wade and Justine
Music Man: Ahmet Ertegun, Atlantic Records, and the Triumph of
Rock'n'roll (New York, NY: Norton, 303 p.). Ertegun,
Ahmet M.; Sound recording executives and producers--United
(Atlantic Records), Dan Kennedy (2008).
Rock On: How I Tried to Stop Caring About Music and Learn to
Love Corporate Rock. ( Chapel Hill, N.C: Algonquin
Books., 224 p.). Kennedy, Dan, 1967- ; Sound recording
executives and producers--United States--Biography.
2002 - wrote, produced ads for
Atlantic Records; absurdity of corporate music industry; endless
meetings with out of touch middle managers; 2004 - Warner Music
(parent company) acquired by Edgar Bronfman; refocus - from
selling music to selling "lifestyle", in form of merchandising;
triumph of corporate culture over rock ’n’ roll.
(Berger Amusement Company), Robert K. Krishef
Thank You, America: The Biography of Benjamin N. Berger.
(Minneapolis, MN: Dillon Press, 224 p.). Berger, Benjamin N.;
(Blue Note Records), Richard Cook
Blue Note Records: The Biography. (Boston, MA:
Justin, Charles & Co., 288 p.). Blue Note Records;
Jazz--History. History of label, from its 1939 start
producing hot jazz; development, rise, fall, rebirth;
life behind scenes.
(John Broadwood and Sons Limited), David
Broadwood by Appointment: A History. (London, UK:
Quiller, 360 p.). John Broadwood and Sons Limited; Piano makers
-- England -- London; Piano -- History.
(Buffalo Bill's Wild West Company), Sarah J.
Buckskins, Bullets, and Business: A History of Buffalo Bill's
Wild West. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 157 p.).
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917; Buffalo Bill's Wild West Company --
History; Entertainers -- United States -- Biography.
(Capitol Records), Paul Grein (1992).
Capitol Records Fiftieth Anniversary, 1942-1992
(Hollywood, CA: Capitol Records, 219 p.). Capitol Records, Inc.
(Capitol Records), Bruce Spizer; Foreword by
Alan Livingston (2000).
Beatles' Story on Capitol Records, Part Two: The Albums.
(New Orleans, LA: 498 Productions, L.LC., 2 vols.). Beatles
--Discography; Beatles --History --Chronology; Capitol Records,
Inc. --History. Group's Capitol albums
from "Meet The Beatles!" through "Magical Mystery Tour";
controversial butcher cover, "Sgt.
Pepper"; unique albums released by Capitol in Canada, Mexico;
where, how records and album covers manufactured; special mixes
appearing on Capitol albums.
(Capitol Records), Ken Nelson (2007).
My First 90 Years Plus 3. (Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Pub.
Co., 352 p.). Former Head of country Music division of Capitol
Records; Co-Founder Country Music Association. Nelson, Ken,
1911-2008; Sound recording executives and producers--United
States--Biography; Country music--History and criticism.
Natural talent for
spotting winners; produced many artists who are remembered as
giants; served two terms as President of Country Music
Association; retired as vice-president in charge of country and
western at Capital Records; inducted into Country Music Hall of
(Capitol Records), Charles Tillinghast (2008).
How Capitol Got the Beatles: and Then What Happened.
(Parker, CO: Outskirts Press, 100 p.). Former Head of the Law
Department of Capitol Records; point man for day-to-day
relations with the Beatles. Capitol Records; Beatles; recoding
contracts. How contract with The Beatles almost did not come
to pass, who really discovered Fab Four, ow strains in
personal relationships caused problems with the band's contract
negotiations; many bumps in ride taken by Capitol
and Beatles during years of their greatest productivity.
(Casablanca Records), Larry Harris, with Curt
Gooch and Jeff Suhs (2009).
And Party Every Day: The Inside Story of Casablanca Records.
(New York, NY: Backbeat Books, 310 p.). Co-Founder, Former vice
president and managing director of Casablanca Records. Scott,
Neil, 1943-1982; Casablanca Records --History; Sound recording
industry --United States --History; Popular music --United
States --History and criticism. 1974-1980 - no person, company
more emblematic of era of hedonism, self-indulgence than
Casablanca Records, its founder, Neil Bogart; signed KISS,
discovered Donna Summer, Village People, funk master George
Clinton, Parliament Funkadelic, descended into manic world of
disco; meteoric success, eventual collapse under weight of
uncontrolled ego, hype; ambition, greed, excess, some of the
era's biggest music acts.
(CBS Records/Sony Music), Walter Yetnikoff,
with David Ritz (2004).
Howling at the Moon: The Odyssey of a Monstrous Music Mogul in
an Age of Excess. (New York, NY: Broadway Books,
304 p.). Former President (15 years), CBS Records. Yetnikoff,
Walter, 1933- ; Sound recording executives and producers--United
States--Biography. Journey up corporate mountain, dance on
summit (sales rose from $485 million to over $2 billion),
crashed and burned in corporate coup.
(Chess Records), John Collis; [foreword by
Buddy Guy] (1998).
The Story of Chess Records (New York, NY: Bloomsbury
Pub., 192 p.). Chess Records (Firm); Sound recording industry --
United States -- History; Popular music -- United States --
History and criticism; African Americans -- Music -- History and
Leonard Chess (http://www.history-of-rock.com/small-leonard-chess.jpg)
(Chess Records), Nadine Cohodas (2000).
Spinning Blues into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary
Chess Records (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 358
p.). Chess, Leonard, 1917- ; Chess, Phil, 1921- ; Chess Records
(Firm); Sound recording executives and producers -- United
States -- Biography. Polish immigrants founded famous label in
Chicago after WW II.
(Chess Records), Rich Cohen (2004).
Machers and Rockers: Chess Records and the Business of Rock &
Roll. (New York, NY: Norton, 220 p.). Contributing
Editor (Rolling Stone). Chess, Leonard, 1917- ; Chess, Phil,
1921- ; Chess Records (Firm); Sound recording executives and
Ltd.), Christopher Pyke; illustrated by Kathryn Saunby
My Search for Montagu Pyke, Britain’s First Cinema King.
(Nottingham, UK, Snoek Pub., 234 p.). Pyke,
Montagu, 1874-1935; Pyke, Christopher, 1949-; Motion
picture theaters --Great Britain --History --20th
century; Motion picture industry --Great Britain
--History --20th century. Formerly commercial traveler,
gold miner, bankrupted stock market gambler, opened
London's first cinema in shop premises in Edgware Road;
huge success, built chain of 16 cinemas (last opened on
August 26, 1911 in London's West End; July 26, 1915 -
fire closed cinema, employee fatality; Pyke held
responsible for his death, found guilty of manslaughter;
declared bankruptcy, sold all cinemas.
(Cineplex Odeon), Garth Drabinsky with Marq de
Villiers (1995). Closer to the Sun: An Autobiography.
(Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 520 p.). Drabinsky, Garth,
1949- ; Cineplex Odeon Corporation; Live Entertainment of Canada
Inc.; Motion picture producers and directors--Canada--Biography;
Theatrical producers and directors--Canada--Biography;
(Cirque du Soleil), text by Tony Babinski; art
direction by Kristian Manchester. (2004).
Cirque du Soleil: 20 Years Under the Sun. (New York, NY:
Harry N. Abrams, 352 p.). Writer, Filmmaker, Musician based in
Montreal; Art Director with Diesel Design. Cirque du
Soleil--History; Circus--Québec (Province)--History.
Guy Laliberté - Cirque
(Claritone Sound), Garth Hopkins (1978).
Clairtone: The Rise and Fall of a Business Empire. (Toronto,
ON: McClelland and Stewart, 219 p.). Clairtone Sound Corporation
(Columbia Pictures), Bob Thomas (1967).
King Cohn; The Life and Times of Harry Cohn. (New York,
NY: Putnam, 381 p.). Cohn, Harry, 1891-1958.
- co-founder, Columbia Pictures
(Columbia Pictures), David McClintick (1982).
Indecent Exposure: A True Story of Hollywood and Wall Street.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 546 p.). Begelman, David; Robertson,
Cliff; Columbia Pictures Industries; Embezzlement--New York
(State)--New York; Motion picture actors and
actresses--California--Los Angeles; Extortion--New York
(State)--New York; Industries--California--Los Angeles;
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History. David Begelman,
(Columbia Pictures), Andrew Yule (1989).
Fast Fade: David Puttnam, Columbia Pictures, and the Battle for
Hollywood. (New York, NY: Delacorte Press, 376 p.).
Puttnam, David, 1941- ; Columbia Pictures; Motion picture
industry -- United States; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --
Biography; Motion picture producers and directors -- Great
Britain -- Biography.
(Columbia Pictures), Clive Hirschhorn (1990).
The Columbia Story (New York, NY: Crown, 400 p.).
(Columbia Pictures), Bernard F. Dick, editor
Columbia Pictures: Portrait of a Studio (Lexington, KY:
University Press of Kentucky, 293 p.). Columbia
(Columbia Pictures), Bernard F. Dick (1993).
The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia
Pictures. (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky,
218 p.). Cohn, Harry, 1891-1958; Columbia Pictures
Corporation--History; Motion picture producers and
(Columbia Pictures), Nancy Griffin and Kim
Hit and Run: How Jon Peters and Peter Guber Took Sony for a Ride
in Hollywood. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 479 p.).
Peters, Jon; Guber, Peter; Guber-Peters Company; Columbia
Pictures; Motion picture producers and directors--United
(Columbia Pictures), Bob Thomas ; [foreword by
Peter Bart] (2000).
King Cohn: The Life and Times of Hollywood Mogul Harry Cohn.
(Beverly Hills, CA: New Millenium Press, 376 p. [orig. pub.
1967]). Cohn, Harry, 1891-1958; Motion picture producers and
(Columbia Records), Gary Marmorstein (2007).
The Label: The Story of Columbia Records. (New York, NY:
Thunder's Mouth, 602 p.). Film and Music Critic. Columbia
Records; Sound recording executives and producers--United
States. Cultural history
of influential media company.
(Creation Records), Paolo Hewitt (2000).
Alan McGee and The Story of Creation Records: This Ecstasy
Romance Cannot Last. (Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream,
208 p.). McGee, Alan; Creation Records (Firm); Sound recording
executives and producers--Great Britain--Biography.
(Death Row Records), Ronin Ro (1998).
Have Gun Will Travel: The Spectacular Rise and Violent Fall of
Death Row Records. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 372 p.).
Death Row Records--History; Rap (Music)--History and criticism;
Popular culture--United States.
(Death Row Records), Jake Brown (2001).
Suge Knight: The Rise, Fall, and Rise of Death Row Records: The
Story of Marion "Suge" Knight, a Hard Hitting Study of One Man,
One Company That Changed the Course of American Music Forever.
(Los Angeles, CA: Colossus Books, 218 p.). Knight, Suge; Knight,
Suge--Imprisonment; Death Row Records; Sound recording
executives and producers--California--Los Angeles--Biography.
(Death Row Records), Ronin Ro (2007).
Dr. Dre: The Biography, the Rise, Fall, and Rise of Andre Young.
(New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 336 p.). Dr. Dre; Young,
Andre; Death Row Records--History; Rap (Music); Aftermath
Entertainment; Sound recording executives and
Rise, fall, resurrection of
one of biggest names in rap music.
(Def Jam Records), Kevin Liles; with Samantha
Make It Happen: The Hip Hop Guide to Success. (New York,
NY: Atria Books, 256 p.). Former President, Def Jam records.
Success in business--Handbooks, manuals, etc.
(Disney), Bob Thomas (1976).
Walt Disney: An American Original. (New York, NY: Simon
& Schuster, 379 p.). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966.
Walt Disney (http://images.businessweek.com/ss/08/06/0603_efficacy/image/waltdisney.jpg)
(Disney), Leonard Mosley (1985).
Disney's World: A Biography. (New York, NY: Stein and
Day, 330 p.). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United
(Disney), Richard Schickel (1985).
The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art, and Commerce of Walt
Disney. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 449 p. [rev.
and updated]). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966.
(Disney), John Taylor (1987).
Storming the Magic Kingdom: Wall Street, the Raiders, and the
Battle for Disney. (New York, NY: Knopf, 261 p.). Walt
Disney Productions--Reorganization; Consolidation and merger of
corporations--United States--Case studies; Tender offers
(Securities)--United States--Case studies; Corporate
reorganizations--United States--Case studies.
(Disney), Richard Holliss, Brian Sibley
The Disney Studio Story. (New York, NY: Crown, 256
p.). Walt Disney Company--History.
(Disney), Joe Flower (1991).
Prince of the Magic Kingdom: Michael Eisner and the Re-Making of
Disney. (New York, NY: Wiley, 309 p.). Eisner, Michael,
1942- ; Walt Disney Company -- History; Walt Disney Productions
-- Reorganization; Chief executive officers -- United States --
(Disney), Ron Grover (1991).
The Disney Touch: How a Daring Management Team Revived an
Entertainment Empire. (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin,
315 p.). Eisner, Michael, 1942- ; Walt Disney Company --
(Disney), Marc Eliot (1993).
Walt Disney: Hollywood's Dark Prince: A Biography.
(Secaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 305 p.). Disney, Walt,
1901-1966; Animators--United States--Biography; Hollywood (Los
(Disney), Michael D. Eisner with Tony Schwartz
Work in Progress: Risking Failure, Surviving Success.
(New York, NY: Random House, 450 p.). Eisner, Michael, 1942- ;
Walt Disney Company -- History; Chief executive officers --
United States -- Biography.
(Disney), Peter Schweizer, Rochelle Schweizer
Disney: The Mouse Betrayed: Greed, Corruption, and Children at
Risk. (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 374 p.). Walt
Disney Company--Corrupt practices.
(Disney), Bob Thomas (1998).
Building a Company: Roy O. Disney and the Creation of an
Entertainment Empire (New York, NY: Hyperion, 359 p.).
Disney, Roy O. (Roy Oliver), 1893-1971; Walt Disney Productions;
Chief executive officers--United States--Biography.
(Disney), Henry A. Giroux (1999).
The Mouse That Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence.
(Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 186 p.). Walt Disney
Company--History; Popular culture--United States.
(Disney), Dave Smith, Steven Clark (1999).
Disney: The First 100 Years. (New York, NY: Hyperion,
197 p.). Walt Disney Company--History.
(Disney), Sean Griffin (2000).
Tinker Belles and Evil Queens: The Walt Disney Company from the
Inside Out. (New York, NY: New York University Press,
292 p.). Walt Disney Company; Walt Disney Company--History;
Homosexuality and motion pictures; Gays--History;
(Disney), Kim Masters (2000).
The Keys to the Kingdom: How Michael Eisner Lost His Grip.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 469 p.). Reporter Covering Hollywood for
Time and Vanity Fair. Eisner, Michael, 1942-; Walt Disney
Company--History; Chief executive officers--United
(Disney), Richard E. Foglesong. (2001).
Married to the Mouse: Walt Disney World and Orlando (New
Haven, CT: Yale University Press). Professor of Politics
(Rollins College). City planning--Florida--Orlando; Urban
policy--Florida--Orlando; Walt Disney World (Fla.)--Planning.
(Disney), Douglas Brode (2004).
From Walt to Woodstock: How Disney Created the Counterculture.
(Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 252 p.). Teaches Cinema
Studies at the Newhouse School of Public Communications
(Syracuse University). Walt Disney Company;
Counterculture--United States--History--20th century.
(Disney), Harrison "Buzz" Price (2004).
Walt’s Revolution!: By the Numbers. (Orlando,
FL: Ripley Entertainment, 336 p.). "Dean of Recreation
Economics". Disneyland (Calif.) --Planning; Walt Disney
World (Fla.) --Planning; Disneyland (Calif.) --Economic
aspects; Walt Disney World (Fla.) --Economic aspects.
(Disney), Douglas Brode (2005).
Multiculturalism and the Mouse: Race and Sex in Disney
Entertainment. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Teaches Cinema Studies at the Newhouse School of Public
Communications (Syracuse University). Walt Disney Company;
Minorities in motion pictures. Disney promoted diversity decades before concept
became popular in 1990s.
(Disney), James B. Stewart (2005).
DisneyWar: The Battle for the Magic Kingdom. (New York,
NY: Simon & Schuster, 572 p.). Pulitzer-Prize Winning
Journalist. Eisner, Michael, 1942-; Walt Disney
(Disney), Neal Gabler (2006).
Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination.
(New York, NY: Knopf, 880 p.). Senior Fellow at the Norman Lear
Center for the Study of Entertainment and Society in the
Annenberg School for Communications (University of Southern
California). Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United
States--Biography. Transformed animation
from novelty based on movement to art form that presented an
illusion of life; synergistic empire; combined film, television,
theme parks, music, book publishing, merchandise in a way that
was unprecedented, later widely imitated.
(Disney), Michael Barrier (2007).
The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney. (Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press, 411 p). Animation Historian.
Disney, Walt, 1901-1966; Animators--United States--Biography.
Midwestern farm boy to
scrambling young businessman to pioneering artist to
entrepreneur on grand scale; flawed but imaginative leaps
vaulted him ahead of competition.
(Disney), Lee Cockerell (2008).
Creating Magic: 10 Common Sense Leadership Strategies from a
Life at Disney. (New York, NY: Currency Doubleday, 270
p.). Executive Vice President of Operations for Walt Disney
World. Walt Disney Company --Management; Leadership; Corporate
culture; Organizational effectiveness; Walt Disney World
(Fla.)--Planning. Leadership principles; ten practical, common sense strategies:
everyone is important; make your people your brand; burn free
fuel: appreciation, recognition, encouragement; give people a
purpose, not just job.
(Disney), J.P. Telotte (2008).
The Mouse Machine: Disney and Technology. (Urbana, IL:
University of Illinois Press, 221 p.). Professor of Film and
Media Studies (Georgia Institute of Technology). Walt Disney
Company; Motion picture industry --Technological innovations;
Television --Technological innovations; Amusement parks
--Technological innovations. Technological
context for Disney creations: stereophonic surround sound,
wide-screen technology, three-strip Technicolor film, depth in
animated image; partnership with television, theme park,
technology in science fiction; digital filmmaking, digital
special effects; extraordinary growth.
Denver Emerson (2010).
Project Future: The Inside Story Behind the Creation of
Disney World. (Pike Road, AL: Ayefour
Publishing, 204 p.). Professor of Law (Faulkner
University). Walt Disney Company; Disney World; Florida
-- history. How Walt Disney World Resort,
code-named Project Future in the
from marshes of Central Florida to become one of world's
most popular theme park resorts; how, why Disney ended
up here; how, why Walt Disney selected Central Florida.
(Disney), Timothy S. Susanin (2011).
Walt Before Mickey: Disney’s Early Years, 1919-1928.
(Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 384 p.).
General Counsel of a Fortune 500 Company. Disney, Walt,
1901-1966; Animators --United States --Biography.
critical, formative years started Disney's career, gave
him skills to become name known worldwide (from age 17
to cusp of international renown); struggled with, failed
at, eventually mastered art and business of animation
for ten years before creating Mickey Mouse; served in
Red Cross in France after World War I, worked for
advertising and commercial art in Kansas City; created
four studios (Kaycee Studios, Laugh-O-gram Films, Disney
Brothers Studio, Walt Disney Studio); complicated,
(Disneyland), Randy Bright; foreword by Michael
Disneyland: Inside Story. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams,
240 p.). Disneyland (Calif.)--History.
(Disneyland), David Koenig; foreword by Art
Mouse Tales: A Behind-the-Ears Look at Disneyland.
(Irvine, CA: Bonaventure Press, 239 p.). Amusement
parks--California--History; Disneyland (Calif.)--History.
(Disneyland), David Koenig; foreword by Van
Arsdale France. (1999).
More Mouse Tales: A Closer Peek Backstage at Disneyland.
(Irvine, CA: Bonaventure Press, 237 p.). Amusement
parks--California--History; Disneyland (Calif.)--History.
(Disneyland), Robert R. Reynolds. (1999).
Roller Coasters, Flumes & Flying Saucers: The Story of Ed Morgan
& Carl Bacon, Ride Inventors of the Modern Amusement Parks.
(Jupiter, FL: Northern Lights Pub., 192 p.). Morgan, Ed; Bacon,
Karl; Arrow Development (Firm)--History; Amusement rides--United
States--History; Amusement ride equipment industry--United
States--History; Inventors--United States--Biography; Disneyland
(Walt Disney Records), Tim Hollis and Greg
Mouse Tracks: The Story of Walt Disney Records.
(Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 221 p.). Walt
Disney Records--History; Sound recording industry--United
States; Popular music--United States--History and criticism.
Fifty-year history of Disney recording companies launched by Walt Disney and Roy O.
Disney in mid-1950s.
(Dreamworks), Nicole Laporte (2010).
The Men Who Would Be King: An Almost Epic Tale of Moguls,
Movies, and a Company Called Dreamworks. (Boston, MA,
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 512 p.). Former Film Reporter for
Variety, West Coast Reporter (The Daily Beast). Spielberg,
Steven, 1946-; Katzenberg, Jeffrey, 1950-; Dreamworks Pictures
--History; Geffen, David. Hollywood’s bizarre rules of business;
clashes between Spielberg’s troops,
Katzenberg’s warriors, debacles and disasters; Oscar-winning
triumphs; studio burned through billions, rich owners got richer, everybody else suffered; Geffen seduced
investors, showed steel against CAA’s
Michael Ovitz, staged fireworks during negotiations with
(ECM Records), Eds. Steve Lake and Paul
Horizons Touched: The Music of ECM. (London, UK: Granta,
448 p.). ECM Employee; Former Opera Critic (New York Times). ECM
Records; Eicher, Manfred; jazz--History.
Portrait of label, its artists,
their music; celebrates, reflects on ways in which ECM has
grown, changed from origins in jazz to contemporary classical,
from medieval chant to free jazz and traditional folk music from
Manfred Eicher -
founder ECM Records
(Edison Manufacturing Company), Charles Musser
Before the Nickelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison
Manufacturing Company. (Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 591 p.). Porter, Edwin S. -- Criticism and
interpretation; Thomas A. Edison, Inc.; Silent films -- United
States -- History and criticism; Motion pictures -- United
States -- History.
(Embassy Theatre), Dyne L. Pfeffenberger; with
contributions by Marlyn E. Koons and Kathleen E. Skiba (2009).
The Historic Fort Wayne Embassy Theatre. (Bloomington,
IN: Indiana University Press, 120 p.). Former Professor Emeritus
of Accounting (Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne).
Embassy Theatre (Fort Wayne, Ind.); Historic buildings
--Conservation and restoration --Indiana --Fort Wayne; Motion
picture theaters --Conservation and restoration --Indiana --Fort
Wayne; Fort Wayne (Ind.) --Buildings, structures, etc.
from demolition, subsequent restoration of Fort Wayne's largest
movie palace, vaudeville house; famous for its Grande Page Pipe
Organ; restored as performing arts center, venue
for Broadway shows.
(Essanay Film Manufacturing Co.), David Kiehn
Broncho Billy and the Essanay Film Company.
(Berkeley, CA: Farwell Books 436 p.). Film Historian. Anderson,
Gilbert M., 1882-1971; Essanay Film Manufacturing Co. --History;
Western films --United States --History and criticism.
in 1907 in Chicago by George K. Spoor and Gilbert M. ("Bronchjo
Billy") Anderson originally as Peerless Film Manufacturing
Company; August 10, 1907 - name changed to Essanay ("S and A");
April 1912 - 52 members of Essanay Film Manufacturing Company
arrived by train in Niles, CA (part of Frermont, CA, population
1400); June 11, 1913 - director Lloyd Ingraham inaugurated new
studio with first production; December 1914 - signed Charlie
Chaplin (yearly income, including bonus, of $75,000; each of his
films brought in around $125,000); December 1915 - Spoor
rejected Chaplin’s salary demands (went elsewhere); acquired
Anderson's interest; February 16, 1916 - ordered to close.
(Euro Disneyland), Andrew Lainsbury (2000).
Once Upon an American Dream: The Story of Euro Disneyland.
(Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 292 p.). Walt Disney
Company -- Finance; Euro Disneyland (Marne-la-Vallée, France) --
History; Popular culture -- France -- American influences.
(Estey Organ Company), Dennis G. Waring
Manufacturing the Muse: Estey Organs & Consumer Culture in
Victorian America. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University
Press, 356 p.). Estey Organ Company; Reed organ United States;
Popular culture United States History 19th century.
(Fender Musical Instruments), Forrest White
Fender: The Inside Story. (San Francisco, CA: GPI Books,
258 p.). Fender, Leo, 1909-1991; Fender Musical
Instruments--History; Fender guitar--Construction; Electric
Leo Fender - Fender
(Fender Musical Instruments), John Teagle &
John Sprung (1995).
Fender Amps: The First Fifty Years. (Milwaukee, WI: H.
Leonard, 256 p.). Fender Musical Instruments--History;
Guitar--Electronic equipment; Audio amplifiers.
(Fender Musical Instruments), Richard R. Smith
Fender: The Sound Heard 'Round the World. (Fullerton,
CA: Garfish Pub. Co., 304 p.). Fender, Leo, 1909-1991; Fender
Musical Instruments--History; Fender guitar--History; Fender
(Fender Musical Instruments), Tony Bacon;
chronology compiled by Paul Day (2000).
50 Years of Fender. (London, UK: Balafon, 128 p.).
Fender Musical Instruments--History; Fender guitar--History;
Electric guitar--History; Guitar--History.
(Geffen Records), Stephen Singular (1997).
The Rise and Rise of David Geffen. (Secaucus, NJ: Carol
Pub. Group, 250 p.). Geffen, David, 1943- ; Motion picture
producers and directors--United States--Biography;
(Geffen Records), Tom King (2000).
The Operator: David Geffen Builds, Buys and Sells the New
Hollywood. (New York, NY: Random House, 670 p.). Geffen,
David, 1943-; Motion picture producers and directors--United
States--Biography; Executives--United States--Biography.
(Gibson Inc.), Walter Carter (1994).
Gibson Guitars: 100 Years of an American Icon. (Los
Angeles, CA: General Pub. Group, 314 p.). Gibson, inc.--History;
Guitar--History; Mandolin--History; Banjo--History.
(Goldcrest Films), Jake Eberts and Terry Ilott
My Indecision Is Final: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of
Goldcrest Films, the Independent Studio that Challenged
Hollywood. (New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 678
p.). Goldcrest Films and Television--History; Motion picture
(Hammer Film Productions), Denis Meikle
A History of Horrors: The Rise and Fall of the House of Hammer.
(Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 420 p.). Hammer Film Productions;
Horror films--Great Britain--History and criticism.
(Hammer Film Productions), Marcus Hearn & Alan
The Hammer Story. (London, UK: Titan Books, 191 p. [rev.
ed.]). Hammer Film Productions--History. One of the world's most
famous horror film studios. Legendary British film studio
changed face of horror cinema, inspired generation of Hollywood
(Hanna-Barbera), Joseph Barbera (1994).
My Life in ’Toons: From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century.
(Atlanta, GA: Turner Pub., 250 p.). Co-Founder Hanna-Barbera
Productions. Barbera, Joseph; Animators--United
(Harcourt General), Bettye H. Pruitt with
assistance from George D. Smith (1994).
The Making of Harcourt General: A History of Growth Through
Diversification, 1922-1992. (Boston, MA: Harvard
Business School Press, 310 p.). Professor (Harvard Business
School). Diversification, Harcourt Brace, General Cinema.
(HBO), George Mair (1988).
Inside HBO: The Billion Dollar War Between HBO, Hollywood, and
the Home Video Revolution. (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead,
204 p.). Home Box Office (Firm); Cable television -- United
States; Motion picture industry -- United States.
(Ibbs and Tillett), Christopher Fifield
Ibbs and Tillett: The Rise and Fall of a Musical Empire.
(Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 678 p.). Ibbs and Tillett; Concert
agents--England--Biography. Benchmark in highly competitive
world of artist management and concert promotion.
(Impulse Records), Ashley Kahn (2006).
The House that Trane Built: The Story of Impulse Records.
(New York, NY: Norton, 352 p.). Coltrane, John, 1926-1967;
Impulse Records--History; Sound recording industry--United
States; Jazz--History and criticism. Evolution of
record industry through tumultuous 1960s.
(Island Records), Chris Salewicz (2009).
Keep on Running: The Story of Island Records. (London,
UK: Universal-Island Records Limited, 226 p.). Blackwell, Chris;
Island records--history; Recording label--history.
by some of UK's most renowned writers tell
story of independent label, its art (visual style), its artists.
(Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival), Norton Owen;
foreword by Sali Ann Kriegsman (1997).
A Certain Place: The Jacob’s Pillow Story. (Becket, MA:
Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival, 51 p.). Shawn, Ted, 1891-1972;
Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival; Dance festivals--Massachusetts.
This publication has been made possible by a grant from Philip
Morris Companies Inc., celebrating 25 years of dance support.
(JBL), John M. Eargle (2007).
The JBL Story: 60 Years of Audio Innovation. (Milwaukee,
WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 326 p.). James B. Lansing Sound--History;
Sound--Equipment and supplies--History; Sound--Recording and
reproducing--United States--History; Audio equipment
industry--United States--History. Amplified sound applied in almost
every aspect of life - from home to concert hall; most
recognized audio brand in world.
(W. W. Kimball), Van Allen Bradley (1957).
Music for the Millions; The Kimball Piano and Organ Story.
(Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co., 334 p.). Kimball, William Wallace,
1828-1904; W.W. Kimball Company; Piano--Construction;
Piano--History. Founded 1857 in Chicago.
(Lucasfilm, Ltd.), Charles Champlin (1997).
George Lucas: The Creative Impulse: Lucasfilm's First
Twenty-Five Years. (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 232
p. [rev. and updated]). Lucas, George, 1944- ; Lucasfilm, Ltd.
(Lucasfilm Ltd.), Michael Rubin (2005).
Droidmaker: George Lucas and the Digital Revolution.
(Gainesville, FL: Triad Publishing, 518 p.). Former Member of
the Lucasfilm Computer Division. Lucas, George, 1944- ;
Lucasfilm, Ltd. Genesis of modern media, era of technological
innovation; inside story of George Lucas, his intensely private
company, work to revolutionize filmmaking; birth of Pixar,
digital video editing, videogame avitars, THX sound, other icons
of media age; tale of friendships, love of movies, incessant
forward movement of technology.
(Ludwig Drum Company), William F. Ludwig II
The Making of a Drum Company: The Autobiography of William F.
Ludwig II. (Indianapolis, IN: Rebeats Press, 128 p.).
Ludwig, William F. II; Musical instruments industry; drums.
(Mandalay Entertainment Group), Peter M.
Tell to Win: Connect, Persuade, and Triumph with the Hidden
Power of Story. (New York, NY: Crown Business, 272
p.). Chairman and CEO of Mandalay
Entertainment Group. Storytelling; persuasion; selling.
powerful storytelling can be
ultimate tool to get meeting, engage listener, close deal; power of well-crafted story or appeal; power of metaphor
in crafting core narrative of pitch or advertising campaign.
(C. F. Martin & Co.), Philip F. Gura
C.F. Martin & His Guitars, 1796-1873. (Chapel
Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 250 p.).
William S. Newman Distinguished Professor of American
Literature and Culture (University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill). Martin, C. F. (Christian Frederick),
1796-1873; C.F. Martin & Co.; Guitar makers United
States. Nineteenth-century American music trade; German immigrant became
finest American guitar maker of his time; humble origins
as importer, repairman of musical instruments in New
York City in 1830s
to Nazareth, PA; founded of C. F. Martin & Company in
1833, survived, prospered
through rapid economic expansion, industrialization.
(C. F. Martin & Co.), Richard Johnston and &
Dick Boak (2008).
Martin Guitars: A History. (New York, NY: Hal Leonard
Press, 220 p. [rev., updated; orig. publ. 1975]). C.F. Martin &
Co.; Martin guitar --History. People,
places, stories of American icon; early days in New York, circa
1833, to fifth-generation president Chris Martin IV;
re-vitalization of 1990s, sustenance of its legacy;
people, guitars that made company famous.
(Mascot Pictures), Jon Tuska (1982).
The Vanishing Legion: aA History of Mascot Pictures, 1927-1935.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 215 p.). Mascot Pictures (Firm).
(MCA), William Knoedelseder (1993).
Stiffed: A True Story of MCA, the Music Business, and the Mafia.
(New York, NY: HarperCollins, 480 p.). Former Reporter (Los
Angeles Times). MCA Inc.; Sound recording industry--Corrupt
practices--United States; Mafia--United States.
- founder MCA
(MCA), Dennis McDougal (1998).
The Last Mogul: Lew Wasserman, MCA, and the Hidden History of
Hollywood. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 560 p.).
Wasserman, Lew; MCA Inc.--History; Chief executive
(MCA), Connie Bruck (2003).
When Hollywood Had a King: The Reign of Lew Wasserman, Who
Leveraged Talent into Power and Influence. (New York,
NY: Random House, 514 p.). Wasserman, Lew; Music Corporation of
America--History; Chief executive officers--United
(MCA), Kathleen Sharp (2003).
Mr. & Mrs. Hollywood: Edie and Lew Wasserman and Their
Entertainment Empire. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf
Publishers, 597 p.). Award-Winning Journalist. Wasserman, Lew;
Wasserman, Edie; Music Corporation of America; Chief executive
(Merchant Ivory Productions), John Pym;
comments by James Ivory (1983).
The Wandering Company: Twenty-One Years of Merchant Ivory Films.
(London, UK: British Film Institute, 102 p.). Merchant Ivory
Productions -- History; Motion pictures; India (Republic) Cinema
(MGM), Bosley Crowther (1957).
The Lion's Share; The Story of an Entertainment Empire.
(New York, NY: Dutton, 320 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion
Louis B. Mayer
(MGM), Bosley Crowther (1960).
Hollywood Rajah; The Life and Times of Louis B. Mayer.
(New York, NY: Holt, 339 p.). Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt),
(MGM), Dial Torgerson (1974).
Kerkorian: An American Success Story. (New York, NY:
Dial Press, 306 p.). Kerkorian, Kirk, 1917-.
(MGM), John Douglas Eames (1975).
The MGM Story: The Complete History of Fifty Roaring Years.
(New York, NY: Crown, 400 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
(MGM), Carol Easton (1976).
The Search for Sam Goldwyn; A Biography. (New York, NY:
Morrow, 304 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974; Motion picture
producers and directors--United States--Biography.
(MGM), Arthur Marx (1976).
Goldwyn: A Biography of the Man Behind the Myth. (New
York, NY: Norton, 376 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974.
(MGM), Gary Carey (1981).
All the Stars in Heaven: Louis B. Mayer's M-G-M. (New
York, NY: Dutton, 320 p.). Mayer, Louis B. (Louis Burt),
1885-195; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion picture producers and
directors -- United States -- Biography.
(MGM), Michael Freedland (1986).
The Goldwyn Touch: A Biography of Sam Goldwyn. (London,
UK: Harrap, 264 p.). Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974; Motion picture
producers and directors--United States--Biography.
(MGM), A. Scott Berg (1989).
Goldwyn: A Biography. (New York, NY: Knopf, 579 p.).
Goldwyn, Samuel, 1882-1974; Motion picture producers and
(MGM), Peter Bart (1990).
Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM. (New York,
NY: Morrow, 304 p.). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
(MGM), Peter Hay with Woolsey Ackerman ... [et
MGM--When the Lion Roars. (Atlanta, GA: Turner Pub., 335
(MGM), Diana Altman (1992).
Hollywood East: Louis B. Mayer and the Origins of the Studio
System. (New York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 302 p.). Mayer,
Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957; Motion picture
(MGM), Charles Higham (1993).
Merchant of Dreams: Louis B. Mayer, M.G.M., and the Secret
Hollywood. (New York, NY: D. I. Fine, 488 p.). Mayer,
Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion
picture producers and directors--United States--Biography.
(MGM), Roland Flamini (1994).
Thalberg: The Last Tycoon and the World of M-G-M.
(New York, NY: Crown 309 p.). Thalberg, Irving G., 1899-1936;
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Motion picture producers and directors
--United States --Biography. Head of
Universal Studio at 20, MGM's production chief at 23; supervised
more than 400 movies; complex relationship with MGM partner
Louis B. Mayer, battles over censorship with Hays office,
attempt to turn his wife, Norma Shearer, into first lady of
(MGM), Scott Eyman (2005).
Lion of Hollywood; The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer.
(New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 596 p.). Film Historian. Mayer,
Louis B. (Louis Burt), 1885-1957; Motion picture producers and
(MGM), Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester,
Michael Troyan (2010).
MGM: Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot. (Santa
Monica, CA Santa Monica Press, 312 p. ). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Founded 1924 - by 1934, MGM had more than
4,000 employees, including 61 stars and feature players, 17
directors and 51 writers, all under exclusive contracts; 1941 -
178 people worked in costume building, oversaw 250,000 designs from
almost every historical period; "The Wizard of Oz" (1939) cost
$2,796,230.30 ("over budget" by
$1,048,07); MGM's decline - bad management and the collapse of
the Hollywood studio system; 1970 - final auction of what was
once the most storied studio in Hollywood.
(C. F. Martin), Philip F. Gura (2003).
C.F. Martin & His Guitars, 1796-1873. (Chapel Hill, NC:
University of North Carolina Press, 250 p.). William S. Newman
Distinguished Professor of American Literature and Culture
(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). Martin, C. F.
(Christian Frederick), 1796-1873; C.F. Martin & Co.; Guitar
makers United States.
(Metropolitan Opera), Joseph Volpe with
Charles Michener (2006).
The Toughest Show on Earth: My Rise and Reign at the
Metropolitan Opera. (New York, NY: Knopf, 320 p.).
General Manager of Metropolitan Opera (16 years). Volpe, Joseph;
Metropolitan Opera (New York, N.Y.); Opera producers and
directors--United States--Biography. New York and business of culture;
vast egos, complicated politics, glittering past.
(Microsoft), Dean Takahashi (2002).
Opening the XBox: Inside Microsoft's Plan to Unleash an
Entertainment Revolution. (Roseville, CA: Prima, 370
p.). Senior Writer (Red Herring magazine). Microsoft
Corporation; Electronic games industry--United States; Video
games--Equipment and supplies.
(Harry M. Miller Group), Harry M. Miller as
told to Denis O'Brien (1983).
My Story. (South Melbourne, AU: Macmillan, 322 p.).
Miller, Harry M. (Harry Maurice), 1934- ;
Entrepreneurship--Biography. Brought Rolling Stones to
Australia, rock operas, Judy Garland, etc.
(Miramax Films), Peter Biskind (2004).
Down and Dirty Pictures: Miramax, Sundance, and the Rise of
Independent Film. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 560
p.). Miramax Films--History; Sundance Film Festival--History;
Independent filmmakers--United States.
(Motion Picture Association of America), Jack
This Time, This Place: My Life in War, the White House, and
Hollywood. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 416 p.).
President, Motion Picture Association of America. Valenti, Jack;
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973 --Friends and
associates; Motion Picture Association of America--Biography;
United States. Army. Air Corps--Biography; Political
consultants--United States--Biography; Executives--United
States--Biography; Motion picture industry--California--Los
Angeles--History; Air pilots, Military--United
States--Biography; United States--Politics and
government--1963-1969; Houston (Tex.)--Biography.
Earned both Distinguished Flying
Cross and his own star on Hollywood Walk of Fame; helped
to shape politics, entertainment in second half of
Jack Valenti - Motion
(Motown Record Corporation), Nelson George
Where Did Our Love Go?: The Rise & Fall of the Motown Sound.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 250 p.). Motown Record
Corporation; Soul music--History and criticism; Afro-American
Berry Gordy, Jr.
(Motown Record Corporation), Don Waller
The Motown Story. (New York, NY: Scribner, 256 p.).
Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording industry--United
(Motown Record Corporation), Sharon Davis
Motown: The History. (Enfield, Middlesex, UK: Guiness
Pub., 368 p.). Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording
(Motown Record Corporation), Berry Gordy
To Be Loved: The Music, the Magic, the Memories of Motown: An
Autobiography. (New York, NY: Warner Books, 432 p.).
Gordy, Berry; Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording
executives and producers--United States--Biography.
(Motown Record Corporation), Bill Dahl (2001).
Motown: The Golden Years. (Iola, WI: Krause, 349 p.).
Motown Record Corporation--History; Soul music--History and
criticism; Soul musicians--United States.
(Motown Record Corporation), Gerald Posner
Motown: Money, Power, Sex, and Music. (New York, NY:
Random House, 350 p.). Former Wall Street Lawyer. Gordy, Berry;
Motown Record Corporation; Sound recording industry--United
States; Sound recording executives and producers--United
(Music Hall-Portsmouth), Zhana Morris and
Trevor F. Bartlett (2003).
The Music Hall, Portsmouth. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia,
128 p.). Music Hall (Portsmouth, NH); Performing arts--New
New Hampshire's oldest operating
theater - Twain spoke from her stage, Sousa's brass echoed from
her walls, Edison's films brought her silver screen to life.
(Napster), John Alderman; foreword by Evan I.
Schwartz; preface by Herbie Hancock (2001).
Sonic Boom: Napster, MP3, and the New Pioneers of Music.
(Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 205 p.). Napster, Inc.; Sound
recording industry--United States; MP3 (Audio coding standard).
(Oxford University Dramatic Society), Humphrey
Carpenter; with a prologue by Robert Robinson (1985).
OUDS: A Centenary History of the Oxford University Dramatic
Society, 1885-1985. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 227 p.). Oxford University Dramatic Society.
(Palace Pictures), Angus Finney (1996).
The Egos Have Landed: The Rise and Fall of Palace Pictures
(London, UK: Heinemann, 321 p.). Palace Pictures--History;
Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History.
(Paramount Pictures), Will Irwin (1928).
The House that Shadows Built. (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, Doran & Company, inc., 293 p.). Zukor, Adolph, 1873-
; Motion pictures--History.
W.W. Hodkinson -
11, 1976 Obituary:
Jesse L. Lasky - Paramount
(Paramount Pictures), Adolph Zukor, with Dale
The Public Is Never Wrong; The Autobiography of Adolph Zukor,
with Dale Kramer. (New York, NY: Putnam, 309 p.). Zukor,
Adolph, 1873-1976; Motion pictures--History.
(Paramount Pictures), I. G. Edmonds and Reiko
Paramount Pictures and the People Who Made Them.
(San Diego, CA: A. S. Barnes, 272 p.). Paramount Pictures
(Paramount Pictures), Bernard F. Dick (2001).
Engulfed: The Death of Paramount Pictures and the Birth of
Corporate Hollywood (Lexington, KY: University Press of
Kentucky, 269 p.). Paramount Pictures Corporation--History.
(Paramount Pictures), John Douglas Eames and
Robert Abele (2002).
The Paramount Story. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, p.
[orig. pub. 1985]). Paramount Pictures, inc.; Paramount Pictures
(Philadelphia International Records), John A.
A House on Fire: The Rise and Fall of Philadelphia Soul.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 338 p.). Gamble, Kenny;
Huff, Leon; Bell, Thom; Philadelphia
soul--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia--History and criticism.
(Pixar), Karen Paik; based on interviews and
research by Leslie Iwerks; foreword by John Lasseter, Steve
Jobs, and Ed Catmull (2007).
To Infinity and Beyond!: The Story of Pixar Animation Studios.
(San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 320 p.). Pixar (Firm);
Animated films--United States; Computer animation.
1986 - John Lasseter (animator),
Ed Catmull (technology), Steve Jobs founded Pixar Animation
Studios to create computer animated feature: from fledgling days
under George Lucas to creating Toy Story to merger with Disney.
(Pixar), David A. Price (2008).
The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Creative Company. (New
York, NY: Knopf, 304 p.). Pixar (Firm); Animated films --United
States; Computer animation. Origins, triumph of Pixar
Animation Studios - changed film industry; technical innovation
revolutionized animation, transformed hand-drawn cel animation
to computer-generated 3-D graphics; 1986 - Lucasfilm Ltd.
special-effects computer group acquired by Steve Jobs for $10
million; renamed Pixar Animation Studios; co-founder, technical
genius, Ed Catmull; John Lasseter; feuds between Lasseter,
Jeffrey Katzenberg, between Steve Jobs and Michael Eisner; from
a Disney satellite into $7.4 billion jewel in Disney crown.
(Pixar), Bill Capodagli and Lynn Jackson
Innovate the Pixar Way: Business Lessons from the World's Most
Creative Corporate Playground. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 208 p.). Pixar (Firm) -- Management; Creative
ability in business; Organizational change; Technological
innovations -- Management. How Pixar reawakened
innovative spirit of Walt Disney; what it takes to get people to
(PolyGram Films), Michael Kuhn (2002).
One Hundred Films and a Funeral: PolyGram Films: Birth,
Betrothal, Betrayal, Burial. (London, UK: Thorogood, 258
p.). Former President of PolyGram Films, Creator of the Sundance
Channel. PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (Firm)--History.
(Rank Organization plc), Quentin Falk;
foreword by Michael Caine (1987).
The Golden Gong: Fifty Years of the Rank Organisation, Its films
and Its Stars. (London, UK: Columbus Books, 208 p.).
Rank Organisation--History; Motion pictures--Great
J Arthur Rank (Lord
Rank) - Rank Group Plc
(Rank Organization plc), Geoffrey Macnab
J. Arthur Rank and the British Film Industry. (New York,
NY: Routledge, 270 p.). Rank, J. Arthur, 1888-1972; Rank
Organisation--History; Motion picture industry--Great
Britain--History. Established organization comparable in size to any of major
Hollywood studios; eventual collapse of Rank experiment amidst
economic, political maelstrom of post-war Britain.
(Rank Organization plc), Michael Wakelin
J. Arthur Rank: The Man Behind the Gong. (Oxford,
England: Lion Pub., 248 p.). Rank, J. Arthur, 1888-1972; Motion
picture producers and directors--Great Britain--Biography;
(Republic Pictures Corporation), Richard
Maurice Hurst (1979).
Republic Studios: Between Poverty Row and the Majors.
(Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 262 p.). Republic Pictures
(RKO - Founded in 1929 from the merger of
Keith Orpheum theater circuit , Joseph P. Kennedy’s Film
Booking Office  and Radio Corporation of America (RCA)
), Richard B. Jewell with Vernon Harbin (1982).
The RKO Story. (New York, NY: Arlington House, 320 p.).
RKO Radio Pictures, inc.
(RKO), Betty Lasky (1989).
RKO, The Biggest Little Major of Them All. (Santa
Monica, CA: Roundtable Pub., 242 p. [2nd ed., orig. pub. 1984]).
RKO Radio Pictures, inc.--History.
(Hal Roach Studios), Richard Lewis Ward
A History of the Hal Roach Studios. (Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press, 246 p.). Associate Professor
of Communications (University of South Alabama). Hal Roach
(San Francisco Ballet), Janice Ross, Preface
by Brigitte Lefèvre; Foreword by Allan Ulrich (2007).
San Francisco Ballet at Seventy-Five. (San Francisco,
CA: Chronicle Books, 188 p.). Associate Professor of Dance
History (Stanford University); Director of Dance for the Paris
Opera Ballet; Dance Critic and Advising Senior Editor for Dance
Magazine. San Francisco Ballet; Ballet -- history; Dance --
oldest ballet company; how San Francisco Ballet has forged fresh
identity for American dance, pioneered new model of
(Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club), Compiled
by Kitty Grime; Photography by Val Wilmer (1979).
Jazz at Ronnie Scott's. (London, UK: Hale, 192
p). Ronnie Scott’s Club; Jazz --England --London
--History and criticism.
(Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club), John
Jazz Man: The Amazing Story of Ronnie Scott & His Club.
(London, UK: Trafalgar Square, 208 p.). Scott, Ronnie;
Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club; Jazz--History--London.
Portrait of man, his music, his
business from early days as sharp-dressing,
wisecracking young dance-band musician in wartime
London, through coming of rock 'n' roll, hipster
fashions, jive talk, to setting up of now famous club.
(Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club), John
Fordham, John, John Hopkins, Val Wilmer, David Redfern,
Alan Titmuss, and David Sinclair (2004).
Ronnie Scott's Forty Five. (London, UK: Famulus
Editions Limited, 180 p.). Scott, Ronie; Ronnie Scott's
Jazz Club; Jazz--History--London. Visually stunning
collection of photographs chart venue's history.
Ronnie Scott (Ronnie Scott's Jazz
Some of My Best Friends Are Blues. (Newcastle
upon Tyne, UK: Northway Publications, 125 p. [orig. pub.
1979]). Founder, Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club. Scott,
Ronnie; Jazz musicians --England --Biography;
Saxophonists --England --Biography; Jazz musicians
--England --Correspondence; Saxophonists --England
(Shubert Organization), Jerry Stagg
The Brothers Shubert. (New York, NY: Random
House, 431 p.). Shubert, Lee, 1873?-1953; Shubert, Sam
S., 1875-1905; Shubert, Jacob J., 1878?-1963; Theater
--United States --History.
(Shubert Organization), Brooks
The Shuberts of Broadway: A History Drawn from the
Collections of the Shubert Archive. (New York,
NY: Oxford University Press, 230 p.). Professor of
Performance Studies at Tisch School of the Arts ( New
York University). Shubert, Lee, 1873?-1953; Shubert, Sam
S., 1875-1905; Shubert, Jacob J., 1878?-1963; Schubert
family; Theater --New York (State) --New York --History
--20th century; Theater --United States --History --20th
century; Theatrical producers and directors --United
States --Biography; Theatrical paraphernalia --United
States; Broadway (New York, N.Y.) --History.
Lives of Sam, Lee, and J. J.
Shubert from their early years, through building of
their empire, Broadway boom of 1920s, to their last
(Shubert Organization), Foster Hirsch
The Boys from Syracuse: The Shuberts' Theatrical Empire.
(Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 342
p.). Professor of Film at Brooklyn College (City
University of New York). Shubert, Lee, 1873?-1953;
Shubert, Sam S., 1875-1905; Shubert, Jacob J.,
1878?-1963; Schubert family; Shubert Organization
--History; Theater --New York (State) --New York
--History --20th century; Theater --United States
--History --20th century; Theatrical producers and
directors --United States --Biography.
Since turn of
century, Shuberts, heir heirs exercised unequaled power
over Broadway and the road; their lives, evolution of
their business; heyday from 1905 to crash of 1929.
(Stax Records), Rob Bowman (1997).
Soulsville, U.S.A.: The Story of Stax Records (New York,
NY: Schirmer Books, 402 p.). Stax Records--History; Rhythm and
blues music--History and criticism; Memphis (Tenn.)--History.
and Estelle Axton - Stax Records
(Steinway), Theodore E. Steinway (1961).
People and Pianos; a Century of Service to Music (New
York, NY: Steinway, 125 p.). Steinway & Sons.
Henry Engelhard Steinway
(born Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg ) - founder
(Steinway), Aaron Singer (1986). Labor
Management Relations at Steinway & Sons, 1853-1896 (New
York, NY: Garland, 219 p.). Steinway & Sons--History--19th
century; Musical instruments industry--New York (State)--New
York--History--19th century; Industrial relations--New York
(State)--New York--History--19th century; Piano makers--New York
(State)--New York--History--19th century. Series: American
(Steinway), Ronald V. Ratcliffe (1989).
Steinway & Sons. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books,
204 p.). Steinway & Sons--History; Steinway piano; Piano
makers--New York (State)--New York--History.
(Steinway), D.W. Fostle (1994).
The Steinway Saga: An American Dynasty (New York, NY:
Scribner, 710 p.). Steinway family; Steinway & Sons--History;
Piano makers--New York (State)--New York--History.
(Steinway), Richard K. Lieberman (1995).
Steinway & Sons (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,
374 p.). Steinway & Sons--History; Steinway piano; Piano
makers--New York (State)--New York--History.
(Steinway), Susan Goldenberg (1996).
Steinway from Glory to Controversy: The Family, the Business,
(Buffalo, NY: Mosaic Press, 253 p.). Steinway family;
Steinway & Sons--History; Piano makers--New York (State)--New
York--History; Steinway piano--History.
(Steinway), James Barron (2006).
Piano: The Making of a Steinway Concert Grand. (New
York, NY: Times Books, 280 p.). Staff Reporter (The New York
Times). Steinway & Sons; Steinway piano--Construction; Piano
makers--New York (State)--New York--History.
(number K0862) on eleven-month journey through Steinway
factory from raw lumber to finished instrument.
(Stiff Records), Bert Muirhead (1983).
Stiff, The Story of a Record Label, 1976-1982. (Poole,
Dorset: Blandford Press, 112 p.). Stiff Records; Rock
(Sun Records), Colin Escott and Martin Hawkins
Catalyst: The Sun Records Story. (London, UK: Aquarius
Books, 173 p.). Sun Records.
Sam Phillips - Sun
(Sun Records), Colin Escott and Martin Hawkins
Sun Records: The Brief History of the Legendary Recording Label.
(New York, NY: Quick Fox, 184 p. [orig. pub. 1975]). Sun
(Sun Records), Colin Escott, Martin Hawkins &
Hank Davis (1986). The Sun Country Years: Country Music in
Memphis, 1950-1959. (Bremen, West Germany: Bear Family
Records, 128 p.). Sun Records--History; Country
music--Tennessee--Memphis--1951-1960--History and criticism;
(Sun Records), Colin Escott with Martin
Good Rockin’ Tonight: Sun Records and the Birth of Rock ’n’ Roll.
(New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 276 p.). Sun
Records--History; Rock music--United States--To 1961--History
and criticism; Rock music--United States--1961-1970--History and
(Sun Records), John Floyd (1998).
Sun Records: An Oral History. (New York, NY: Avon Books,
191 p.). Sun Records--History; Rock music--To 1961--History and
criticism; Rock music--1961-1970--History and criticism.
(Taylor Guitars), Bob Taylor (2011).
Guitar Lessons: A Life's Journey Turning Passion into Business.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 230 p.). Founder. Taylor, Bob, 1955-;
Taylor Guitars (Firm); Guitar makers -- United States --
Biography. Founding, growth of Taylor Guitars, world-famous
acoustic and electric guitar manufacturer; From first guitar in
junior high school, quality products with his own hands,
successful, sustainable business; values he lives by, that have
provided foundation for company's success.
(Thorn EMI Plc), S.A. Pandit (1996).
From Making to Music: The History of Thorn EMI. (London,
UK: Hodder & Stoughton, 270 p.). Corporations, British; Sound
recording industry -- Great Britain.
(Thorn EMI Plc), Peter Martland (1997).
Since Records Began: EMI, the First 100 Years.
(Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 359 p.). EMI Records
Ltd.--History; Sound recording industry--History.
(Trans Continental Companies), Lou Pearlman
with Wes Smith (2003).
Bands, Brands and Billions: My Top 10 Rules for Making Any
Business Go Platinum. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 261
p.). Marketer Behind Successful Boy Bands *NSync, the Backstreet
Boys and O-Town. Success in business; Entrepreneurship.
(Trumpet Records), Marc W. Ryan (2004).
Trumpet Records: Diamonds on Farish Street. (Jackson,
MS: University Press of Mississippi, 225 p.). Trumpet Records
(Firm); Sound recording industry -- United States; Blues (Music)
(Twentieth Century-Fox), Leonard Mosley
Zanuck: The Rise and Fall of Hollywood's Last Tycoon.
(Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 424 p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis,
1902- ; Motion picture producers and directors -- United States
Darryl F. Zanuck
- founder 20th Century Fox
(Twentieth Century-Fox), Aubrey Solomon
Twentieth Century-Fox: A Corporate and Financial History.
(Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 285 p.). Twentieth Century-Fox
Film Corporation--History; Twentieth Century-Fox Film
(Twentieth Century-Fox), Stephen M. Silverman
The Fox That Got Away: The Last Days of the Zanuck Dynasty at
Twentieth Century-Fox. (Seacaucus, NJ: L. Stuart, 356
p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- ; Zanuck family; Twentieth
Century-Fox Film Corporation--History; Motion picture producers
and directors--United States--Biography.
(Twentieth Century-Fox), Marlys J. Harris
The Zanucks of Hollywood: The Dark Legacy of an American Dynasty.
(New York, NY: Crown, 346 p.). Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- ;
Zanuck family; Motion picture producers and directors -- United
States -- Biography.
(Twentieth Century-Fox), Selected, edited, and
annotated by Rudy Behlmer; with a forward by Philip Dunne
Memo from Darryl F. Zanuck: The Golden Years at Twentieth
Century-Fox. (New York, NY: Grove Press, 276 p.).
Zanuck, Darryl Francis, 1902- --Correspondence; Twentieth
Century-Fox Film Corporation--History; Motion picture
industry--United States--History; Motion picture producers and
(United Artists), Tino Balio (1976).
United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars.
(Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 323 p.). United
Douglas Fairbanks, Mary
Pickford, D . W. Griffith, Charlie
(founders of UA)
(United Artists), Ronald Bergan (1986).
The United Artists Story. (New York, NY: Crown, 352 p.).
United Artists Corporation--History; Motion pictures--United
(United Artists), Tino Balio (1987).
United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry.
(Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 446 p.). United
Artists Corporation; Motion picture industry--United States.
(United Artists), Steven Bach (1999).
Final Cut: Art, Money, and Ego in the Making of Heaven's Gate,
the Film That Sank United Artists. (New York, NY:
Newmarket Press, p. [orig. pub. 1985]). Heaven's gate.
(Universal Pictures), Clive Hirschhorn (1983).
The Universal Story (New York, NY: Crown, 399 p.;
updated edition (2000), London, UK: Hamlyn, 496 p.). Universal
Pictures (Firm); Motion pictures--United States--Plots, themes,
Carl Laemmle -founder
(Universal Pictures), Bernard F. Dick (1997).
City of Dreams: The Making and Remaking of Universal Pictures
(Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 249 p.). Laemmle,
Carl, 1867-1939; Universal Pictures (Firm)--History.
(Universal Pictures), I. G. Edmonds (1977).
Big U: Universal in the Silent Days. (South Brunswick,
NJ: A. S. Barnes, 162 p.). Universal Pictures (Firm).
(Victor Talking Machine Company), Frederick O.
Barnum III (1991).
His Master’s Voice" in America: Ninety Years of Communications
Pioneering and Progress: Victor Talking Machine Company, Radio
Corporation of America, General Electric Company.
(Camden, NJ: General Electric Co., 385 p.). Victor Talking
Machine Company--History; Radio Corporation of America--History;
General Electric Company--History; RCA Corporation--History;
Electronic industries--United States--History; Mass
media--United States--History; Communication and traffic--United
(Vitagraph Company of America), Anthony Slide
with Alan Gevinson (1987).
The Big V: A History of the Vitagraph Company.
(Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 332 p.). Vitagraph Company of
(Walnut Street Theatre), Andrew Davis (2010).
America’s Longest Run: A History of the Walnut Street Theatre.
(University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press,
412 p.). Teaches at Otis College of Art and Design Walnut Street
Theatre (Philadelphia, Pa.) --History. America's
oldest theatre; from founding on February 2, 1809 as stock
company; has offered every conceivable form of entertainment
(pageantry and spectacle, opera, melodrama, musical theatre,
Shakespeare); productions, players, difficulties faced from
economic crises, changing tastes, competition from new media;
more than 350,000 attend performances each year.
(Warner Bros.), Charles Higham (1975).
Warner Brothers. (New York, NY: Scribner, 232 p.).
Warner Bros. Pictures.
Warner Brothers - L-F
from top: Jack, Albert, Sam, Harry
(Warner Bros.), Jack Warner (1975).
Jack of All Trades: An Autobiography. (London, UK: W. H.
Allen, 226 p.). Warner, Jack L., 1892-1978; Motion picture
producers and directors--United States--Biography.
(Warner Bros.), Clive Hirschhorn (1979).
The Warner Bros. Story (New York, NY: Crown, 480 p.).
Warner Bros. Pictures; Motion pictures--Plots, themes, etc.;
Motion pictures--United States.
(Warner Bros.), Michael Freedland (1983).
The Warner Brothers. (London, UK: Harrap, 240 p.).
Warner Bros. Pictures; Motion picture producers and
(Warner Bros.), Nick Roddick (1983).
A New Deal in Entertainment: Warner Brothers in the 1930s.
(London, UK: British Film Institute, 332 p.). Warner Bros.
(Warner Bros.), Selected, edited, and
annotated by Rudy Behlmer (1985).
Inside Warner Bros. (1935-1951). (New York, NY:
Viking, 358 p.). Warner Bros. Pictures--History--Sources.
(Warner Bros.), Bob Thomas (1990).
Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L.
Warner. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Warner,
Jack L., 1892-1978; Motion picture producers and
(Warner Bros.), Bob Thomas (1990).
Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L.
Warner. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Warner,
Jack L., 1892-1978; Motion picture producers and
directors--United States--Biography. Warner Bros.
(Warner Bros.), Cass Warner Sperking and Cork
Millner with Jack Warner, Jr. (1998).
Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story.
(Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 365 p. [orig pub.
1994]). Warner, Harry Morris, 1881-1978; Warner, Jack L.,
1892-1978; Warner Bros. Pictures--History.
(Warner Bros.), Michael E. Birdwell (1999).
Celluloid Soldiers: The Warner Bros. Campaign Against Nazism.
(New York, NY: New York University Press, 266 p.). Warner Bros.
Pictures--History; National socialism and motion pictures.
(Warner Bros.), Richard Schickel and George
You Must Remember This: The Warner Brothers Story.
(Philadelphia, PA: Running Press, 480 p.). Film Critic (Time
magazine); Film Critic. Warner, Harry Morris, 1881-1978; Warner,
Jack L., 1892-1978; Warner Bros. Pictures--History.
authorized history of studio in connection with its 85th
anniversary of screen icons, legendary films,
history-making achievements; companion to five part documentary
in PBS American Masters series by author Richard Schickel.
(Warner Bros.), E. J. Stephens, Marc Wanamaker
Early Warner Bros. Studios. (San Francisco, CA :
Arcadia Pub., 128 p.). Former WB Studios employee; Film
Historian. Warner Bros. -- history; Hollywood -- history.
Bros. legacy from 1920s to 1950s; four brothers, scions of Polish Jewish immigrant family,
rose from humblest of origins to become Hollywood moguls of
enormous, lasting influence.
(Warner Music Group), Stan Cornyn with Paul
Exploding: The Highs, Hits, Hype, Heroes, and Hustlers of the
Warner Music Group. (New York. NY: HarperEntertainment,
470 p.). Two-time Grammy Award Winner, 34-Year Creative
Executive at Company. Warner Music Group--History.
(Warner Music), Fred Goodman (2010).
Fortune’s Fool: Edgar Bronfman, Jr., Warner Music, and an
Industry in Crisis. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster,
336 p.). Former Editor with Rolling Stone. Bronfman, Edgar,
1955-; Warner Music Group; Sound recording executives and
producers. --United States; Sound recording industry --United
States. Bronfman vs. cyberspace (music business has become world
of iTunes, MP3s, online marketing as CD sales for Apple, MCA,
Vivendi plummeted); 2004 - acquired
music group from AOL/Time-Warner (had dismantled family’s empire
and fortune, made high-stakes gamble to remake both music
industry, own reputation); built aggressive, streamlined team; instituted initiatives intended to give customers legitimate online music
choices; took market share from competitors; diversified, forced
young artists to give cut of income from touring, publishing,
merchandising; no clear formula for success.
Edgar Bronfman, Jr. - Warner Music
(Washburn International), John Teagle (1996).
Washburn: Over One Hundred Years of Fine Stringed Instruments.
(New York, NY: Music Sales Corp., 200 p.). Lyon & Healy;
Washburn International; Stringed instruments--United
States--History; Stringed instrument makers--United States.
(Woodstock Festival), Joel Rosenman, John
Roberts, Robert Pilpel (1974).
Young Men with Unlimited Capital. (New York, NY:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 213 p.). Producers of Woodstock Music
and Art Fair. Woodstock Festival (1969 : Bethel, N.Y.).
(YES Network), Leo Hindery; with Leslie Cauley
The Biggest Game of All: The Inside Strategies, Tactics, and
Temperaments That Make Great Dealmakers Great. (New
York,. NY: Free Press, 272 p.). CEO of the YES Network (Yankees
network); former CEO, ATT&T Broadband. Negotiation in business;
Executives--United States; Consolidation and merger of
(Ziegfeld Follies), Ethan Mordden (2008).
Ziegfeld: The Man Who Invented Show Business. (New York,
NY: St. Martin's Press, 335 p.). Ziegfeld, Florenz, 1869-1932;
Theatrical producers and directors --United States --Biography.
Helped create glamorous world of "show-biz" from what had been
flea circus, operetta, sideshow all rolled into one; first real
star attraction was bodybuilder Eugen Sandow; one of first impresarios to mix
headliners of different ethnic backgrounds; earliest proponent
of mixed-race casting; created Ziegfeld Girl; produced number of other
musicals; one of most inventive,
ruthless, street-smart, exacting men ever to fill a theatre.
Florenz Ziegfeld - Ziegfeld Folliies (http://www.nndb.com/people/557/000056389/ziegfeld2-sm.jpg)
(Avedis Zildjian Company), Jon Cohan (1999).
Zildjian: A History of the Legendary Cymbal Makers.
(Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp., 127 p.). Zildjian, Avedis,
1889-1979; Avedis Zildjian Company--History; Cymbals--History;
Avedis Zildjian III -
father of cymbals
Melissa D. Aaron (2005).
Global Economics: A History of the Theater Business, the
Chamberlain’s/King’s Men, and Their Plays, 1599-1642.
(Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 250 p.). Shakespeare,
William, 1564-1616 --Stage history--To 1625; Chamberlain’s Men
(Theater company); King’s Men (Theater company); Theatrical
Theater--Economic aspects--England--London; Great
Britain--Economic conditions--17th century; London
Christopher Anderson (1994).
HollywoodTV: The Studio System in the Fifties. (Austin,
TX: University of Texas Press, 343 p.). Television--United
States--Production and direction; Motion picture
studios--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion pictures and
Gerben Bakker (2008).
Entertainment Industrialised: The Emergence of the International
Film Industry, 1890-1940. (New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press, 449 p.).
Lecturer in Economic History and Management (London School of
Motion picture industry --History. Industrialization of services; first
form of industrialized mass entertainment (1910s); fourth
largest export industry before First World War; tenth most
profitable industry during U.S. Depression; fastest-growing
industry in France in 1930s.
Ed. Tino Balio (1985).
The American Film Industry. (Madison, WI: University of
Wisconsin Press, 664 p. [rev. ed.]). Motion picture
Tino Balio (1995).
Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise,
1930-1939. (Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press, 483 p. [orig. pub. 1993]). Motion picture
industry--United States--History; Motion pictures--United
Louis Barfe (2004).
Where Have All the Good Times Gone?: The Rise and Fall of the
Record Industry. (London, UK: Atlantic Books, 395 p.).
Sound recording industry; Popular music--History and criticism.
Peter Bart (1999).
The Gross: The Hits, the Flops-- The Summer That Ate Hollywood.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 311 p.). Motion
pictures--California--Los Angeles--History; Motion picture
Hank Bordowitz (2007).
Dirty Little Secrets of the Record Business: Why So Much Music
You Hear Sucks. (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 352
p.). Veteran Music Journalist. Sound recording
industry--History; Music trade--History; Music and technology.
How record business fouled
its own livelihood; insights into how this multi-billion-dollar
industry is run and why it’s losing so much money.
Mihir Bose (2006).
Bollywood: A History. (Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus
Publishing Ltd., 352 p.). Motion
pictures--India--Bombay--History.; Motion picture
Traces industry to its roots at
turn of 19th century; 1896 - Lumière Brothers'
world premiere of cinema unveiled in British Bombay, to
resounding effect; sets cinema's evolution against backdrop of
radical political change.
Leo Braudy (2011).
The Hollywood Sign: Fantasy and Reality of an American Icon.
(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 224 p.). University
Professor and Leo S. Bing Chair in English and American
Literature (University of Southern California). Motion picture
industry --California --Los Angeles --History; Motion pictures
--United States --History; Hollywood Sign (Los Angeles, Calif.)
--History; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History; Los
Angeles (Calif.) --History. How temporary structure became
permanent icon of American culture; how advertisement erected in
1923, touting real estate development Hollywoodland, took on
life of its own; history of this distinctly American landmark,
saved over years by disparate group of fans and supporters
(Alice Cooper, Hugh Hefner); rise of movie business from its
earliest, silent days through development of studio system that
helped define modern Hollywood.
Tim Brooks (2004).
Lost sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry,
1890-1919. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press,
634 p.). Executive Vice President of Research (Lifetime
Television). African Americans -- Music -- History and
criticism; Sound recording industry -- History; Music -- United
States -- History and criticism.
Ronald Brownstein (1990).
The Power and the Glitter: The Hollywood-Washington Connection.
(New York, NY: Pantheon, 437 p.). Politics and culture--United
States--History--20th century; Motion picture actors and
actresses--United States--Political activity--History--20th
century; Motion picture industry--Political aspects--United
States--History--20th century; United States--Politics and
Dean Budnick and Josh Baron (2011).
Ticket Masters: The Rise of the Concert Industry and How the
Public Got Scalped. (Toronto, ON: Ecw Press, 372 p.).
Executive Editor of Relix magazine; Editor-in-Chief of Relix
magazine. Ticket brokerage; Ticket brokerage--History;
Performing arts--Ticket subscription; Performing arts--Ticket
prices; Ticket scalping. Modern concert industry; origins,
development, ongoing strategies of companies (Ticketmaster, Live
Nation, StubHub), efforts of numerous independent competitors;
actions, impact of company iconoclasts, tales of
scalping syndicates, old-school music promoters, would-be
Internet tycoons, bawdy business decisions; complex relationships between artists,
promoters, ticketing agents, public; pivotal developments that
shaped industry; 1) how, why do concerts sell out so fast?
2) why do service fees vary on tickets to same event? 3) why
isn't Ticketmaster considered illegal monopoly? 4) is it worth
joining band's fan club to qualify for pre-sale?, 5) how do
ticket broker websites (StubHub) get all their tickets?, 6) how
did ticket prices get so high?
Robert Burnett (1996).
The Global Jukebox: The International Music Industry.
(New York, NY: Routledge, 171 p.). Music trade; Popular
music--History and criticism; Music--Social aspects.
Calamar & Phil Gallo (2010).
Record Store Days: From Vinyl to Digital and Back Again.
(New York, NY, Sterling, 256 p.). President of Go Music; Music
Journalist and Entertainment Editor. Record stores -- history;
records -- retail. Record stores served as community centers,
information exchanges, clubs, art galleries, launching pads for
numerous bands and record labels; retail refuges that enthralled
at least three generations of music lovers; special alchemy that
makes great record store.
Dan Charnas (2010).
The Big Payback: The History of the Business of Hip-Hop.
(New York, NY: New American Library, 672 p.). Vice President of
A&R for Def American Recordings. Rap (Music) --Social aspects;
Hip-hop; Hip-hop --Social aspects; Sound recording industry;
Music trade. Victories, defeats, corporate clashes, street
battles along 40-year road to hip-hop's dominance; from studios,
where first rap records were made, to boardrooms; from first $15 made by "rapping DJ" in 1970s New
York to multi-million-dollar sales of Phat Farm and
Roc-a-Wear clothing companies in 2004 and 2007; who lost, who won.
Mark Coleman (2003).
Playback: From the Victrola to MP3, 100 Years of Music,
Machines, and Money. (New York, NY: Da Capo Press, 237
p.). Sound recording industry -- History; Music and technology.
John W. Cones (2006).
Hollywood Wars: How Insiders Gained and Maintain Illegitimate
Control over the Film Industry. (Spokane, WA: Marquette
Books, 400 p.). Securities and Entertainment Attorney. Motion
picture industry--Corrupt practices--United States; Motion
picture industry--United States--Finance. Small group of insiders controlled
Hollywood film industry, engaged in unethical, illegal business
practices that hurt independent filmmakers, screenwriters,
Elizabeth Currid-Halkett (2010).
Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity. (New York, NY:
Faber and Faber, 320 p.). Assistant Professor, School of Policy,
Planning, and Development (University of Southern California).
Fame. Economics, geography (real and virtual), networking
strategies - from art world to table-top gaming conventions to
film industry; celebrity is an important social phenomenon,
driving force in worldwide economy.
Bill Daniels, David Leedy, and Steven D. Sills
Movie Money: Understanding Hollywood's (Creative) Accounting
Practices. (Los Angeles, CA: Silman-James Press, 299
p.). Motion picture industry--United States--Finance; Motion
Frederic Dannen (1990).
Hit Men: Power Brokers and Fast Money Inside the Music Business.
(New York, NY: Times Books, 387 p.). Sound recording
industry--United States; Rock music--United States--History and
Ronald L. Davis (1993).
The Glamour Factory: Inside Hollywood’s Big Studio System
Southern Methodist University Press, 444 p.). Founder, Southern
Methodist Oral History Program. Motion pictures--California--Los
Angeles--History; Motion picture industry--California--Los
Angeles--History; Motion picture studios--California--Los
Angeles--History; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History.
Tracy C. Davis (2000).
The Economics of the British Stage, 1800-1914. (New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 506 p.). Professor of
Theater, English and Performance Studies (Northwestern
University). Theater --Economic aspects --Great Britain; Theater
--Great Britain --History --19th century; Theater --Great
Britain --History --20th century. Theatre's growth from an
economic perspective - how British theaters paid their way
before age of government subsidy; three key areas (competition,
profit, labor): 1) state's role in protecting theatre; 2)
factors affecting success or failure of theatre companies; 3)
how theatre came to be regarded as one of 'service industries';
history of cultural policy for arts in Britain.
R. Serge Denisoff (1975).
Solid Gold: The Popular Record Industry. (New Brunswick,
NJ: Transaction Books, 504 p.). Sound recording industry;
Popular music--United States--History and criticism.
Tarnished Gold: The Record Industry Revisited. (New
Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 487 p.). Sound recording
industry; Popular music--United States--History and criticism.
Marc Eliot (1993).
Rockonomics: The Money Behind the Music. (New York, NY:
Carol Pub. Group, 322 p.). Rock music--History and criticism;
Rock music--Economic aspects; Music trade.
Ralph Emery with Patsi Bale Cox (1998).
The View from Nashville. (New York, NY: Morrow, 321 p.).
Country music -- History and criticism; Country musicians --
Edward Jay Epstein (2005).
The Big Picture: The New Logic of Money and Power in Hollywood.
(New York, NY: Random House, 416 p.). Motion picture
industry--California--Los Angeles--Finance; Motion picture
industry--United States--Finance; Motion picture
industry--Economic aspects--California--Los Angeles; Motion
picture industry--Economic aspects--United States.
Hollywood Economist: The Hidden Financial Reality Behind the
(Brooklyn, NY Melville House 240 p.). Hollywood -- economics; movie
making -- history. Hollywood’s “invisible money machine,”
probing the dazzlingly complicated finances behind the hits and
the flops, while he answers the surprisingly puzzling question:
How do the studios make their money?
Philip French (1969).
The Movie Moguls: An Informal History of the Hollywood Tycoons.
(London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 170 p.). Motion picture
producers and directors--United States--Biography; Motion
picture industry--United States--History; Hollywood (Los
Angeles, Calif.)--Biography; Hollywood (Los Angeles,
Neal Gabler (1988).
An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood.
(New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 502 p.). Motion picture
industry--California--Los Angeles--History; Jews in the motion
picture industry--United States; Jewish motion picture producers
and directors--United States--Biography; Jews--United
States--Biography; United States--Civilization--Jewish
influences; Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)--History.
Phil Hall (2009).
The History of Independent Cinema. (Albany, GA:
BearManor Media, 320 p.). Filmmaking--history;
Filmmakers--independent. Innovative men, women who stood up to
status quo, brought revolutionary new ideas, technologies to
motion picture world; pioneers who introduced color, sound,
widescreen projection, videography to filmmaking process, tore
down racial, gender barriers behind camera, challenged
censorship taboos imposed on film production, formulated new
strategies for film distribution, created many of greatest
movies ever made.
Benjamin Hampton; With a new introd. by
Richard Griffith (1970).
History of the American Film Industry from Its Beginnings to
1931. (New York, NY: Dover Publications, 456 p. [orig.
pub. 1931]). Motion picture industry--United States.
Michael J. Haupert (2006).
The Entertainment Industry. (Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 271 p.). Professor of Economics (University of Wisconsin
- LaCrosse). Performing arts--United States--History--20th
economic history of entertainment (vaudeville, recorded sound,
radio, movies, television, spectator sports) in U. S.
Martin Hawkins (2006).
A Shot in the Dark: Making Records in Nashville 1945-1955.
(Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 318 p.). Sound
recording industry--Tennessee--Nashville--History; Popular
music--History and criticism. Focus on recording companies,
studios, DJs, other music promoters; sights, sounds, and stories
of this vibrant and influential decade in Nashville music
Dade Hayes and Jonathan Bing (2004).
Open Wide: The Anxious Early Hours of a Hollywood Blockbuster.
(New York, NY: Miramax Books, 448 p.). Managing Editor of
Special (Variety), Deputy Managing Editor (Variety). Hollywood
(Los Angeles, Calif.) -- films; Filmmaking; Marketing -- films.
Clinton Heylin (1995).
Bootleg: The Secret History of the Other Recording Industry.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 441 p.). Sound recording
industry; Sound recordings--Pirated editions; Popular
music--History and criticism.
Michele Hilmes (1999).
Hollywood and Broadcasting: From Radio to Cable.
(Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 221 p.). Professor
Media and Cultural Studies (University of Wisconsin).
Broadcasting --United States --History; Motion picture industry
--California --Los Angeles --Influence; Motion picture studios
--California --Los Angeles --Influence; Hollywood (Los Angeles,
Joseph Horowitz (1990).
The Ivory Trade: Music and the Business of Music at the Van
Cliburn International Piano Competition. (New York, NY:
Summit Books, 289 p.). Van Cliburn International Piano
Competition; Music--Competitions--Texas--Fort Worth; Pianists.
Aida A. Hozic (2001).
Hollyworld: Space, Power, and Fantasy in the American Economy.
(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 233 p.). Motion picture
Alan D. Kattelle (2000).
Home Movies: A History of the American Industry, 1897-1979.
(Nashua, NH: Transition Publishing, 411 p.). Retired Engineer
and Business Executive. Cinematography --United States
--History; Amateur films --United States --History and
criticism; Motion picture cameras --History.
Rick Kennedy and Randy McNutt (1999).
Little Labels--Big Sound: Small Record Companies and the Rise of
American Music. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University
Press, 198 p.). Media Relations Manager; Reporter (Cincinnati
Enquirer). Sound recording industry --United States; Popular
music --United States --History and criticism.
History of independent record
label in America, 1920-1970; how 10 independent record labels
shaped course of American popular music (from early jazz giant
Paramount to legendary Sun Records).
Eds. Frank Kessler and Nanna
Networks of Entertainment: Early Film Distribution 1895-1915.
(Eastleigh, UK, J. Libbey Pub., 344 p.). Authors. Motion
pictures --Distribution. How films came to
film distribution from invention of cinema into 1910s: regional
distribution networks to international marketing strategies,
analysis of distribution catalogues to case studies on
individual distributors; major force structuring field in
which cinema emerges in late 19th, early 20th century, impact
on production and exhibition, on offer and demand, on film form
and film viewing.
Ed. Gorham Kindem (1982).
The American Movie Industry: The Business of Motion Pictures.
(Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 448 p.).
Motion picture industry--United States--Case studies.
The International Movie Industry. (Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press, 417 p.). Motion picture
industry--History; Motion picture industry--Economic aspects;
Motion picture industry--Social aspects.
Scott Kirsner (2008).
Inventing the Movies: Hollywood's Epic Battle Between Innovation
and the Status Quo, from Thomas Edison to Steve Jobs.
(Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace, 218 p.). Weekly "Innovation
Economy" Columnist (Boston Globe). Motion picture industry --
United States -- History; Motion pictures -- Technological
innovations; Cinematography -- Technological innovations;
Digital cinematography; Digital video. Technological history of
Hollywood; innovators who shaped Hollywood, prevailed over
skeptics who preferred to preserve status quo.
Steve Knopper (2009).
Appetite for Self-Destruction: The Spectacular Crash of the
Record Industry in the Digital Age. (New York, NY:
Free Press, 301 p.). Contributing Editor (Rolling Stone). Music
trade --History; Sound recording industry --History; Compact
disc industry --History. Precipitous rise, fall of recording
industry over past three decades - from birth of compact disc,
through explosion of CD sales in 1980s and 1990s, emergence of
Napster, secret talks that led to iTunes, current collapse of
industry as CD sales plummet; Sony, Warner, other big players
brought about their own downfall through years of denial, bad
decisions in face of dramatic advances in file-sharing
Michael Kosser (2006).
How Nashville Became Music City, U.S.A.: 50 Years of Music Row.
(Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 368 p.). Country music--History and
criticism; Music trade--Tennessee--Nashville.
Evolution of this center of music
from single studio in tiny duplex which became Music Row.
William M. Kunz (2007).
Culture Conglomerates: Consolidation in the Motion Picture and
Television Industries. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, 262 p.). Motion picture industry--Ownership--United
States; Television broadcasting--Ownership--United States;
Consolidation and merger of corporations--United States.
How structure of these industries
has evolved, how structure impacts production, distribution of
Eds. Joseph Lampel, Jamal Shamsie, Theresa K.
The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment
and Media. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 328
p.). Culture--Economic aspects--Congresses; Cultural
industries--Congresses; Popular culture--Economic
aspects--Congresses; Industries--Social aspects--Congresses.
Business of designing,
producing, distributing, marketing cultural products; examined
from strategic management perspective.
James Lardner (1987).
Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese, and the Onslaught of the
VCR. (New York, NY: Norton, 344 p.). Video tape recorder
Norman Lebrecht (2007).
The Life and Death of Classical Music: Featuring the 100 Best
and 20 Worst Recordings Ever Made. (New York, NY: Anchor
Books, 324 p.). Assistant Editor of the Evening Standard in
London, Presenter of BBC’s lebrecht.live. Sound recording
industry; Sound recordings--Reviews; Music--20th
century--History and criticism. Rise of classical recording
industry from Caruso’s first notes to heyday of Bernstein, Glenn
Gould, Callas, von Karajan; cultural revolution wrought by
Schnabel, Toscanini, Callas, Rattle, Three Tenors, Charlotte
Church; how stars were made, broken by record business; how
advancing technology, boardroom wars, public credulity,
unscrupulous exploitation shaped musical backdrop to modern
Mark Litwak (1986).
Reel Power: The Struggle for Influence and Success in the New
Hollywood. (New York, NY: Morrow, 336 p.). Motion
picture industry--United States.
Chainsaws, Slackers, and Spy Kids: Thirty Years of Filmmaking in
Austin, Texas. (Austin,
TX, University of Texas Press, 391 p.). Former Film Critic
(Austin Chronicle, Austin American-Statesman). Motion picture
industry --Texas --Austin --History. Evolution
of struggle to balance growth, expansion of Austin's film
community with ongoing commitment to nurture next generation of
independent filmmakers; how Austin became proving ground
for contemporary independent cinema; behind-the-scenes story of specific movies against backdrop of
Austin's ever-expanding film community.
Denise Mann (2008).
Hollywood Independents: The Postwar Talent Takeover.
(Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 344 p.).
Associate Professor of Film, TV and Digital media (UCLA). Motion
picture industry --California --Los Angeles --History; Motion
pictures --United States --History. 1948 to 1962 - independent film
producers became key components of modern corporate
entertainment industry; impact of radically changed
filmmaking climate, decline of studios, rise of television, rise
of potent talent agencies (MCA) on group of prominent
talent-turned-producers; evolution of film production from
studio-governed system to entrepreneurship.
Eugene Marlow and Eugene Secunda (1991).
Shifting Time and Space: The Story of Videotape. (New
York, NY: Praeger, 174 p.). Assistant Professor at Baruch
College (City University of New York) and Founder and President
of Media Enterprises; Assistant Professor at Baruch College
(CUNY). Video tape industry--History; Video tapes--History.
How videotape revolutionized content and style of $12 billion
broadcast, satellite-delivered television industries;
brought about $17 billion home video market.
Philip E. Meza (2007).
Coming Attractions?: Hollywood, High Tech, and the Future of
Entertainment. (Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books,
171 p.). Research Associate at Stanford Graduate School of
Business. Mass media and technology--United States--History;
Mass media--Economic aspects--United States--History.
Key forces driving
relationship between entertainment, technology; content
creation, distribution, consumption combining in new ways to
create changes that will shake foundations of entertainment and
Andre Millard (1995).
America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. (New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 413 p.). Phonograph; Sound
recordings--United States; Music--United States--History and
David L. Morton, Jr. (2004).
Sound Recording: The Life Story of a Technology.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 215 p.). Sound--Recording and
reproducing--History; Sound recording industry--History.
Comprehensive history of
electronic devices; stories of how scientists, engineers
created, commercialized such devices as transistor,
Magnetron tube used to power microwave ovens, CRT (cathode ray
tube), laser, first integrated circuit, microprocessor,
Keith Negus (1999).
Music Genres and Corporate Cultures. (New York, NY:
Routledge, 209 p.). Sound recording industry; Popular
music--History and criticism.
James Robert Parish (2006).
Fiasco: A History of Hollywood’s Iconic Flops. (Hoboken,
NJ: Wiley, 368 p.). Motion pictures--California--Los
Angeles--History; Motion pictures--United States--Plots, themes,
etc. Most sensational
failures in modern Hollywood history.
David J. Park (2007).
Conglomerate Rock: The Music Industry’s Quest To Divide Music
and Conquer Wallets. (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 160
p.). Music trade; Music and the Internet--Economic aspects.
Music is becoming more
dispersed, expensive, difficult to acquire; new distribution
infrastructure, access to exclusive releases divided through
different subscription services, hardware, new media to maximize
Debra Ann Pawlak (2011).
Bringing Up Oscar: The Story of the Men and Women Who Founded
the Academy. (New York, NY: Pegasus, 336 p.).
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.) --History; Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences -- history. January 11, 1927 -
Louis B. Mayer, MGM CEO, gathered 36 leading persons in
fledgling film industry, proposed founding of Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences to ensure that business would prosper
in coming decades.
Alan Peacock & Ronald Weir with a preface by
Asa Briggs (1975).
The Composer in the Market place. (London, UK: Faber
Music, 171 p.). Music--Economic aspects; Copyright--Music--Great
Britain; Musicians--Great Britain--Legal status, laws, etc.
Diane Pecknold (2007).
The Selling Sound: The Rise of the Country Music Industry.
(Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 294 p.). Assistant Professor
in Women's and Gender Studies and Program Coordinator for the
College of Arts and Sciences Office of International Programs (University
of Louisville). Country music -- History and criticism; Music
trade -- United States; Country music -- Social aspects.
Commercialism, cultural value of country music.
L. A. D. Perera (1992).
The Rise, Decline, and Fall of Hollywood's Mighty Empires.
(New York, NY: Vantage Press, 111 p.). Motion picture
industry--United States--History; Hollywood (Los Angeles,
Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco (2002).
Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 352 p.). Cornell
University; Lesley University (UK). Moog synthesizer.
David Puttnam with Neil Watson (1998).
Movies and Money. (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 337
p.). Lord Puttnam, Oscar-winning Producer, Former Chairman of
Columbia Pictures, 1986-88. Motion picture industry--Economic
aspects--United States; Motion picture industry--Economic
aspects--Europe. Story of American dominance of the film
Christopher Rawlence (1990).
The Missing Reel: The Untold Story of the Lost Inventor of
Moving Pictures. (New York, NY: Atheneum, 306 p.). Le
Prince, Louis Aimé Augustin, 1842-1890; Inventors--Great
Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince (http://ics.leeds.ac.uk/papers/llp/exhibits/38/leprince.gif)
Julie Salamon (1991).
The Devil's Candy: The Bonfire of the Vanities Goes to Hollywood.
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 434 p.). Reporter (Wall Street
Journal). Wolfe, Tom--Film and video adaptations; Bonfire of the
vanities (Motion picture).
Russell Sanjek (1988).
American Popular Music and Its Business: The First Four Hundred
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 3 vols.). Popular
music--United States--History and criticism; Music--United
States--History and criticism; Music trade--United
States--History and criticism. Contents: v. 1. The beginning to
1790 -- v. 2. From 1790 to 1909 -- v. 3. From 1900 to 1984.
Russell Sanjek, David Sanjek (1991).
American Popular Music Business in the 20th Century.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 334 p.). Popular
music--United States--History and criticism; Music--United
States--20th century--History and criticism; Music trade--United
F. M. Scherer (2004).
Quarter Notes and Bank Notes: The Economics of Music Composition
in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. (Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press, 256 p.). Aetna Professor
Emeritus (Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government.
Composers--Economic conditions--18th century;
Composers--Economic conditions--19th century.
Allen J. Scott (2005).
On Hollywood: The Place, the Industry. (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 264 p.). Professor of Policy Studies
and Geography (UCLA). Motion picture industry--California--Los
geography of motion-picture production from early twentieth
century to present.
Michael Sedgwick & Michael Pokorny (2004).
An Economic History of Film. (New York, NY: Routledge,
352 p.). Motion picture industry--Economic aspects--United
States. Economic framework
for understanding developments in film history.
Kerry Segrave (2004).
Product Placement in Hollywood Films: A History.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 244 p.). Product placement in mass
media--United States--History; Motion pictures in
Hugh Richard Slotten (2009).
Radio’s Hidden Voice: The Origins of Public Broadcasting in the
United States. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Press, 325 p.). Senior Lecturer (University of Otago, New
Zealand). Broadcasting --United States --History --20th century.
Historical importance of alternative means of radio
broadcasting, based especially on
commitment to providing noncommercial service for public;
operated largely by universities and colleges to entertain,
educate, inform, enlighten, uplift local citizens; role of
faculty members in physics, electrical engineering, other
technical fields; noncommercial
alternative to emerging commercial broadcast system.
Robert H. Stanley (1978).
The Celluloid Empire: A History of the American Movie Industry.
(New York, NY: Hastings House, 328 p.). Motion picture
David Suisman (2009).
Selling Sounds: The Commercial Revolution in American Music.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 368 p.). Assistant
Professor of History (University of Delaware). Music trade
--United States; Music --United States --History and criticism.
Commercial architecture of America’s musical life; rise of music
as big business, creation of radically new musical culture;
origins of culture industry in music, how music
ignited auditory explosion that penetrated all aspects of
society; growth of music business across social landscape;
roots of modern culture lie in business of
popular song, player-pianos, phonographs of century ago.
Ruth Towse (1993). Singers in the Marketplace:
The Economics of the Singing Profession. (New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 252 p.). Reader in Cultural Industries
(Erasmus University, Rotterdam). Singers --Great Britain
--Economic conditions; Voice teachers --Great Britain --Economic
conditions. Economics of singing
profession in Britain, particularly in relation to training of
"classical" singers, performers, teachers.
John Trumpbour (2002).
Selling Hollywood to the World: U.S. and European Struggles for
Mastery of the Global Film Industry, 1920-1950. (New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 378 p.). Motion pictures,
American Marketing; Motion picture industry United States
History; Motion picture industry Europe History.
Harold L. Vogel (2004).
Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 611 p. [6th ed.]).
Nine-Time Selection as Top Leisure Industry Analyst by
Institutional Investor Magazine. Performing arts--Finance.
Alexander Walker (1974).
Hollywood UK: The British Film Industry in the Sixties.
(New York, NY: Stein and Day, 493 p.). Late Film Critic for
Evening Standard (1959-2003). Motion picture industry--Great
Alexander Walker; introduced by Joseph
Icons in the Fire: The Rise and Fall of Practically Everyone in
the British Film Industry, 1984-2000. (London, UK:
Orion, 328 p.). Late Film Critic for Evening Standard
(1959-2003). Motion picture industry--Great Britain--History;
Motion pictures--Great Britain--History.
Janet Wasko (1982).
Movies and Money: Financing the American Film Industry.
(Norwood, NJ: ABLEX Pub. Corp., 247 p.). Motion picture
David Waterman (2005).
Hollywood's Road to Riches. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 416 p.). Professor, Department of
Telecommunications (Indiana University, Bloomington). Motion
picture industry--United States; Motion pictures--Economic
Arthur Frank Wertheim (2005).
Vaudeville Wars: How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits
Controlled the Big-Time and Its Performers. (New York,
NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 360 p.). Former American History
Professor (University of Southern California).
Vaudeville--United States--History--19th century;
Vaudeville--United States--History--20th century.
How the tycoons of two most
powerful circuits conspired to control the big time (1890 to
Craig Whitney (2003).
All the Stops: The Glorious Pipe Organ and Its American Masters.
(New York, NY: Public Affairs, 323 p.). Assistant Managing
Editor (New York Times). Organ (Musical instrument)--United
States--History; Organ builders--United States.
Steve J. Wurtzler (2006).
Electric Sounds: Technological Change and the Rise of Corporate
Mass Media. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press,
393 p.). Mass media--Technological innovations--United
States--History--20th century; Mass media--Ownership--United
States--History--20th century; Sound--Recording and
reproducing--History--20th century. Form technology takes is shaped
by conflicting visions of technological possibility in economic,
cultural, political realms; process through which technologies
become media, ways in which media are integrated into American
Paul Zollo (2002).
Hollywood Remembered: An Oral History of Its Golden Age.
(New York, NY: Cooper Square Press, 376 p.). Motion picture
industry --California --Los Angeles --History; Motion pictures
--California --Los Angeles --Biography; Hollywood (Los Angeles,
Business History Links
50th Annual Monterey Jazz Festival
"The world's longest-running jazz festival [held in Monterey,
CA] celebrates its golden anniversary [in 2007] with specially
commissioned piece by Gerald Wilson, performances by many jazz
luminaries. Hear NPR's coverage, selection of concerts recorded
by WBGO." Coverage includes performances by Dave Brubeck, Otis
Taylor, high school musicians. From National Public Radio (NPR).
Emile Berliner and the Birth of the
Emile Berliner, an innovative entrepreneur of the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries, invented the microphone, flat recording
disc, and gramophone player. This online exhibit of Mr. Berliner
draws from the Emile Berliner papers and sound recordings of the
Library of Congress's Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded
Sound Division Industry. The collection consists of over 400
items from the manuscript collection and more than 100 sound
recordings from the disc collection. Items in the collection
range from correspondence, articles, lectures, and speeches to
scrapbooks, photographs, clippings, and recordings. Most of the
items date from the 1870s to the early 1930s, with a few items
dating as late as 1956. Viewers may search the collection by
keyword, or browse by recordings, subject, title, series, or
Birth of the Movies
Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University
of San Diego.
The Center for Cartoon Studies
Based in White River Junction, Vermont, offers courses and
degree programs centered "on the creation and dissemination of
comics, graphic novels and other manifestations of the visual
narrative." Visitors to their website can learn about: formal
academic programs; recent work from students, alumni, and
faculty members; "Events" calendar; the "Visiting Artist"; their
Flickr photos which document the Center's activities; the
"Schulz Library" provides information about this resource,
offers a link to a separate blog; set of links to books
published by the Center.
Launched in December 2000, Cinema Treasures is a devoted to
movie theater preservation and awareness; unites movie theater
owners and enthusiasts in a common cause—to save the last
remaining movie palaces across the country.
Disney-Related Books and Periodicals
Over the years, many authors have written about different
aspects of the Disney vision. The following list, which covers
subjects from films to personalities and art to imagineering,
forms the backbone of the Disney archives featured here in
Thomas Alva Edison Patent Collection
Patent Numbers 1 (06/01/1869) - 1084 (05/16/1933).
Films Ranked by Production Costs and
Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University
of San Diego.
Kenneth G. Fiske Museum of Musical
An eclectic museum of over 1,200 musical instruments made in
Europe, America, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean,
the South Pacific, and Australia dating from the 17th through
the 20th centuries. Instrument types include keyboards, brass,
woodwind, stringed, percussion, mechanical, and electronic.
The History of Props: A Timeline of
Props and Product Usage
Curated directory of theatre resources by Richard Finkelstein,
Professor of Theatre Design at James Madison University; run as
a service to all the arts and to artists, and the public.
IFPI (International Federation of the
Represents the recording industry worldwide, with a membership
comprising some 1400 record companies in 73 countries and
affiliated industry associations in 48 countries. IFPI's mission
is to promote the value of recorded music, safeguard the rights
of record producers and expand the commercial uses of recorded
music in all markets where its members operate; affiliated with
the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the
organisation responsible for the world's largest music market.
Inventions of Note: Sheet Music
"This sheet music collection consists of popular songs and piano
compositions that portray technologies (old and new alike) as
revealed through song texts and/or cover art." Technologies
include automobile, airplane, radio, and telephone, and most
items date from 1890-1920. A small number of entries include
sound files (such as "Kissing Papa through the Telephone").
Browsable by title. From the Lewis Music Library, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT).
London Music Trades, 1750-1800
Eighteenth century London bustled with musicians of all stripes,
including those in related professions, such as music
publishers, composers, and instrument makers. This database,
created by the Royal College of Music's Centre for Performance
History, provides basic biographical information about
individuals, much of which is derived by a range of archival
material that includes insurance records, wills, and
apprenticeship records. On the left-hand side of the main page,
users will note six primary sections, including "Insurance
Records", "Poll Books", and "Wills". Within each section,
visitors can read a brief summary about each type of historical
document, then begin their search of the records.
Bob Moog Biography
Biographical information about Robert Moog, who developed an
electronic music synthesizer in the early 1960s, and who died in
August 2005. Also includes links to information about the
theremin (an early electronic instrument invented by Leon
Theremin), current Moog synthesizer instruments, and a photo
gallery. From the company that manufactures Moog synthesizers.
Subjects: Moog, Robert A.; Inventors; Moog Synthesizer;
Electronic musical instruments; People.
The museum was founded in 1985 by Esther Gordy Edwards. Its
mission is to preserve the legacy of Motown Record Corporation
and to educate and motivate people, especially youth, through
exhibitions and programs that promote the values of vision,
creativity and entrepreneurship. The museum exhibits trace the
roots of Motown’s remarkable story and chronicle its impact on
20th century popular culture and musical styles. The story began
in 1959 with Berry Gordy, Jr. and a small house in Detroit that
he christened Hitsville USA (now home to Motown Historical
Museum). Motown grew from a small startup
business into the largest independent record company in the
world by the mid-1970s.
Founded in 1988 by collectors and historians of cinema
machinery. The Society is devoted to collecting, displaying and
preservation of movie machinery, and the sharing of information
with all persons and entities interested in the technological
history of the devises designed to create moving images.
Silent Film Museum
Developed and maintained by Professor James H. Cook at
Birmingham - Southern College, this site is an online tutorial
that offers an interesting and interactive perspective of that
king of all instruments, the organ. The site is divided into
three main sections: The Organ and How it Works, Organ History,
and Geographical Tour. In the first section, visitors are taken
through a basic description of an organ, which then continues
into a discussion of the various parts of an organ, such as the
keyboards, consoles, pipes, chests, cases, and chambers. The
history section begins with the invention of what is commonly
understood to be the first organ, the ktseibios, built by a
Greek engineer working in the third century BCE. The final
section takes visitors on a chronological tour of the organ and
its development throughout a number of countries, including
England, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
Recording Technology History
Organized by Steve Schoenherr, Professor of History, University
of San Diego.
San Francisco Ballet at 75
75th anniversary season of San Francisco Ballet in 2008.
Features history of ballet company ("the oldest professional
ballet company in America"), which founded as San Francisco
Opera Ballet in 1933, details about events occurring throughout
year. Includes link to NBC11 interactive website with more
history of ballet company. From the official website for the San
Biographical material about Adolph Sax, the Belgian-born
inventor of the saxophone. Describes his "agitated childhood"
(which included many serious accidents), how his father
manufactured musical instruments, his move to Paris, his
invention of the saxophone, and the importance of the saxophone
to jazz music. In English and French. From the city of Dinant,
Belgium, birthplace of Sax.
Virtual Instrument Museum (Wesleyan
World Musical Instrument Collection of the Music Department of
Wesleyan University (established 2003). It contains three
classes of holdings: daily-use instructional instruments and
sets of instruments (e.g. gamelan, Ghanian drums, steelband);
instruments brought to Wesleyan by students, alumni and faculty;
and donated instruments. Search or browse alphabetically or by
instrument type, geographical region, or materials of their
construction. Entries include: where available, images, audio,
video, and QTVR, country of origin, classification into which
the instrument fits.
The Walt Disney
Produced and maintained by the Walt Disney Family Foundation, a
nonprofit organization. Founded in 1995, the Foundation strives
to promote education, writing, and scholarship about Walt
Disney. The Foundation is not affiliated with The Walt Disney
Company, although the site is hosted by Disney Online.
Women in Entertainment Power 100
Results from this annual survey by the Hollywood Reporter of
"the [entertainment] industry's top female executives." Profiles
are included for the top five women. Provides the ranking
criteria for the list. Does not include a link to archived lists
from past years. From the Hollywood Reporter.