March 14, 1837
- Wheatstone & Cooke sent first British telegraph message.
June 10, 1837 - Charles
Wheatstone, of Hanover Square, Middlesex, and William Fothergill
Cooke, of Breeds Place, Hastings, received an English patent for
electric "Five Needle Telegraph"; required six wires between
each of its stations; June 10,
1840 - received U. S. patent for an "Improvement
in the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph" ('new and useful improvements
in giving signals and sounding alarms in distant places by means
of electric currents transmitted through metallic circuits"); 10
days before Morse received patent, but Morse given priority as
first inventor; Morse patent described prototype of famous
dot-dash code; Wheatstone and Cooke had the priority in U.K.;
their telegraph had no means of recording messages (Morse
regarded it as great disadvantage).
Samuel Morse and partner, Alfred Vail, gave first public
demonstration of electric telegraphic system at Vail's Speedwell
Iron Works in Morristown, NJ (transmitted a sentence 2 miles);
January 24 - second demonstration at New
York University; February 21, 1838 - Morse
demonstrated telegraph to President Van Buren, Cabinet in
Washington; June 20, 1840 - Samuel F. B. Morse
received a patent for "Telegraph Signs" ("improvement in the
mode of communicating information by signals by the application
of electro-magnetism"); March 3, 1843 - Congress
passed bill to spend $30,000 for telegraph line between
Washington, DC and Baltimore; May 24, 1844 -
America's first telephone line finished, Morse sent to Baltimore
code for "What hath God wrought!";
June 13, 1848
- patent for "Improvement in Electro-Magnetic Telegraphs"
reissued; Morse code.
Samuel F. B. Morse
January 21, 1840
- Charles Wheatstone and W.F. Cooke received earliest English
alphabetic telegraph patent; ABC telegraph was popular in
England and Europe, did not require trained telegraphist
to read, send the messages; earliest practical application of
serial binary coded digital communication.
June 20, 1840
- Samuel F. B. Morse, of New York, NY, received a patent for
"Telegraph Signs" ("Improvement in the Mode of Communicating
Information by Signals by the Application of
Electro-Magnetism"); "American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph".
1843 - First
public telegraph line, from Paddington to Slough.
May 24, 1844
- American inventor Samuel F.B. Morse inaugurated world's first
commercial telegraph line in demonstration witnessed by
members of Congress; dispatched telegraph message ("What Hath
God Wrought?" from the Bible, Numbers 23:23 -suggested
to Morse by Annie Ellworth, daughter of the commissioner of
patents) from U.S. Capitol to Alfred Vail at railroad station in
Baltimore, MD; message telegraphed back to Capitol a moment
later by Vail.
1845 - First fee-for-service (commercial)
telegraph line (second line in U. S.) opened along railroad
right-of-way between Lancaster, PA and Harrisburg, PA;
January 8, 1946 -
first message received.
1846 - Royal E. House, of New York City,
received a patent for a "Printing Telegraph"; telegraph ticker
that would print letters of alphabet; able to print at rate of
50 words a minute in Roman letters.
June 5, 1846
- Telegraph line opened between Philadelphia and Baltimore.
June 27, 1847
- New York and Boston linked by telegraph wires.
June 10, 1848
- First telegraph link established between New York City and
1849 - Antonio
Meucci discovered the principle of the telephone (discovered
transmission of the human voice by electricity while applying
electrotherapy to a patient suffering of rheumatisms in his
head); 1859 -
developed a working model (many years before Alexander Graham
Bell's patent in 1876). However, the vagaries of history and the
patent office have determined that Antonio Meucci will only be
recognized in Italy as the true inventor of the telephone;
December 28, 1871
- filed his first patent caveat (notice of intention to take out
a patent), on "Talking Telegraph", renewed in 1872 and 1873 but,
fatefully, not thereafter; setting into motion a series of
mysterious events and injustices which would be incredible were
they not so well documented.
Meucci - invented telephone
May 1, 1849 -
Samuel F. B. Morse received a patent for a "Telegraph"
("improvement in electric telegraphs"); telegraph register;
incorporated basic features of 1844 receiver and method for
marking dots and dashes on paper.
April 1851 -
Group of businessmen in Rochester, NY formed The New York and
Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company;
1856 - Hiram
Sibley, Don Alonzo Watson acquired series of competing telegraph
systems (Ezra Cornell largest shareholder); changed name to The
Western Union Telegraph Company (signified union of "western"
telegraph lines with eastern lines");
1861 - completed first transcontinental
telegraph line, provided fast, coast-to-coast communications
during U.S. Civil War; 1866
- introduced first stock ticker, provided brokerage firms with
New York Stock Exchange quotations;
1870 - launched time service, helped to
standardize time nationally (held distinction as "The Nation's
Timekeeper" for nearly a century);
1871 - introduced Western Union Money
Transfer service; became company's primary business;
1884 - one of
original 11 stocks included in Dow Jones Average;
1914 - introduced
first consumer charge card; 1943
- pioneered first commercial inter-city microwave communications
system; June 13, 1950
- Western Union Telegraph Company registered "Western Union"
trademark first used April 4, 1856 (public and private
telegraph, facsimile, television and other wire and wireless
message transmission, and the sending and delivery of messages
by mail and by messenger); 1974
- introduced first commercial satellite in U.S.;
1980 - revenue
from money transfer service exceeded telegram service revenue
for first time in Western Union history;
1987 - acquired by Brooke Partners L.P.
(Bennett S. LeBow); 1990
- telex, other business services acquired by AT&T for $180
million as part of reorganization;
1991 - formed New Valley Corporation
(holding company to shield Western Union name from bankruptcy
- introduced first prepaid, disposable telephone card;
November 1994 -
forced to sell money transfer services (Western Union Financial
Services Inc.) as part of Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization;
acquired at auction by First Financial Management Corporation;
1995 - merged with
First Data Corporation in &7 billion deal; became First Data
Corporation subsidiary; 2005
- world's largest money transfer business with $4 billion in
revenue - wired more than 275 million transactions per year to
271,000 agencies in Europe, Asia and Latin America;
2006 - handled 147
million consumer-to-consumer money transfers, 249 million
September 29 2006 - Western Union
Financial Services, Inc. spun off.
Hiram Sibley -
November 13, 1851
- Telegraph service began between London and Paris.
May 20, 1856 -
David Edward Hughes. of Louisville, KY, received patent for a
"Telegraph"; first telegraph ticker that successfully printed
type; 1857 - sold rights for $100,000 to the Commercial Co.
May 19, 1857
- William F. Channing, of Boston, MA, Moses G. Farmer, of Salem,
MA, received a patent for an "Electromagnetic Fire Alarm
Telegraph for Cities" ("to give an instantaneous and definite
alarm, either general or local, in a city or town, in case of
fire"); first municipal electric fire alarm system; used call
boxes, circuit between signal station,
central station, alarm station
with automatic signaling to indicate fire's location.
August 4, 1858 -
Cyrus W. Field completed Atlantic cable, established telegraphic
communication between U.S. and England (had conceived idea of
telegraph cable in 1854, secured charter to lay well-insulated
line across floor of Atlantic Ocean; obtained aid of British and
American naval ships; made four unsuccessful attempts in 1857;
four British, American vessels [Agamemnon, Valorous, Niagara,
Gorgon] met in mid-ocean for fifth attempt in July 1858; Niagara
and Gorgon, with their load of cable, departed for Trinity Bay,
Newfoundland, Agamemnon and Valorous embarked for Valentia,
Ireland on July 29, 1858); August
5, 1858 - ship Niagra, anchored at Newfoundland
coast, laid 1016 miles of cable; days later other end of cable
successfully landed in Ireland; stretched nearly 2,000 miles
across Atlantic at depth often of more than two miles;
August 16, 1858 -
President James Buchanan exchanged formal introductory,
complimentary messages with Queen Victoria; took nearly 18 hours
to reach Newfoundland (99 words, 509 letters, averaged about 2
minutes per letter; message forwarded across Newfoundland by
overhead wire supported on poles; across Cabot Strait by
submarine cable to Aspy Bay, Cape Breton; by overhead wire
across eastern Canada and Maine, via Boston to New York);
September 1858 -
cable proved weak, current insufficient, ceased functioning;
1866 - improved
cable laid successfully.
October 8, 1860 -
Telegraph line between Los Angeles and San Francisco opened.
October 24, 1861 -
Western Union Telegraph Company linked eastern, western
telegraph networks of nation at Salt Lake City, UT; completed
transcontinental line, allowed instantaneous communication
between Washington, DC, and San Francisco (eight years before
the transcontinental railroad would be completed); Stephen J.
Field, chief justice of California, sent first transcontinental
telegram to President Abraham Lincoln, predicted that the new
communication link would help ensure the loyalty of the western
states to the Union during the Civil War.
May 24, 1862 -
Field telegraph used for first time in U.S. warfare; army
general's headquarters near Williamsport, VA. connected by wire
to dvance guard several miles away at Mechanicsville, VA.
May 12, 1865 -
Finnish mining engineer Fredrik Idestam granted operating permit
by the Finnish Senate; 1866
- wood-pulp mill began production beside lower falls of the
Tammerkoski Rapids in Tampere;
1871 - transformed firm into share company,
founded Nokia Ltd, with Leo Mechelin (statesman, Finland's most
prominent public figure in the late 19th century), transferred
all activities to Nokia (Idestam's mills, Nokia Manor, its
interest in Nokia Rapids); 1967
- Nokia Ltd. (original paper-making business) merged with
Finnish Rubber Works and Finnish Cable Works (established 1912),
formed Nokia Corporation.
July 27, 1866
- After two failures, Cyrus W. Field succeeded in laying first
underwater telegraph cable between North America, Europe.
1869 - Elisha
Gray, customer, bought interest of George Shawk, part owner of
Cleveland manufacturing shop associated with Western Union
telegraph companies; formed Gray and Barton, partnership with
Enos N. Barton, former chief telegraph operator for Western
Union at Rochester, NY; Anson Stager, Western Union general
superintendent, joined partnership;
1872 - reorganized as the Western
Electric Manufacturing Company after Stager convinced Western
Union president William Orton to invest in manufacturing
enterprise; became Western Union's principal supplier;
1875 - Gray sold
his interest, retired; 1878
- Western Union established American Speaking Telephone Co.,
Western Electric agreed to manufacture telephones for new
company (already distributor of telephone equipment for new Bell
company); September 1878
- Bell Telephone Co. sued to protect Alexander Graham Bell's
patents from infringement by Western Union;
November 1879 -
Western Union abandoned field; surrendered all patents, claims,
network, inventory in return for 20% of phone rentals over next
17 years (life of Bell patents); new company, American Bell
Telephone Company, chartered; 1880
- largest electrical manufacturing company in United States;
1881 - Alexander
Graham Bell acquired controlling interest;
1882 - joined Bell System, became Bell's
exclusive manufacturer of telephones in United States, sold only
to American Bell Telephone Company (leased phones to regional
"operating" companies, leased phones to end users); long
distance service (1881) handled by parent company, local service
by operating companies, manufacture by Western Electric;
1907 - Theodore N.
Vail, President of AT&T, combined AT&T (formerly American Bell),
Western Electric engineering departments into single
organization, Western Electric Research Laboratories;
1925 - sold
International Western Electric Company subsidiary to ITT;
Research Laboratories (engineering department) became Bell
Laboratories, greatest private research organization in world;
December 23, 1947
- transistor invented (3 Bell Labs scientists received 1956
Nobel Prize in Physics for invention);
1956 - Justice Department antitrust
consent decree ordered Bell System to divest all non-telephone
activities (except those involving national defense); sold
Canadian manufacturing holdings; January
1, 1984 - AT&T agreed to divest local Bell
telephone companies; established new unit, AT&T Technologies;
assumed Western Electric's charter;
February 1996 - AT&T Technologies
systems and technology units, combined with Bell Labs, renamed
Lucent Technologies; April 1996
- Lucent went public; September
30, 1996 - AT&T spin off of Lucent Technologies
completed; December 1, 2006
- completed merger with Alcatel (Societe Alsacienne de
Constructions Atomiques, de Telecommunications et d'
Electronique); renamed Alcatel-Lucent.
June 7, 1870 -
Frank L. Pope, of Elizabeth, NJ, and Thomas A. Edison received a
patent for an "Improvement in Printing-Telegraph Instruments"
("communications may not only be recorded automatically in
printed characters, at one or more distant points, at the
pleasure of transmitting operator, but by which this result may
be accomplished with greater certainty and in a much more simple
July 30, 1872
- Mahlon Loomis received a patent for an "Improvement in
Telegraphing" ("new and Improved Mode of Telegraphing and of
Generating Light, Heat and Motive-Power"); wireless radio.
October 22, 1872
- Thomas A. Edison received patents for an improvement in "Paper
for Chemical Telegraphs" ( using a very thin paste of flour and
water that with a solution of potassium iodide would penetrate
the paper fabric) and for an improved "Apparatus for Perforating
Paper for Telegraph Use" (a compact machine to punch perforated
tape used to transmit telegraphic messages - a single hole for a
dot or three holes for a dash).
February 4, 1873 - Thomas A. Edison was
received a patent for an "Improvement in Circuits for Chemical
Telegraphs"; method to sharpen the pulses, reduce problem of
marks running together on chemical paper from electric action of
one pulsation from telegraph wire not clearing before next
July 1, 1873 -
Thomas Edison received a patent for an "Improvement to Circuits
for Chemical Telegraphs"; concerned a method to reduce problem
of marks running together on chemical paper from electric action
of one pulsation from telegraph wire not clearing before next
followed; May 3, 1892 - Thomas Edison received a patent for a
1874 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for
"Automatic Telegraphy and in Perforators Therefor"; produced
message directly onto strip of paper such that it was ready to
be folded, sent to its destination immediately; letters formed
by 5x5 square of 25 punch wires.
1875 - Gardiner G. Hubbard, of
Cambridge, MA, and Thomas Sanders, of Haverhill, MA, agreed to
finance work of Alexander Graham Bell who was trying to invent
talking telegraph -- a telephone;
April 6, 1875 - Alexander Graham Bell, of Salem,
MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in Transmitters and
Receivers for Electric Telegraphs"; assigned to Hubbard and
Sanders; March 7, 1876
- received a patent for "Improvement in Telegraphy"; Bell's
speaking telephone; July 9, 1877
- Bell, Greene, Hubbard, Thomas Watson formed Bell Telephone
Company to exploit invention; 1878
- Bell sold his interest to group of financiers;
January 28, 1878 -
first telephone exchange operated under license from Bell
Telephone opened in New Haven, CT;
July 30, 1878 - reorganized Bell
Telephone Company incorporated in Massachusetts;
mid-1878 - Hubbard
named Theodore Vail, Superintendent of Railway Mail Services, as
general manager of Bell Company;
February 17, 1879 - merged with New England
Telephone Company (formed February 12, 1878), renamed National
Bell Telephone Company; nationwide licensing company to speed
establishment of telephone service to cities throughout country;
1882 - American
Bell acquired controlling interest in Western Electric Company
(became its manufacturing unit);
March 3, 1885 - American Telephone and Telegraph
Company incorporated as wholly owned subsidiary of American
Bell, chartered to build, operate original long distance
telephone network; December 30,
1899 - AT&T acquired assets of American Bell,
became parent company of Bell System.
January 19, 1875 -
Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Improvement in
3, 1875 - Alexander Bell used "harmonic
telegraph" to transmit a twanging sound from a reed vibrated by
Bell's voice along wires to Watson; transmitted voice-like
sounds, words were not recognizable;
June 3, 1880 - Alexander Graham Bell
transmitted first wireless telephone message on newly-invented
photophone; projected his voice through an instrument towards a
mirror; voice vibrations caused similar vibrations in mirror;
Bell directed sunlight into the mirror, which captured and
projected the mirror's vibrations which could be deconstructed
back into sound at the receiving end of the projection;
photophone functioned similarly to the telephone but photophone
used light to project information, telephone used electricity.
February 18, 1876 - Direct telegraph link
established between Britain and New Zealand.
March 7, 1876 -Alexander Graham
Bell, of Salem, MA, received a patent for an "Improvement in
Telegraphy" (February 14, 1876 - Bell and rival inventor Elisha
Gray had applied for patents for telephone within hours of one
U.S. Supreme Court
eventually ruled Bell the rightful inventor);
granted ownership over both telephone instruments and
concept of a telephone system;
1876 - made first successful voice transmission,
telephone call, in Boston as his assistant heard Bell say, ''Mr.
Watson, come here. I want you''; first successful experiment
with the telephone; later that year, Bell succeeded in making a
phone call over outdoor lines; June 6, 1876 -
received patent for an "Improvement in Telephonic
Telegraph-Receivers"; January 30, 1877 - received
a patent for an "Improvement in Electric Telegraphy".
Magnus Ericsson opened electro-mechanical workshop in a rented
kitchen in Stockholm to repair telegraph instruments and other
electrical devices; working capital was 1,000 kronor, borrowed
from a Mrs. Maria Stromberg of Nygard; company named L.M.
Ericsson & Co.; November 1878 - delivery of the
first telephones of Ericsson's manufacture.
May 30, 1876
- Thomas a. Edison received three patents for a "Improvement in
Duplex Telegraphs"; enabled transmitted signal be sent on same
wire as received signal.
1876 - After two failures, Cyrus W. Field succeeded in
laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North
America and Europe.
October 9, 1876
- First two-way telephone conversation occurred over outdoor
wires between Alexander Graham Bell and Watson over telegraph
line linking Boston and East Cambridge.
February 12, 1877
- News dispatch from Salem, MA to Boston Globe in Boston, MA
(distance of sixteen miles) sent using Alexander Graham Bell's
new invention, the telephone, for first time in U.S.
April 15, 1877
- First telephone installed: Boston-Somerville, Massachusetts.
August 22, 1877 - Alexander Graham
Bell received a Canadian patent for "Improvements
on Electric Telephony"
$1, 75% interest in patent to Melville Bell (father); father of
Canadian telephone industry; December 1878 - Hugh
C. Baker (Hamilton, ON) opened first Canadian switchboard (8
lines) for Hamilton and District Telephone Company; 1879
- patent rights acquired by William H. Forbes, associates in
National Bell Telephone Company (Boston, MA); 1880
Fleetford Sise appointed special agent in Canada of
Bell Telephone Co.;
February 1880 - Baker petitioned Parliament to
enact legislation to create bell telephone Company of Canada;
April 29, 1880 - The Bell Telephone Company of Canada
incorporated by Act of Parliament; Sise
subsidiary, The Bell Telephone Company of Canada (considered
founder of Company); became VP, second president from 1890-
1915; subscribers rose from 2,100 in 1880 to 237,000 in 1914;
July 24, 1882 - established Mechanical Department,
with 3 employees, to manufacture telephone sets; December
7, 1895 - manufacturing division spun off as Northern
Electric & Manufacturing Company Limited (branch plant of
Western Electric); March 7, 1968 - use of
corporate name "Bell Canada" authorized; June 1, 2003
- major restructuring from geographic focus to three customer
market segments: Consumer, Small and Medium-sized Business,
Fleetford Sise - founder Bell
Telephone Company of Canada
August 15, 1877
- Thomas Edison coined telephone greeting "Hello"; suggested its
use to president of Telegraph Company to answer the phone
instead of "Ahoy" suggested by Alexander Bell.
- Western Union established
Speaking Telephone Company (Elisha
to compete with Bell Company;
January 14, 1878
- First demonstration of Alexander Graham Bell's telephone to
Queen Victoria at her Osborne House estate on the Isle of Wight;
she ordered a private line to be laid between Osborne House, on
the Isle of Wight, and Buckingham Palace.
January 15, 1878
- George W. Coy (backed by Herrick P.
Frost, Walter Lewis) incorporated District Telephone Company of
New Haven in New Haven, CT (awarded a Bell
telephone franchise for New Haven
and Middlesex counties on November 3, 1877); January 28,
1878 - opened world's first telephone exchange (8
connecting lines strung together, crude switchboard used
carriage bolts, handles from teapot lids, bustle wire, served 21
subscribers who paid $1.50/month);
February 21, 1878
- issued first U.S. telephone directory; listed about 50 names;
April 15, 1878 - set up world's first
telephone booth; May 28, 1878
- reorganized The Connecticut District Telephone Company;
October 12, 1878 - name changed to The District
Telephone and Automatic Signal
Company; 1880 - reorganized as The Connecticut
October 2, 1882 - incorporated as Southern New
England Telephone (SNET).
September 1, 1878
- Emma Nutt of Boston became first female telephone operator.
October 22, 1878
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Quadruplex-Telegraph
Repeaters"; electromagnets, local circuits, switches,
connections of quadruplex circuit; messages repeated
automatically into one circuit by receiving instrument of other
circuit, instead of finger key operated by hand.
- Telephone numbers first used, in Lowell, MA, during epidemic
of measles; Dr. Moses Greeley Parker feared that Lowell's four
operators might succumb, paralyze telephone service; recommended
use of numbers, rather than individual names, for calling more
than 200 subscribers; substitute operators could be more easily
trained, in event of emergency; created telephone directory
- one of largest individual stockholders in American Telephone
Company, New England Telephone and Telegraph Company; holdings
grew into fortune.
Dr. Moses Greeley Parker
- first used telephone numbers
September 6, 1879
- Telephone Company Ltd. opened first public British telephone
exchange in Lombard Street, London (used Edison's system);
members paid subscription (origin of term "subscriber");
served eight subscribers with two-panel Williams switchboard;
end of year - about 200 subscribers, two more exchanges opened
(Leadenhall Street in City, and at Westminster); 1880
- company opened telephone exchanges in Glasgow, Manchester,
Liverpool, Sheffield, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Bristol.
December 9, 1879
- M. Daniel Connolly of Philadelphia, Thomas A. Connolly of
Washington, DC. and Thomas J. McTighe of Pittsburgh received
patent for an "Automatic Telephone-Exchange"; automatic
telephone switching system; single-line wire, battery of cells
located at each telephone, dial switching mechanism for each
line; not introduced commercially but introduced general
principle of later dial systems.
June 1, 1880
- Connecticut Telephone Co. installed first pay telephone
service in United States, for public use, in its office in New
Haven, CT; toll given to an attendant; January 28, 1878
- New Haven exchange founded; 1880 - company had
right to build exchanges in any part of Connecticut, western
Massachusetts, had right to interconnect exchanges; early toll
lines from Bridgeport to New Haven to Hartford.
1880 - Francis Blake, of Weston, MA received a
patent for an "Individual Cal-Bell" ("...by which the automatic
operation of the dial at the central office may be made to
coincide with the automatic operation of the dial at either of
the out stations"); March 8, 1881-
received a patent for a "Telephone" ("...to increase the volume
and distinctiveness of transmitted speech...");
February 8, 1887 -
received a patent for a "Telephone-Transmitter"; assigned to the
American Bell Telephone Company;
January 1, 1889 - received a patent for a
"Speaking Telephone"; Blake Transmitter for telephone
communications, significant advancement in communication
technology, used widely by Bell Telephone Company, enabled Bell
to prevail in protracted patent infringement litigation with
Thomas Edison (feeble receiver-transmitter) and Western Union
(settled out of court, surrendered all its patents, all
June 3, 1880 - Alexander Graham Bell transmitted
first wireless telephone message on his newly-invented
August 31, 1880
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Electro-Chemical
Receiving-Telephone" ("to transmit and reproduce over
telegraph-wires speech or other sounds telephonically").
January 19, 1881
- Western Union (William Vanderbilt's telegraph company)
acquired Atlantic and Pacific Company (founded by Jay Gould) =
ploy for Gould takeover of Western Union; raised doubts about
Western Union's leadership and dominance over the industry - WU
stock dropped, bought Gould's company; Gould instigated
post-acquisition bear raid on WU......bought stock while others
sold; gained majority control over WU.
November 29, 1881
- Francis Blake, of Weston, MA, received a patent for a
1882 - Bell
Telephone Co. of Canada started manufacturing division (13
employees by year-end); 1895 - spun
off into Northern Electric and Manufacturing Co.;
1914 - merged with
Imperial Wire & Cable Co.; formed Northern Electric Co. Ltd.
(Bell Canada majority owner);
- went public;
1976 - innovated in
commercial application of packet switching (technology at heart
of Internet); name changed to Northern Telecom;
1979 - launched
DMS-100, 100,000-line digital switch; enabled phone companies to
develop add-on services for additional fees with no additional
cost (in the software); emerged as manufacturer of telecom
equipment; 1998 -
renamed Nortel Networks; July 2000
- peak of $124.50/share; October
2002 - stock at $.67/share;
April 2004 - Frank
Dunn, successor as CFO fired; Bill Owens, former U.S. admiral,
took over as CEO; June 2004
- Dunn charged with accounting fraud;
February 8, 2006 -
said it would pay $2.47 billion to settle two class-action suits
from accounting scandal; October
15, 2006 - paid $35 million to settle civil
charges filed by SEC related to accounting scandal;
November 10, 2008
- announced 1,300 layoffs, froze salary increases, reviewed
real-estate portfolio, posted $3.4 billion quarterly loss;
January 14, 2009 -
filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in United States
January 17, 1882
- Thomas A. Edison received patent for a "Telephone";
carbon microphone; finely divided conducting material, such as
carbon, between metal cups mounted on arms attached to
mouthpiece diaphragm; changes in current correspond to pitch and
amplitude of sound; one arm conducts electrical current to
carbon button, other from it.
January 17, 1882
- Leroy Firman of Chicago, IL, received a patent for a "Multiple
Switchboard for Telephone Exchanges"; telephone switchboard;
addressed problem of increasing numbers of subscribers; handled
exchange of thousand or more subscribers with line status
information exchanged between switchmen; assigned to Western
Electric Manufacturing Co.
1883 - Long-distance telephone service inaugurated
between Chicago and New York City.
March 27, 1884 - Branch managers
of American Bell Telephone Company in Boston called their
counterparts in New York City in first long-distance telephone
call; June 19, 1900 - Michael I. Pupin, of
Yonkers, NY, received a patent for the "Art of Reducing
Attenuation of Electrical Waves and Apparatus Therefor"; method
to transmit telephone signals over long distances to maintain
clarity; 1901 - patent acquired by Bell Telephone
March 3, 1885
- American Telephone and Telegraph Company incorporated as
wholly owned subsidiary of American Bell.
April 7, 1885
- Granville T. Woods, of Cincinnati, OH, received a patent for
an "Apparatus for Transmission of Messages by Electricity";
assigned to American Bell Telephone Company.
August 24, 1886
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for an "Electrode for
Telephone-Transmitters" ("to increase the effectiveness in use
of such electrodes").
- Groeneveld, Van der Pol & Co. established Elektrotechnische
Fabriek N.V. ("Groeneveld") subsidiary, installer of control,
technical equipment for utilities, construction, ship-building
industries, incorporated; 1950
- formed Technisch Verkoop Kantoor Groenpol ("Groenpol"),
separate sales division; 1968
- Groenpol NV merged with Geveke NV, formed Geveke & Groenpol
N.V. (business units of each company continued to operate
- acquired by Steenkolen Handelsvereniging NV;
1983 - Geveke
Electronics acquired by management in leveraged buy-out
(subsidiary companies brought under parent company, Geveke
Electronics International N.V.);
May 23, 1985 - went public as Geveke Electronics
NV; 1988 - name
changed to Getronics NV; October
23, 2007 - acquired by KPN
(formerly Koninklijke PTT Nederland, controlled by national
Dutch postal services until privatization began in 1994),
main provider of telecommunication services in The Netherlands;
2009 - worldwide
revenue of €2.5 billion, about 20,000 employees; leading ICT
service-provider in world, largest ICT service-provider in
February 14, 1888
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a
August 13, 1889
Gray, of Hartford, CT, received a patent for a "Coin-Controlled
Apparatus for Telephones" ("may be used in connection with a
telephone as a pay-station, the said apparatus being provided
with a coin-controlled lock that prevents the sending of
messages, while it will allow them to be received"); pay phone;
April 22, 1890 - received a second patent for a
"Coin-Controlled Apparatus for Telephones" "to control and
compel the payment of the fee or toll before the connections
desired are made"); January 18, 1898 - received a
third patent for a "Coin-Controlled Apparatus for Telephones"
("for the purpose of automatically collecting toll for the use
of the instrument at a station and for apprising the central
office by distinctive signals that the requisite toll has been
paid"); assigned to Gray Telephone Pay Station Company.
1890 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a
"Quadruplex Telegraph"; designed to transmit and receive four
independent messages over a single wire, without interference
with each other, two in one direction and two in the opposite
direction; September 30, 1890
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Telegraphy".
March 10, 1891 -
Almon B. Strowger, an undertaker from Kansas City, MO, received
a patent for an "Automatic Telephone-Exchange" ("improvement in
automatic, telephonic, telegraphic, and other electrical
exchanges"); October 1891 - Auto Electric Company formed;
November 3, 1892 -
first Strowger telephone exchange opened in LaPorte, IN, with
about seventy-five subscribers; used three keys, one for each
digit of a three-digit number; subscriber pressed each key the
appropriate number of times for each digit;
November 29, 1892
- received a second patent for an "Automatic Telephone and Other
18, 1891 - First telephone link between London &
June 2, 1891
- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for a "Sextuplex
October 18, 1892
- The first long distance telephone line between Chicago and New
York was opened; Chicago Mayor Hempstead Washburn greeted his
New York counterpart, Hugh J. Grant.
November 3, 1892 -
First automatic telephone exchange, using switching device
invented by Almon B. Strowger, opened to public in LaPorte, IN,
with about 75 subscribers; did not use a dial to enter desired
number; used three keys, one for each digit of a three-digit
number (subscriber pressed each key appropriate number of times
for each digit).
December 7, 1895
- Bell Telephone Company of Canada spun-off manufacturing arm,
incorporated as Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company
Limited; supplied telecommunications equipment for Canada's
fledgling telephone system; 1900 - began
manufacturing first wind-up gramophones; 1914 -
merged with Imperial Cable, formed Northern Electric (co-owned
by Bell Canada, U.S. company Western Electric); 1922
- started manufacturing radios; 1928 - produced
first talking movie sound system in British Empire for theatre
in Montreal; 1953 - produced first television sets
(used tubes made by RCA); 1964 - acquired by Bell
Canada; 1983 - Bell Canada Enterprises formed as
parent company to Bell Canada, Northern Telecom; 1998
- acquired Bay Networks, name changed to Nortel Networks;
2000 - spun-off from Bell Canada Enterprises;
February 2008 - approximately 32,550 employees
First dial phones (with projecting vanes instead of holes) used
in Milwaukee's City Hall; 1912 - first Strowger
exchange opened in UK at Epsom in Surrey.
December 12, 1896
- Guglielmo Marconi gave first public demonstration of radio at
Toynbee Hall, London.
January 15, 1897 -
Lee De Forest, of New York, NY, received a patent for a "Device
for Amplifying Feeble Electrical Currents" ("...such as
May 14, 1897
Guglielmo Marconi, of
London, England, sent first communication by wireless
July 2, 1897 -
received British patent for
"Improvements in Transmitting Electrical Impulses and Signals,
and in Apparatus Therefor"; wireless telegraphy apparatus;
Wireless Telegraph and
Signal Company in
England, first wireless electronic communications company;
July 13, 1897 - received a patent for a "Transmitting
Electrical Signals"; May 9, 1899 - received a
patent for an "Apparatus Employed in Wireless Telegraphy";
assigned to The Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited;
June 27, 1899 - received a patent for "Apparatus
Employed in Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to The Wireless
Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited;
November 22, 1899
- incorporated Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of
10, 1900 - received three patents for an "Apparatus
Employed in Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to The Wireless
Telegraph and Signal Company, Limited; May 22, 1900
- received two patents for an "Apparatus Employed in Wireless
Telegraphy"; June 11, 1901 - received a patentfor
an "Apparatus for Wireless Telegraphy"; assigned to Marconi's
Wireless telegraph Company.
January 11, 1898
- Alexander E. Keith, John Erickson and Charles J. Erickson, of
Chicago, received a patent for a "Calling Device for
Telephone-Exchanges"; dial telephone; assigned patent to the
Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange of Illinois.
May 31, 1898 -
French engineer Pierre Azaria sets up Compagnie Generale
d'Electricite (CGE); 1925
- acquired Compagnie Generale des Cables de Lyon; 1966 -
acquired Societe Alsacienne de Constructions Atomiques, de
Telecommunications et d'Electronique (Alcatel);
1985 - Alsthom
Atlantique changed to Alsthom; CIT-Alcatel merged with Thomson
Telecommunications, renamed Alcatel;
1987 - went private;
1991 - name
changed to Alcatel Alsthom; 1998
- renamed Alcatel; 2005 - record year in terms of results,
contracts, events, agreements (network transformation
solutions); December 1, 2006
- completed merger with Lucent Technologies; renamed
1899 - Cleyson
Leroy Brown, Jacob Brown started telephone business in Abilene,
KS with three people; competed with Bell System;
1900 - installed
their first long-distance circuit;
October 1902 - formed Brown Telephone
Company; March 1903
- joined with 14 Kansas independents, incorporated Union
Telephone and Telegraph Company to provide long-distance service
to Kansas City; September 1911
- Brown consolidated the Brown Telephone Company with three
independents, formed United Telephone Company, second largest
telephone company in Kansas; 1925
- formed United Telephone and Electric (UT&E) to purchase stock
in subsidiary companies across widely scattered geographical
areas; 1937 -
reorganization plan approved; 1939
- company dissolved, assets absorbed by United Utilities,
- nation's third largest independent telephone company;
1972 - name
changed to United Telecommunications;
1986 - launched long distance services
under Sprint brand name; 1992
- name changed to Sprint Corporation;
1995 - offered wireless service under
Sprint PCS brand; August 13, 2005
- merged with Nextel (founded as FleetCall in 1987) in $35
billion deal (#3 position among U.S. wireless carriers, 44
million subscribers, 80,000 employees nationwide).
Cleyson Leroy Brown
March 17, 1899 -
The first-ever radio distress call was sent, summoned assistance
for a merchant ship off the coast of England.
March 27, 1899 -
Marconi transmitted across the English Channel from Boulogne,
France, to Dover, England at the request of the French
Government, which was considering purchasing rights to the
invention in France; both transmitter and receiver used a
well-insulated copper wire, hung from a 150-ft high mast;
messages were exchanged over the 32 miles, trials continued for
several days at a speed of up to fifteen words a minute; success
made possible communications without expensive undersea cables.
June 19, 1900
- Michael I. Pupin, of Yonkers, NY, professor of
electromechanics at Columbia University, received patent for the
"Art of Reducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves and Apparatus";
long distance telephony; improved quality of long-distance
telephone and telegraph transmission by inserting coils in the
long lines at intervals.
December 12, 1901 - Italian physicist and radio
pioneer Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio transmission
across the Atlantic Ocean, disproved detractors who told him
that the curvature of the earth would limit transmission to 200
miles or less; message--simply the Morse-code signal for the
letter "s"--traveled more than 2,000 miles from Poldhu in
Cornwall, England, to Newfoundland, Canada; transatlantic radio
signal had been headed into space when it was reflected off the
ionosphere and bounced back down toward Canada.
12, 1902 - Reginald A. Fessenden, of Manteo, NC,
received a patent for "Wireless Signaling" ("selective signaling
in systems where the signal is transmitted by waves or
impulses"); radiotelegraphy, wireless transmission of
electromagnetic waves, especially reproduction of words or other
December 14, 1902
- Laying of first cable across Pacific Ocean began as
British Cable Ship Silvertown left San Francisco, CA for
Hawaii; cable laid across 2,277 nautical miles in two weeks;
January 1, 1903 - first test message telegraphed to
President Theodore Roosevelt in Washington; cables laid from
Honolulu to Midway, Midway to Guam, Guam to Manila;
January 5, 1903 - public use began.
January 19, 1903
- King Edward VII, President Theodore Roosevelt exchanged
greetings in coded radio exchange between Cape Cod and
May 23, 1903
- Telephone linked Paris and Rome for first time.
July 3, 1903
- First cable across Pacific Ocean between Hawaii, Midway,
Guam and Manila completed, spliced at Manila, Philippines; July 4, 1903 -
President Theodore Roosevelt sent first official message over
new cable; ended Hawaii’s isolation, connected it to mainland U.S.,
rest of world. 1902 - all-British telegraph line
from Canada to Australia and New Zealand first line to cross Pacific
February 1, 1904 -
CQD established as international distress signal; sometimes
thought to mean, "Come Quick Danger"; "CQ" originated in England
as general call on landline wire, preceded time signals and
special notices as sign for "all stations"; Marconi company
suggested "CQD" for distress signal.
April 26, 1904 -
Bell Telephone Company of Antwerp Belgium formed.
November 16, 1904
- John Ambrose Fleming invented first electron tube,
diode thermionic valve capable of actuating telephone receiver.
December 28, 1904
- First weather reports relayed by wireless telegraphy published
March 28, 1905
- Cornelius D. Ehret, of Philadelpha, PA, received a patent for
"Art of Transmitting Intelligence" ("...through the natural
media through the ageny of electroradiant energy"); faxing did
not become practical mode of communication until 1920s;
high-speed faxes not available until 1940s.
June 26, 1906 -
Lee De Forest, of New York, NY, received a patent for an
"Oscillation-Responsive Device", ("for detecting feeble
electrical currents or oscillations in general, and especially
such currents or oscillations which are developed in
wireless-telegraph receiving systems");
November 13, 1906 - received a second
patent for an "Oscillation-Responsive Device".
October 3, 1906 -
Second international conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin
adopted SOS as international distress signal, replaced call sign
November 22, 1906
- International Radio Telegraphic Convention adopted SOS
12, 1908 - Wireless message sent long-distance
for first time, from Eiffel Tower in Paris.
February 18, 1908
- Lee De Forest, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Space
Telegraphy"; grid electrode tube.
January 19, 1909 - Thomas A. Edison
received a patent for "Telegraphy" ("arrangement by which a
neutral relay designed to be operated by variations in current
strength will be unaffected by reversals in current in the
circuit in which the relay is included").
August 11, 1909 -
Liner S.S. Arapahoe was first ship to use S.O.S. radio distress
call after propeller shaft snapped of coast at Cape Hatteras, NC
(distress code CQD, standardized by the Marconi Wireless
Telegraph Co. in 1904, had been used previously as maritime
distress call; second International Radio Telegraphic Convention
in 1906 proposed alternative SOS for its distinctive sound;
ratified as international standard in 1908).
May 11, 1911 -
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted charter to DENVER AND
EPHRATA TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY (William F. Brossman,
farmer friends); opened its first exchange;
1926 - only
telephone company serving Ephrata, Lititz exchanges;
1932 - acquired
Manheim Telephone Company; 1949
- one of first telephone companies in nation to have all lines
serviced by automatic dial equipment;
1956 - joined nationwide long distance
dialing network; 1962
- installed Direct Distance Dialing (DDD) equipment for
customers; 1963 -
first telephone company in Lancaster County to install Improved
Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS);
1965 - started D&E Cable TV, Inc.;
1973 - first
telephone company in Lancaster County to offer Emergency 911
service; 1984 -
first fiber optic cable went into service; first in county to
offer digital telephone service;
1986 - offered cellular mobile telephone
service; 1988 -
first company of its size nationally to have all digital
switching; 1996 -
went public; 1998
- entered Systems Integration business;
2002 - acquired Conestoga Enterprises
(included Conestoga Telephone, Buffalo Valley Telephone
Company); 2006 -
reached 99% broadband penetration;
May 11, 2009 - entered into definitive
merger agreement with Windstream Corporation to be acquired in
transaction valued at approximately $330 million .
August 20, 1911 -
First cable message sent around world from U.S. by commercial
telegraph transmitted from New York City (left New York Times
building at 7:00 pm, received at 7:16 pm after traveling nearly
29,000 miles through 16 relays via Azores, Gibraltar, India,
Philippines, Midway, Guam, Hawaii, San Francisco).
May 17, 1912 -
London newspaper, The Times, reported that new automatic
telephone equipment was in place at Epsom for testing; provided
320 Epson telephone subscribers the ability to dial other
numbers in the town themselves instead of having to ask the
operator to get the number for them; marked the beginning of the
telephone automation in Britain, which had already arrived in
America, Canada, and other countries.
Transcontinental telephone service began with the
first phone conversation between New York and San Francisco;
celebrated with telephone conversation between Thomas A. Watson
in San Francisco and Alexander Graham Bell in New York City;
1914 - Wendover, Utah was site of completion of first
transcontinental telephone line; 1913 -Western
Electric's high-vacuum tube for amplifying sound in telephone
October 6, 1914 - Edwin H. Armstrong, of
Yonkers, NY, received a patent for a "Wireless receiving System"
("improvements in the arrangement and connections of electrical
apparatus at the receiving station of a wireless system...to
amplify the effect of the received waves upon the current in the
telephone or other receiving circuit".
December 1, 1914
- William J. Doyle (38), Tom Doyle (son), Bob Doyle (cousin)
incorporated Roseville Telephone Company to continue service of
Roseville Home Telephone Company as rural provider of telephone
services (independent local exchange carrier; 160 subscribers);
1915 - 50
subscribers, five operators within Roseville service area;
1953 - Robert L.
Doyle (son of William) took over; went public;
October 1, 1996 -
reorganized, formed Roseville Communications Company, holding
company; May 30, 2001
- renamed SureWest Communications;
2005 - 199,141 residential and business
listings (Sacramento, Auburn, Roseville), 21 operators in 83
square-mile territory; grew from tiny, antiquated independent
exchange into one of best, 24th largest out of more than 1,300
in U. S.; California's third largest telecommunications company.
1915 - First automatic telephone exchange
February 7, 1915 - The first wireless
message sent from a moving train to a station was received.
January 25, 1915 -
Graham Bell (68), inventor of the telephone, inaugurated U.S.
transcontinental telephone service with a call made between New
York City and San Francisco to Dr. Watson, his longtime
assistant (previous long distance limit was New York to Denver,
and only then with some shouting); line made up of two metallic
circuits, used 2,500 tons of hard-drawn copper wire, 130,000
poles and countless loading coils; signal boosted by three
vacuum tube repeaters; world's longest telephone line.
September 29, 1915
- In a transcontinental radio telephone demonstration in New
York City speech was transmitted from Arlington, VA to San
Francisco, CA (2,500 miles), then to Honolulu.
October 21, 1915
- AT&T made the first experimental transatlantic radiotelephone
speech communication, using recently developed vacuum-tube
transmitters and receivers (an advancement in range over
groundbreaking alternator-transmitter tests in 1906).
May 6, 1916
Department made first successful U.S. radio telephone
ship-to-shore conversation via AT&T telephone and telegraph
circuits with all navy yards and radio stations in the U.S.;
Secretary of the Navy gave orders for the next day's movement to
the captain of the battleship New Hampshire, anchored off
Fortress Monroe; first time Navy operated ship direct from
the department by wireless telephone.
1919 - Wireless telephone invented, enabled air
pilots to talk in flight.
June 11, 1922 - A
photograph sent by radio across the Atlantic from Rome to Bar
Harbor, ME reproduced a 7 x 9.5 in. halftone picture, used light
falling on selenium cell to form dots.
August 4, 1922
- AT&T and Bell System shut down all its switchboards and
switching stations for one minute in memory of Alexander Graham
Bell (died two days earlier); none of the 13 million telephones
in operation could be used.
October 3, 1922
Charles F. Jenkins
telephone lines for first time in U.S. for transmission of
facsimile photo in Washington, DC from 1519 Connecticut Ave. to
U.S. Navy Radio Station NOF at Anacostia, DC.
1922 -Pennsylvania exchange in New York City
became operational; first automated telephones.
March 3, 1925 -
First radio facsimile transmission made in U.S. to distant point
sent photographic image from U.S. Navy Radio Station NOF, at
Anacostia, DC, to Evening Bulletin in Philadelphia, PA
(photographs had been sent as facsimile transmission over city
telephone line within Washington DC on October 3, 1922 using
photographic plate to record signal received at radio station
April 16, 1924
- First radio-transmission of wireless: Matthaus Passion.
November 30, 1924
- First trans-Atlantic fax of photograph sent by radio received
in New York.
April 18, 1925
- First U.S. commercial transcontinental radio transmission of
radio facsimile sent from San Francisco, CA to New York City;
nine photographs transmitted, each took seven minutes.
1925 - Antoine Barnay received U.S. patent for
an "Automatic Switching System" ("...generally known as a
step-by-step" system..."); rotary-dial telephone.
1926 - First successful transatlantic radio-telephone
conversation took place, between New York and London.
June 20, 1926 - Herr Schaetzle demonstrated
wireless phone for autos in Berlin, Germany.
7, 1927 -
Commercial transatlantic telephone service (using radio)
inaugurated between New York and London.
February 25, 1927
- Conversation between parties in San Francisco, CA and London
established new telephone long distance record of 7,287 miles.
April 5, 1927
- Antoine Barnay, of Paris, FR, received a patent for a "System
for Transmitting Electrical Impulses" ("suitable more
particularly in automatic telephone systems, and generally in
all 'step-by-step switching systems...in which the connection is
established by means of electrical impulses sent over the two
wires of the calling line in series"); rotary-dial telephone.
June 27, 1929
- Scientists at Bell Laboratories revealed system for
transmitting television pictures.
- William Clarke, Marie Williams acquired Oak Ridge Telephone
Company for $500 from F.E. Hogan, Sr. (75 paid subscribers.);
relocated switcboard to Williams’s front parlor so family could
man board 24-hours a day; 1946 - Clarke McRae Williams (son)
inherited company; 1968 - incorporated as Central Telephone and
Electronics; Clarke M. Williams as President and Chairman of the
Board (had expanded business into three states serving 10,000
access lines); 1971 - renamed Century Telephone Enterprises,
Inc.; October 24, 1978 - listed on New York Stock Exchange;
- obtained FCC approval to operate cellular systems in three
areas in Michigan; 1992 - acquired Central Telephone Company of
Ohio, Centel subsidiary serving more than 65,000 access lines,
for $135 million (increased access line total by 20%);
surpassed half million-customer mark in local exchange
operations, 100,000-customer mark in long distance operations;
1997 - acquired Pacific Telecom, Inc., gained about 660,000
telephone access lines in 12 states (doubling size);
added to S&P 500; November 25, 2002 - ranked by Business Week
as16th among 100 top information technology companies (ahead of
all other U.S.-based telecommunication companies);
July 1, 2009
- acquired Embarq Corporation, created one of leading
communications companies in United States.
March 27, 1930
- First U.S. radio broadcast from ship at sea.
April 29, 1930
- Telephone connection England-Australia went into service.
December 8, 1931
Lloyd Espenschied, of Kew
Gardens, NY, and Herman A. Affel, of Ridgewood, NJ, received a
"Concentric Conducting System";
coaxial cable; application was television, requires wide range
of transmission frequencies; assigned to AT & T.
February 10, 1933
- Postal Telegram Co. in New York introduced first singing
May 8, 1933 -
Radio Engineering Laboratories of Long Island City, New York
installed first police radio system in Eastchester Township, New
York; connected headquarters to patrol cars, patrol cars
to one another.
January 12, 1937
- Chester S. Lawton, of Ridgewood, NJ, and Melville H. Bloomer,
of Halifax, NS, received first patent for a "Plough for Laying
Submarine Cables"; designed to feed a cable at the same time
that it would dig a trench in the ocean bed; could be used at
depths up to a half mile;
assigned to Western Union telegraph Company; June 14, 1938
- first transatlantic cable of high-speed permalloy was buried.
June 5, 1938 -
Homer Dudley, with Richard Riesz and Stanley Watkins, Bell
Telephone scientists, exhibited first machine to produce
intelligible speech-like sounds to public at Franklin Institute,
Philadelphia, PA; called "Pedro, the Voder"; could also imitate
sound of various farm animals; spectrum-synthesis device
operated from finger keyboard, foot pedal pitch control;
duplicated important physiological characteristic of vocal
system, that excitation could be voiced or unvoiced.
September 11, 1946
- First mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation
took place between Houston, TX and St. Louis, MO.
June 30, 1948 -
Federal Communications Commission authorized telephone recording
devices for public use in U.S.; when devices being used,
periodic "beep" tone signal used to advise those on telephone
line that their conversations were being recorded.
January 14, 1949 -
Department of Justice filed anti-trust suit against AT&T;
designed to break choke hold over industry by forcing company to
relinquish ownership of Western Electric manufacturing
subsidiary; 1956 -
suit settled, AT&T consented to limit scope of its business to
national phone network, government jobs.
September 29, 1950
- Bell Telephone Company tested first automatic telephone
10, 1951 - Mayor M. Leslie Denning, of
Englewood, NJ, called his counterpart in Alameda, CA; beginning
of direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service (could begin
talking 18 seconds after dialling); 10-digit North American
Numbering Plan for area codes introduced.
April 25, 1954 -
Bell labs announced first solar battery.
March 4, 1955 -
First radio facsimile transmission sent across continent.
October 4, 1955
- Bell Telephone made world's first solar-powered telephone
September 25, 1956
- World's first transatlantic telephone cable system began
operating (Clarenville, Newfoundland to Oban, Scotland);
previous cables had been limited to telegraph transmissions.
March 2, 1959 -
Southern New England Telephone Company (New Haven, CT) tested
experimental push-button phone to see if customers dialed fewer
wrong numbers than with rotary phones.
September 5, 1959
- First trunk dialing system from public call-box inaugurated in
Bristol, UK; countrywide service intended to replace Button A
and Button B pre-payment system.
September 22, 1959 - First telephone
cable linking Europe and United States opened.
March 22, 1960 -
Arthur L. Schawlow, of Madison, NJ, and Charles H. Townes, of
New York, NY, received a patent for "Masers and Maser
Communications Systems"; first laser patent; assigned to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Inc.
August 12, 1960 - Echo I, first
successful communications satellite, put into Earth's orbit to
relay voice, TV signals; August
13, 1960 - first two-way telephone conversation
by satellite took place.
July 10, 1962 - Telstar communications
satellite, first geosynchronous communications satellite,
launched from Cape Canaveral, FL to relay TV and telephone
signals between United States, Europe; set stage for far easier
access to information, with much greater speed; made possible
first live television signals sent across Atlantic; viewers in
France, England saw President Kennedy conduct press conference,
audiences in United States watched French singer Yves Montand,
changing of guard at England's Buckingham Palace.
December 13, 1962
- Relay I, first U.S. communications earth satellite to transmit
telephone, television, teleprinter, facsimile signals launched;
January 3, 1963 -
first test patterns transmitted when solar cells had built up
sufficient battery charge.
May 7, 1963 - United States launched AT&T's
Telstar II communications satellite; transmitted first
transatlantic TV program seen in color on tenth orbit; built
with shielding against radiation (damaged AT&T's original
October 21, 1963 -
Michigan Bell Telephone Company placed in service first trimline
telephone in the U.S.; dial and hang-up button were integrated
into handpiece midway between microphone and speaker,
unnecessary to reach for remote base in order to dial call;
August 2, 1965 -
commercially available throughout service area for optional
additional monthly charge of $1.
November 18, 1963 - First telephone in
U.S. with push buttons, instead of rotary dial, placed in
commercial service in Carnegie, Greensburg, PA; Touch-Tone
telephone had 10 push buttons, manufactured by Western Electric
1965 - U. S. launched Intelsat 1 ("Early Bird"),
first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite;
satellite's orbital speed matched movement of earth, appeared
stationary in sky, never dipped below horizon; could provide
simultaneous telephone links or one television link;
June 28, 1965 -
began providing television, voice services between America and
Europe: capacity for 240 voice circuits or one black and white
October 8, 1965
- London's Post Office Tower opened as telecommunications tower
for TV, radio broadcasting and to carry all microwave traffic
into, out of city (now operated by British Telecom).
February 16, 1968
- Haleyville, AL inaugurated first telephone system in U.S. to
use 911 as universal emergency services telephone number.
March 1, 1970
- Combined efforts of AT&T, British Post Office (also handled
British telephone system) made direct-dialed transatlantic phone
calls possible between US and Britain.
May 16, 1972 -
Amos Edward Joel, Jr., of South Orange, NJ, received a patent
for a "Mobile Communication System" ("...arranged to establish
and maintain continuity of communication paths to mobile
stations passing from the coverage of one radio transmitter into
the coverage of another radio transmitter"); assigned to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Inc.; allowed cell phone users to make
uninterrupted calls while moving from one cell region to
April 3, 1973
- Inventor Martin Cooper placed first portable phone call;
''shoebox'' phone replaced car phone that weighed more than 30
pounds, cost thousands of dollars.
November 21, 1974
- United States filed antitrust suit to break up AT&T.
October 1, 1981
- British government created British Telecom as public
corporation; followed study's recommendation to split Post
Office into separate postal, telecommunications units.
January 8, 1982 - American
Telephone & Telegraph settled Justice Department's
antitrust lawsuit; agreed to divest itself of 22 Bell System
companies; August 5, 1983 - U.S. District Court
Judge Harold Greene approved plan to split company into seven
regional companies ("Baby Bells"); development of new
transmission technology, rapid advancement of computer prompted
major changes in government's trust-friendly philosophy;
1974 - government filed anti-trust suit against AT&T,
ultimately forced company to divest itself of companies that
provided local service.
- Motorola launched first cell phone; supported 1 hour of talk ,
8 hours in standby; cost $4,000.
October 11, 1983
- Last hand-cranked (magneto) telephones in United States went
out of service; 440 telephone customers in Bryant Pond, ME,
switched to direct-dial service.
January 1, 1984 - AT&T was
divested of 22 Bell System companies under terms of an antitrust
agreement (per U.S. District Court Judge Harold Greeneýs ruling
on August 5, 1983); AT&T's assets dropped from $149.5 billion to
$34 billion, its workforce shrank from 1.9 million to 373,000
December 3, 1984
- British Telecom privatized.
October 30 1986
- The first fibre-optic cable across the English Channel began
January 26, 1989
- AT&T reported first loss in 103 years; $1.67 billion in 1988.
January 24, 1994
- Nynex Corporation, one of New York's leading phone providers,
announced that it was laying off 16,800 workers (20% of its work
force) over next three years; reported it would take $1.6
billion charge for year; reflected Nynex's drive to protect its
stake in one of nation's prime communication markets.
August 7, 1994
- First telephone link made between Israel and Jordan.
October 25, 1994
- Sprint Corp. announced it was joining forces with Comcast,
Tele-Communications, Cox Enterprises to offer full range of
phone services, information, multimedia delivery network.
September 20, 1995
- AT&T announced it would split into three smaller companies: 1)
ailing computer division, 2) more lucrative Network equipment
arm, 3) core communications services (telephones and related
business amounted to 60 percent of AT&T's sales, bulk of its
February 8, 1996
- President Clinton signed legislation revamping
telecommunications industry, said it would "bring the future to
our doorstep"; knocked down regulatory barriers, opened
local telephone, long-distance service and cable television to
September 25, 1996
- Loral Space Communications announced it had acquired Skynet,
AT&T's broadcast satellite division for $712.5 million in cash;
AT&T would use that cash to try to compete against "Baby Bells"
in long-distance and local markets.
November 10, 1997
- WorldCom Inc., MCI Communications Corp. agreed to a $37
billion merger (largest merger in US history at the time).
February 16, 1998
- Tellabs Inc. acquired Coherent Communications Systems for $670
June 24, 1998
- AT&T Corp. agreed to acquire cash-strapped cable television
giant Tele-Communications Inc. for $31.7 billion. gave AT&T
cable connections in roughly 33 million homes across United
States; company reemerged as local phone force, boosted AT&T's
status in booming Internet industry; primed to take leading role
in convergence of various telecommunications channels.
July 24, 1998
- Enron Corporation, electricity and gas company in Houston, TX,
signed lavish deal to acquire British-based Wessex Water, PLC
for $2.2 billion; signaled Enron's first move towards creating a
global water subsidiary.
July 28, 1998
- Bell Atlantic, GTE announced a $52 billion merger; created
October 5, 1999
- MCI WorldCom Inc. announced $115 billion deal to take over
November 14, 1999
- Vodafone AirTouch acquired Mannesmann AG in a $183billion
all-share deal, largest corporate merger in history; created 4th
largest company in world ($365 billion in sales) behind
Microsoft, GE, Cisco Systems.
June 16, 2000
- Federal regulators approved merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE
Corp.; created nation's largest local phone company, Verizon.
July 21, 2002
- WorldCom Inc. filed for bankruptcy protection, about a month
after disclosing it had inflated profits by nearly $4 billion
through deceptive accounting.
November 26, 2002
- WorldCom, government settled civil lawsuit over company's
$9 billion accounting scandal.
October 31, 2003
- Bankruptcy court approved MCI's reorganization plans;
essentially cleared telecommunications company to exit
February 17, 2004
- Cingular Wireless agreed to pay nearly $41 billion in cash to
buy AT&T Wireless Services.
December 15, 2004
- American telecommunications giants Sprint Corp. and Nextel
Communications Inc. announced they would merge in $35 billion
January 31, 2005
- SBC Communications Inc. announced it was acquiring AT&T Corp.
for $16 billion.
October 31, 2005
- The Spanish telco Telefónica announced £18 billion deal
to buy the British mobile network operator O2 plc.
January 27, 2006
- Western Union sent last telegram; 1929 - sent
more than 200 million telegrams (height of business); 2005
- under 21,000 telegrams sent.
March 6, 2006
- AT & T announced plans to acquire regional-phone company
BellSouth Corp. for $67 billion in stock, take full control of
Cingular venture (nation's biggest wireless operator with more
than 54 million customers); subject to regulatory approval,
combined company would serve 70 million local-phone customers,
10 million high-speed DSL Internet users, would have about
315,000 employees, combined revenue of $121 billion (Wall
Street's estimate of annual 2006 sales); November 2005
- AT&T Inc. formed after SBC Communications Inc. acquired the
old AT&T, adopted the name.
November 17, 2006
- President George W. Bush approved deal in which French
telecommunications equipment maker Alcatel SA would acquire
Lucent Technologies Inc. in a $11.8 billion deal; Committee on
Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) spent 75 days
investigating national security implications of transaction;
recommended Bush approve it (November 21 statutory deadline to
render a decision).
June 29, 2007
- Bell Canada (BCE) agreed to be acquired for $32.6 billion (6x
BCE's cash flow) by investment arm of Ontario Teachers' Pension
Plan (BCE's largest shareholder), Providence Equity Partners
Inc., Madison Dearborn Partners; largest private-equity buyout
August 29, 2007
- Alltel shareholders approved $24.7 billion private equity
buyout of country’s fifth-largest wireless operator by GS
Capital Partners, private equity arm of Goldman Sachs, and TGP
Capital; 12 million customers in 35 states (largest Tier 2
(AirTouch Communications), Louis Galambos,
Eric John Abrahamson (2002).
Anytime, Anywhere: Entrepreneurship and the Creation of a
Wireless World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University
Press, 310 p.). Wireless communication systems--Economic
aspects; Cellular telephone systems; Entrepreneurship.
Birth, explosion of cellular,
wireless communications as seen through eyes of Sam Ginn at
(ALLTEL Corporation), David A. Patten and
Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2001).
The Legend of ALLTEL. (Fort Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff
Enterprises, 208 p.). ALLTEL Corporation--History; Telephone
companies--United States--History; Telecommunication--United
States--History; Telephone supplies industry--United
States--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United
(AT&T), J. Warren Stehman (1967).
The Financial History of the American Telephone and Telegraph
Company. (New York, NY: A. M. Kelley, 339 p. [orig. pub.
1925]). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
August 3, 1922
Thomas A. Watson
December 15, 1934 Obituary:
(AT&T), Joseph C. Goulden (1968).
Monopoly. (New York, NY: Putnam, 350 p.). American
Telephone and Telegraph Company.
(AT&T), Horace Coon (1971).
American Tel & Tel; The Story of a Great Monopoly.
(Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 276 p.). American
Telephone and Telegraph Company.
(AT&T), Noobar R. Danielian (1974).
A.T. & T.: The Story of Industrial Conquest. (New York,
NY: Arno Press, 460 p. [orig. pub. 1939]). American Telephone
and Telegraph Company. Series: Telecommunications (New York,
N.Y. : 1974).
(AT&T), Sonny Kleinfield (1981).
The Biggest Company on Earth: A Profile of AT&T. (New
York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 319 p. [based on series in
New York Times]). American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
(AT&T), Alvin von Auw (1983).
Heritage & Destiny: Reflections on the Bell System in Transition.
(New York, NY: Praeger, 480 p.). American Telephone and
(AT&T), edited by Harry M. Shooshan II (1984).
Disconnecting Bell: The Impact of the AT&T Divestiture.
(New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 160 p.). American Telephone and
Telegraph Company; Telephone--Law and legislation--United
States; Telecommunication--Law and legislation--United States;
Corporate divestiture--United States.
(AT&T), Robert W. Garnet (1985).
The Telephone Enterprise: The Evolution of the Bell System's
Horizontal Structure, 1876-1909. (Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 210 p.). American Telephone and
Telegraph Company--History; Telephone companies--United
(AT&T), George D. Smith (1985).
The Anatomy of a Business Strategy: Bell, Western Electric and
the Origins of the American Telephone Industry.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 237 p.).
Academic (NYU&), Founder (Winthrop Group). AT&T, Western
Electric, Telephone Industry.
(AT&T), W. Brooke Tunstall; foreword by
Richard Tanner Pascale (1985).
Disconnecting Parties: Managing the Bell System Break-Up: An
Inside View. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 226 p.).
American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
(AT&T), Neil H. Wasserman (1985).
From Invention to Innovation: Long-Distance Telephone
Transmission at the Turn of the Century. (Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 160 p.). American Telephone and
Telegraph Company--History; Telephone--United States--History.
(AT&T), Steven P. Feldman (1986).
The Culture of Monopoly Management: An Interpretive Study in an
American Utility. (New York, NY: Garland, 209 p.).
American Telephone and Telegraph Company--Management--History;
(AT&T), Steve Coll (1986).
The Deal of the Century: The Breakup of AT&T. (New York,
NY: Atheneum, 400 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph
Company--Reorganization--History; Telephone companies--United
(AT&T), Peter Temin with Louis Galambos
The Fall of the Bell System: A Study in Prices and Politics.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 378 p.). American
Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization--History;
Telephone companies--United States--History.
(AT&T), Fred W. Henck and Bernard Strassburg
A Slippery Slope: The Long Road to the Breakup of AT&T.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 277 p.). American Telephone and
Telegraph Company--Reorganization; Telephone companies--United
States; Telecommunication--United States; Corporate
divestiture--United States; Antitrust law--United States.
(AT&T), Alan Stone (1989).
Wrong Number: The Breakup of AT&T. (New York, NY: Basic
Books, 381 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph
(AT&T), Leslie Cauley (2005).
End of the Line: The Rise and Fall of AT & T. (New York,
NY: Free Press, 320 p.). Telecom Reporter (USA Today). AT&
T--History; Telecommunication--United States--History--20th
(AT&T), Dick Martin (2005).
Tough Calls: AT&T and the Hard Lessons Learned from the Telecom
Wars. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 294 p.). AT & T--History;
(BARL Inc.), Tom Bean Bob (1996).
How To Be a Successful Corporate So-and-So. (Dallas, TX:
Odenwald Press, 122 p.). Former President and CEO (Fischbach and
Moore Global Communications, Inc.). Tom Bean Bob, 1933- ;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Success in
(Belfast Telegraph), Malcolm Brodie; foreword
by Lord Thomson of Fleet (1995).
The Tele: A History of the Belfast Telegraph. (Belfast,
Northern Ireland: 300 p. Belfast telegraph;
(Bell Canada), Lawrence Surtees (1992).
Pa Bell: A. Jean de Grandpré & The Meteoric Rise of Bell Canada
Enterprises. (Toronto, ON: Random House, 481 p.).
Grandpré, A. Jean de; Bell Canada Enterprises -- History;
Businessmen -- Canada -- Biography.
(Bell Telephone Company of Canada), R.C.
Fetherstonhaugh (1944). Charles Fleetford Sise, 1834-1918: A
Biography. (Montreal, QU: Gazette Printing Co., 238 p.).
Sise, Charles Fleetford, 1834-1918.; Bell Telephone Company of
(Bell Telephone Laboratories), Roland Mueser,
editor (1979). Bell Laboratories Innovation in
Telecommunications, 1925-1977. (Murray Hill, NJ: Technical
Documentation Dept., Bell Laboratories, 227 p.). Bell Telephone
Laboratories, inc.--History; Telecommunication--History;
(Bell Telephone Laboratories), Jeremy
Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Labs in the Information Age.
(New York, NY: Scribner, 241 p.). Bell Telephone Laboratories,
(Bermuda Telephone Company Ltd.), Colin
H. Benbow (1987).
A Century of Progress: A History of the Bermuda Telephone
Company Ltd., 1887-1987. (Bermuda: The Company, 131
p.). Bermuda Telephone Company Ltd. -- history.
(Cable and Wireless), Hugh Barty-King (1979).
Girdle Round the Earth: The Story of Cable and Wireless and Its
Predecessors to Mark the Group's Jubilee, 1929-1979.
(London, UK: Heinemann, 413 p.). Cable and Wireless,
(Collins Radio), Ken C. Braband ; with
excerpts from articles by R.L. Carrel ... [et al.] (1983).
The First 50 Years: A History of Collins Radio Company and the
Collins Divisions of Rockwell International. (Cedar
Rapids, IA: Communications Dept., Avionics Group, Rockwell
International, 218 p.). Collins, Arthur Andrew, 1909- ; Collins
Radio Company--History; Radio supplies industry--United
States--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United
(Collins Radio), Ben W. Stearns (2002).
Arthur Collins : Radio Wizard. (Marion, IA: Ben W.
Stearns, 394 p.). Collins, Arthur Andrew, 1909- ; Collins Radio
Company--History; Rockwell International--History;
Industrialists--Iowa--Cedar Rapids--Biography; Radio supplies
industry--Iowa--Cedar Rapids; Amateur radio stations--History;
Avionics--History; Telecommunication equipment
industry--History; Aerospace industries--History; Cedar Rapids
(Communications Satellite Corporation),
Michael E. Kinsley; foreword by Ralph Nader; introd. by Nicholas
Outer Space and Inner Sanctums: Government, Business, and
Satellite Communication / Michael E. Kinsley ; foreword by Ralph
Nader ; introd. by Nicholas Johnson. (New York, NY:
Wiley, 280 p.). Communications Satellite Corporation; United
States. Federal Communications Commission; Artificial satellites
in telecommunication; Industrial policy -- United States.
(CTS Corporation), James H. Soltow (1987).
Ninety Years: A History of CTS Corporation, 1896-1986.
(Elkhart, IN: CTS Corp., 128 p.). CTS Corporation--History;
Telephone supplies industry--United States--History; Electronic
(DoCoMo), John Beck and Mitchell Wade (2003).
DoCoMo: Japan's Wireless Tsunami: How One Mobile Telecom Created
a New Market and Became a Global Force. (New York, NY:
AMACOM, 240 p.). DoCoMo (Firm)--History; Cellular telephone
(Elhac Mehmet Esat), Brendan O'Kelly (2001).
The Esat Story. (Dublin, IR: Gill & Macmillan, 165 p.).
O'Brien, D. P. (Denis Patrick), 1939- ; Elhac Mehmet Esat; Chief
executive officers -- Ireland -- Biography; Telecommunication --
Ireland -- Management.
(LM Ericsson), Artur Attman (1977).
LM Ericsson 100 Years. (Stockholm, SW: L. M. Ericsson, 3
vols.). Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson--History.
Magnus Ericsson - LM Ericsson
(Excel), James W. Robinson; foreword by Kenny
A. routt (1997).
The Excel Phenomenon: The Astonishing Success Story of the
Fastest-Growing Communications Company--and What It Means to You.
(Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 225 p.). Excel Communications;
Telephone--United States--Long distance;
(Exchange Telegraph), J. M. Scott (1972).
Extel 100: The Centenary History of the Exchange Telegraph
Company. (London, UK: Benn, 239 p.). Exchange Telegraph
(GN Store Nord), Ole Lange (1978).
Finansmænd, Stramænd og Mandariner: C. F. Tietgen, Privatbanken
og Store Nordiske: Etablering 1868-76. (København, Denmark:
Gyldendal, 395 p.). Tietgen, Carl Frederik, 1829-1901; Store
nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen, Denmark); Privatbanken i
Kjøbenhavn; Capitalists and financiers--Denmark--History--19th
century; Denmark--Foreign economic relations;
Tietgen - GN Store Nord
--- (1980). Partnere og Rivaler: C. F.
Tietgen, Eastern Extension og Store Nordiske: Ekspansion i Kina
1880-86. (København, Denmark: Gyldendal, 282 p.). Tietgen,
Carl Frederik, 1829-1901; Store nordiske telegraf-selskab
(Copenhagen, Denmark); Extension Australasia and China Telegraph
Company, Limited; Telegraph--China; Investments, Danish--China;
(GN Store Nord), Kurt Jacobsen (1997). Den
Røde Trad: Det Store Nordiske Telegraf-Selskabs Storpolitiske
Spil Efter den Russiske Revolution. (Copenhagen: Gyldendal,
223 p.). Store nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen,
(GN Store Nord), Martin J. Iversen (2005).
GN Store Nord: A Company in Transition, 1939-1988.
(Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press, 216 p.).
Store nordiske telegraf-selskab (Copenhagen, Denmark)--History;
(Grameen Phone Ltd.), Nicholas P. Sullivan
You Can Hear Me Now: Connecting the World’s Poor to the Global
Economy. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 272 p.).
Publisher of the journal Innovations:
Technology/Governance/Globalization (MIT Press), Partner in the
Global Horizon Fund. Grameen Phone Ltd.; Cellular telephone
services industry--Developing countries.; Information
technology--Developing countries; Telecommunication--Developing
between Norway’s Telenor and Grameen Bank; "external combustion
engine" three forces) - 1) information technology,
imported by 2) native entrepreneurs trained in West, backed by
3) foreign investors.
(Graybar Electric), Frederick R. Warburton
Wiring the World: Forty Years in Nuts & Bolts. (St.
Petersburg, FL: Valkyrie Press, 351 p.). Warburton, Frederick
R.; Graybar Electric Company inc.--History;
(International Discount Telecommunications),
Howard Jonas (1998).
On a Roll: From Hot Dog Buns to High-Tech Billions. (New
York, NY: Viking, 293 p.). Jonas, Howard; International Discount
Telecommunications (Firm); Telecommunication--United States;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Entrepreneurship.
(Inter-Tel), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1999).
Against the Odds: Inter-Tel, the First 30 Years. (Fort
Lauderdale, FL: write Stuff Enterprises, 240 p.). Inter-Tel
(Firm)--History; Telecommunication--United States--History;
Telecommunication equipment industry--United States--History;
Telephone--United States--History; Computer industry--United
(Intervoice), Richard F. Hubbard & Jeffrey L.
Intervoice: Twenty Years of Innovation. (Fort
Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff, 152 p.). Intervoice (Firm) --
History; Speech processing systems industry -- United States --
History; Telecommunication equipment industry -- United States
(Lorain Products - founded 1936), David N.
Keller ( 1991).
C. Paul Stocker: His Life and Legacy. (Athens, OH: Ohio
University Press, 219 p.). Stocker, C. Paul (Closman Paul),
1904-1978; Electric engineers--United States--Biography;
Telephone supplies industry--United States--Biography.
(Lucent), Lisa Endlich (2004).
Optical Illusions: Lucent and the Crash of Telecom. (New
York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 302 p.). Lucent Technologies
(Firm)--History; Telecommunication equipment industry--United
States--History; Data transmission equipment industry--United
(Macrotel), Leonard R. Graziplene (2007).
The Macrotel Files: An Intrapreneurial Case Study.
(Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 242 p.).
Telecommunications Industry--United States;
(Marconi), W. J. Baker (1972).
A History of the Marconi Company. (New York, NY: St.
Martin's Press, 413 p.). Marconi Company.
(McCaw Cellular), O. Casey Corr (2000).
Money from Thin Air: The Story of Craig McCaw, the Visionary Who
Invented the Cell Phone Industry, and His Next Billion-Dollar
Idea. (New York, NY: Crown, 310 p.). McCaw, Craig;
Cellular telephone systems--United States; Cellular
(MCI - founded 1968 as Microwave
Communications of America by William McGowan),
Larry Kahaner (1987).
On the Line: How MCI Took on AT&T, and Won! (New York,
NY: Warner Books, 344 p.). MCI (Firm)--History; American
Telephone and Telegraph Company--Reorganization--History; Long
distance telephone service--United States--History; Telephone
(MCI), Philip L. Cantelon (1993).
The History of MCI 1968-1988: The Early Years. (Dallas,
TX: Heritage Press, 720 p.). MCI Communications
Corporation--History; American Telephone and Telegraph
Company--History; Long distance telephone service--United
States--History; Telecommunication--United States--History.
(Mercury Communications), Keith Bradley,
Foreword by Sir Peter Parker (1992).
Phone Wars: Story of Mercury Communications. (London,
UK: Random House, 251 p.). Mercury Communications;
Telecommunications Industry--Great Britain. 1981 - formed as
subsidiary of Cable & Wireless to challenge monopoly of British
(Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph
Company), Herbert J. Hackenburg, Jr. (1986).
Muttering Machines to Laser Beams: A History of Mountain Bell.
(Denver, CO: Mountain Bell, 383 p.). Mountain States Telephone
and Telegraph Company--History; Telephone companies--United
(Nokia), Dan Steinbock (2001).
The Nokia Revolution: The Story of an Extraordinary Company That
Transformed an Industry. (New York, NY: AMACOM. Nokia
(Firm)--History; Cellular telephone equipment
- founder Nokia
(Nokia), Martti Häikiö (2002).
Nokia: The Inside Story. (Boston, MA: Financial Times,
254 p.). Nokia (Firm)--History; Cellular telephone equipment
(Nokia), Michael Lattanzi, Antti Korhonen,
Vishy Gopalakrishnan (2006).
Work Goes Mobile: Nokia’s Lessons from the Leading Edge.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 212 p.). Practice Manager in Nokia’s
Enterprise Solutions Business Group. Nokia (Firm)--History;
Cellular telephone equipment industry--Finland--History.
Inside story of Nokia's efforts
to use mobile capabilities for business benefits.
(Nortel), Larry MacDonald (2000).
Nortel Networks: How Innovation and Vision Created a Network
Giant. (Toronto, ON: J. Wiley & Sons Canada, 259 p.).
Nortel Networks--History; Northern Telecom Limited--History.
(Northwestern Bell), James Crockett Rippey
Goodbye, Central--Hello, World: A Centennial History of
Northwestern Bell: The Diary of a Dream. (Omaha, NE:
Northwestern Bell for the Telephone Pioneers of America, 344
p.). Northwestern Bell telephone; Telecommunications.
(One. Tel), Paul Barry (2002).
Rich Kids: How the Murdochs and Packers Lost $950 Million in
(Milsons Point, N.S.W.: Random House Australia, 392 p.).
Murdoch, Rupert, 1931- ; Packer, Kerry; One.Tel (Firm);
Telecommunication--Australia; Business failures--Australia.
(Pacific Telesis), Eric Abrahamson, Marjorie
Learning to Compete: A History of Pacific Telesis Group.
(San Francisco, CA: Pacific Telesis Group, 371 p.). Pacific
Telesis Group; AT & T--History. Breakup of Bell System from
California point of view; strategic overview of evolution of
regulation, technology, telephone business in California.
(PAETEC Communications), Arunas A. Chesonis
and David Dorsey (2007).
It Isn’t Just Business, It’s Personal: How PAETEC Thrived When
All the Big Telecoms Couldn’t. (Rochester, NY: RIT Cary
Graphic Arts Press, 171 p.). Chairman of the Board and Chief
Executive Officer of PAETEC Corporation.
Telecommunication--United States--Management; Management--United
States--Employee participation; PAETEC Communications.
How, by following handful of
basic ethical principles, company emerged as example of how to
succeed in twenty-first century.
(QUALCOMM), Dave Mock (2005).
The Qualcomm Equation: How a Fledgling Telecom Company Forged a
New Path to Big Profits and Market Dominance. (New York,
NY: AMACOM, 224 p.). Practicing Engineer and Consultant to
Telecommunications Industry. QUALCOMM Inc.; Telecommunication;
Wireless communication systems; Spread spectrum communications;
Code division multiple access.
(Research in Motion),
Alastair Sweeny (2009).
BlackBerry Planet: The Story of Research in Motion and
the Little Device That Took the World by Storm.
(Toronto, ON, Wiley Canada, 284
p.). Journalist. Research in Motion (Firm) --History;
BlackBerry (Smartphone). Innovative electronic
organizer; how little device became
machine that connected planet; branding, marketing success of BlackBerry.
- Research in Motion
(Research in Motion), Rod McQueen; Foreword by Jim Balsillie,
Mike Lazaridis (2010).
BlackBerry: The Inside Story of
Research in Motion.
(Toronto, ON, Key Porter Books, 320 p.). Author. Research in
Motion (Firm) --History. Launched in 1984, by Mike Lazaridis and
Jim Balsillie, with $15,000 loan; grown into one of largest,
most profitable companies in world; 2009 - sold more than 50
million BlackBerrys, annual profits in excess of $11 billion;
biography of the device’s popularity, origins, development, geniuses who were its
(RF Micro Devices), Jerry D. Neal, with Jery
Fire in the Belly: Building a World-Leading High-Tech Company
from Scratch in Tumultuous Times. (Asheboro, NC: Down
Home Press, 220 p.). Co-Founder, Executive Vice President for
Marketing and Strategic Development of RFMD.
(Roseville Telephone Company), Stephen R.
History of the Roseville Telephone Company. (Roseville,
CA: Roseville Telephone Co., 427 p.). Roseville Telephone
(Southern Bell), Kenneth Lipartito (1989).
The Bell System and Regional Business: The Telephone in the
South, 1877-1920. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 283 p.). Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph
Company--History; Telephone companies--Southern States--History;
(Southern New England Telephone Company), J.
Leigh Walsh (1950).
Connecticut Pioneers in Telephony: The Origin and Growth of the
Telephone Industry in Connecticut. (New Haven, CT:
Morris F. Tyler Chapter, Telephone Pioneers of America, 444 p.).
Southern New England Telephone Company; Telephone --
(Southern New England Telephone Company), E.
Wight Bakke (1966).
Bonds of Organization: An Appraisal of Corporate Human Relations.
(Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 239 p. [2nd ed.]). Southern New
England Telephone Company; Connecticut Union of Telephone
Workers; Industrial relations.
(Standard Telephone and Cables), Peter Young
Power of Speech: A History of Standard Telephones and Cables,
1883-1983. (Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin, 221 p.). Standard
Telephones and Cables (London, England)--History;
Telecommunication--Great Britain--History; Telephone--Great
(Telecom Australia), P. J. Gribble
(1981). What Hath God Wrought: The Story
of the Electric Telegraph, Queensland. (Brisbane,
Australia: Telecom Australia, 710 p.). Telegraph --Australia
(Telefonica Espanola), Gabriela Martinez
Telefonica Espanola: The Digital Reconquest of the Americas.
(Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 273 p.). Assistant Professor,
School of Journalism (University of Oregon). Telefonica
Espanola; Telecommunications Industry--Spain.
How politics and economics have
affected Telefónica's patterns of ownership, structural growth,
(TelMex), The Company (1991). Historia de
la Telefonía en México, 1878-1991. (México, D.F.: Teléfonos
de México, 221 p.). Teléfonos de México, S.A.--History;
(TelMex), José Martínez (2002).
Carlos Slim: Retrato Inédito. (Mexico, D. F.: Oceano,
270 p.). Slim Helú, Carlos 1940- ; Teléfonos de México,
S.A.--History; Businessmen--Mexico--Biography; Mexico Mexico
(Titan Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen and
Richard F. Hubbard (2002).
The Legend of the Titan Corporation. (Ft. Lauderdale,
FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 144 p.). Titan
Corporation--History; Telecommunication equipment
industry--United States; Defense industries--United States.
(United Telephone), Lucinda Dixon Grove
United Telephone Service Since 1901: United Telephone
System--Eastern Group History. (Mechanicsburg, PA:
Center Square Press, 212 p.). United Telephone System--History;
(Vodaphone), Trevor Merriden (2003).
Rollercoaster: The Turbulent Life and Times of Vodafone and
Chris Gent. (Oxford, UK: Capstone, 205 p.). Editor,
Human Resources magazine. Gent, Chris. 1948- ; Vodafone Group;
Cellular telephone services industry.
(Western Electric), Richard Balzer (1976).
Clockwork: Life In and Outside an American Factory.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 333 p.). Western Electric Company;
Electric industry workers--Massachusetts--North Andover;
Industrial sociology--Massachusetts--North Andover.
- Western Electric (http://www.loc.gov/
(Western Electric), Stephen B. Adams and
Orville R. Butler (1999).
Manufacturing the Future; A History of Western Electric.
(New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 270 p.). Telephone
Supplies, Electronic Supplies.
(Western Union), M. J. (Mike) Rivise (1950).
Inside Western Union. (New York, NY: Sterling Pub. Co.,
248 p.). Western Union Telegraph Company.
(Western Union), George P. Oslin (1992).
The Story of Telecommunications. (Macon, GA: Mercer
University Press, 507 p.). Inventor of Singing Telegram in 1933
for Western Union. Telecommunication--History;
One Man's Century: From the Deep South to the Top of the Big
Apple: A Memoir. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press,
118 p.). Inventor of Singing Telegram in 1933 for Western Union.
Oslin, George P., 1899- ; Western Union Telegraph
States--Biography; Southern States--Social life and
John Brooks (1976).
Telephone: The First Hundred Years. (New York, NY:
Random House, 369 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company;
Deep Kanta Lahiri Choudhury (2010).
Telegraphic Imperialism: Crisis and Panic in the Indian Empire,
c.1830. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 277 p.).
Telegraph -- India; Telegraph -- India -- History; Telegraph --
Social aspects -- India; Social change -- India; India --
History -- British occupation, 1765-1947. Telegraph system of
British Indian Empire, c.1850-1920; one of most significant
transnational phenomena of imperial world, link between
communication, Empire, social change; first electronic
communication network transformed language, distance, time.
Robert W. Crandall (1991).
After the Breakup: U.S. Telecommunications in a More Competitive
Era. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 174
p.). Telephone--United States; Telephone--Deregulation--United
Robert W. Crandall (2005). Competition and
Chaos: U.S. Telecommunications Since the 1996 Telecom Act.
(Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 212 p.). United
States. Telecommunications Act of 1996; Telecommunication
policy--United States; Telecommunication--Deregulation--United
States; Competition--Government policy--United States;
Telecommunication--Law and legislation--United States.
Effect of 1996 Telecommunications
Act on major telecommunications providers, economic welfare
in United States.
Martin Fransman (2002).
Telecoms in the Internet Age: From Boom to Bust to--?
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 290 p.).
Louis Galambos, Eric John Abrahamson (2002).
Anytime, Anywhere: Entrepreneurship and the Creation of a
Wireless World. Wireless communication systems--Economic
aspects; Cellular telephone systems; Entrepreneurship.
John Steele Gordon (2002).
A Thread Across the Ocean: The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic
Cable. (New York, NY: Walker, 240 p.). Columnist,
American Heritage Magazine. Cables, Submarine--Atlantic
Ocean--History; Telegraph--United States--History;
(transatlantic cable) [http://www.atlantic-cable.com/Field/Portraits/CyrusField-H_s.jpg]
Elton W. Hall (2003).
Francis Blake: An Inventor’s Life, 1850-1913. (Boston,
MA, Massachusetts Historical Society, 219 p.). Former Curator of
the New Bedford Whaling Museum. Blake, Francis, 1850-1913;
Inventors --United States --Biography; Telephone; Photography,
Instantaneous. Changed way Americans communicated in 19th
century, how they saw themselves; major inventions: telephone
transmitter, innovations in high-speed photography; Blake
Transmitter became world standard ( name emblazoned on
transmitters used in Alexander Graham Bell's devices in the last
twenty years of 19nth century); helped revolutionize
photography, transformed role of photograph in American society.
Francis Blake - Telephone
John Handley (2005).
Telebomb: The Truth Behind the $500-Billion Telecom Bust and
What the Industry Must Do To Recover. (New York, NY:
AMACOM, 264 p.). Partner (Accenture). United States.
Telecommunications Act of 1996; Telecommunication--United
States; Telecommunication--Deregulation--United States;
Telecommunication policy--United States.
Eric Harwit (2008).
China’s Telecommunications Revolution. (New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 208 p.). Professor of Asian Studies at
the University of Hawaii. Telecommunication --China;
Telecommunication --Economic aspects --China; Telecommunication
--Social aspects --China. Most successful developing nation in history for spreading
telecommunications access; how China conducted remarkable
"telecommunications revolution"; corporate, government policy to
get citizens connected to both voice, data networks; key issues
- building, running country's Internet, mobile phone company
rivalry, foreign investment in sector, telecommunications in
Shanghai; country's internal "digital divide"; how equitable
telecommunications revolution has been; how PRC's entry in WTO
will shape future course of telecommunications growth.
Ed. Friedhelm Hillebrand (2001).
GSM and UMTS: The Creation of Global Mobile Communication.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 582 p.). Global system for mobile
communications (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
(UMTS). How wireless specifications for GSM, UMTS technologies
in mobile communications market evolved; 1982 - GSM initiative
began; became success in Europe, how it evolved to global mobile
communication system; 1992 - first GSM networks went into
commercial service; technical history of development of GSM,
early evolution to UMTS.
Jill Hills (2002).
The Struggle for Control of Global Communication: The Formative
Century. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 327
p.). Telecommunication--History; Globalization--History;
Anton A. Huurdeman (2003).
The Worldwide History of Telecommunications. (New York,
NY: Wiley, 638 p.). Former Transmission Product Manager
Richard R. John (2010).
Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications.
(Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 528
p.). Professor of Journalism, Graduate School of Journalism
(Columbia University). Telecommunication --United States
--History. 1845 - first fee-for-service telegraph line opened
along railroad right-of-way between Lancaster, PA Harrisburg,
PA; history of evolution of telegraph, telephone - first
electrical communications networks; how
technological imperatives, economic incentives, political
decision making at federal, state, municipal levels determined
access to these networks; 1865-1915 - Western Union, Bell
System emerged as dominant providers for telegraph, telephone; 1900 - civic ideal of mass access trumped
elitist ideal of exclusivity, shaped commercialization of
telephone; 1910 - telegraph became widely accessible.
Paul Israel (1992).
From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphy and the
Changing Context of American Invention, 1830-1920.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 251 p.).
Technology--United States--History; Telegraph--United
States--History; Inventions--United States--History.
Peter R. Jensen (2000).
From the Wireless to the Web: The Evolution of
Telecommunications, 1901-2001. (Sydney, AU: University
of New South Wales Press, 306 p.).
Guy Klemens (2010).
The Cellphone: The History and Technology of the Gadget That
Changed the World. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 216
p.). Cell phone systems. History of cellular phone from
beginnings in 1940s to present (early mobile phones debuted as
early as 1946, expensive novelty until 1980s); fundamental
concepts involved in wireless communication, ramifications of
cellular technology on economy, U.S. and international law,
human health, society.
Rich Ling (2004).
The Mobile Connection: The Cell Phone’s Impact on Society.
(San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 244 p.). Senior Research
Scientist at Telenor (Norways largest telecommunications
company), Adjunct Professor at the University of Udine, Italy.
Cellular telephone systems--Social aspects. Impact of phone on
daily life - accessibility, safety, security, coordination of
social and business activities, use of public places.
New Tech, New Ties: How Mobile Communication Is Reshaping Social
Cohesion. (Cambridge, MAs: MIT Press, 224 p.). Senior
Researcher at Telenor (Norwegian telecommunications company),
Adjunct Research Scientist (University of Michigan). Cellular
telephones--Social aspects; Interpersonal
communication--Technological innovations--Social aspects;
Communication and culture. How mobile telephone affects
social bonding, 2 kinds of interactions: 1) mediated by mobile
communication, 2) those that are face to face; strengthens
social bonds among family, friends (creates what he calls
"bounded solidarity"); engenders, develops social cohesion
within family, peer group; ritual interaction is catalyst for
development of social bonding.
Annteresa Lubrano (1997).
The Telegraph: How Technology Innovation Caused Social Change.
(New York, NY: Garland Pub., 182 p.). Telegraph--History;
Telecommunication--Technological innovations; Technological
innovations--Social aspects; Information technology--Social
Carolyn Marvin (1988).
When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric
Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century. (New York,
NY: Oxford University Press, 269 p.).
Telecommunication--History--19th century; Electric
John L. McLucas (1991).
Space Commerce. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press, 241 p.). Electronics Engineer in Aviation and Space
Technology. Space industrialization--United States; Artificial
satellites in telecommunication--United States.
Susan E. McMaster (2002).
The Telecommunications Industry. (Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press, 191 p.). Telephone--United States--History;
Telecommunication policy--United States--History.
Christos J. Moschovitis (1999).
History of the Internet: A Chronology, 1843 to the Present.
(Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 312 p.). Telecommunications. A
chronology of telecommunications from Babbage's earliest
theories of a "Difference Engine" to the impact of the Internet
in 1998 to future trends.
James B. Murray, Jr. (2001).
Wireless Nation: The Frenzied Launch of the Cellular Revolution
in America. (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 338 p.).
McCaw, Craig; Cellular telephone services industry--History;
Cellular telephone systems--United States; Cellular
Seth Shulman (2008).
The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Graham Bell’s Secret.
(New York, NY: Norton, 252 p.). Bell, Alexander Graham,
1847-1922; Gray, Elisha, 1835-1901; Telephone--History;
Telephone--Patents; Inventors--United States--Biography.
Alexander Graham Bell, Elisha
Gray filed patent applications on same day in 1876; compelling
evidence that Bell peaked at rival inventor's patent
application, stole crucial element from it, lived
uncomfortable lie for rest of his life.
Kenneth Silverman (2003).
Lightning Man: The Accursed Life of Samuel F.B. Morse.
(New York, NY: Knopf, 503 p.). Pulitzer-Prize Winner. Morse,
Samuel Finley Breese, 1791-1872; Inventors--United
States--Biography; Artists--United States--Biography; Telegraph;
George D. Smith (1985).
The Anatomy of a Business Strategy: Bell, Western Electric and
the Origins of the American Telephone Industry.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 237 p.).
Telephone Industry, AT&T, Western Electric.
Tom Standage (1998).
The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph
and the Nineteenth Century's On-Line Pioneers. (New
York, NY: Walker and Co., 227 p.). Telegraph--History.
Christopher H. Sterling, Phyllis W. Bernt,
Martin B. H. Weiss (2005).
Shaping American Telecommunications: A History of Technology,
Policy, and Economics. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, 419 p.). Telecommunication--United States;
Telecommunication policy--United States. Interplay among technical
innovation, policy decisions, regulatory developments.
Alan Stone (1997).
How America Got On-Line: Politics, Markets, and the Revolution
in Telecommunications. (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 241
p.). Telecommunication--United States--History;
Entrepreneurship--United States--History; Technological
innovations--Economic aspects--United States--History;
Information society--United States--History.
Lawrence Surtees (1994).
Wire Wars: The Canadian Fight for Competition in
Telecommunications. (Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall
Canada, 420 p.). Unitel Communications Inc.; Bell Canada; Long
distance telephone service--Canada; Telecommunication
Andrew Wheen (2010).
Dot-Dash to Dot.Com: How Modern Telecommunications Evolved from
the Telegraph to the Internet. (New York, NY:
Springer, 301 p.). Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and
Technology (UK). Telecommunication -- History; Telecommunication
-- Technological innovations. Development of complex technology
from electric telegraph to Internet; feats of 19th century
engineering, impact of first telecommunication systems on
Victorian world; how success of electric telegraph led to
development of telephone, fax machine; early experiments that
led to Internet, World Wide Web; how networks work; phenomenal
growth of mobile networks; how digital revolution is driving
introduction of "next generation networks;" extraordinary growth
in network applications.
Business History Links
Antique Telephone History
The pages on this site will provide links to the history of the
telephone and the histories of a number of current telephone
companies. In addition, information about antique telephones,
wiring diagrams, where to obtain parts and the Antique Telephone
Collectors Association is provided.
AT & T History
AT&T Technology Timeline
Features descriptions of telecommunication, sound, and data
technology developments starting with the birth of the telephone
in 1876. Some of the of the events include fax service (1924),
sound motion pictures (1926), synthetic speech (1936), the first
mobile telephone call (1946), the first direct-dial
transcontinental telephone call (1951), UNIX and the Internet
(1969), and quantum computing (1999). From AT&T.
Atlantic Cable & Submarine Telegraphy
From the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber
Bell Labs History
Cable and Wireless History
From its beginning in the 1860's, Cable & Wireless has played a
major part in the establishment and development of
telecommunications around the world.
Thomas Alva Edison Patent Collection
Patent Numbers 1 (06/01/1869) - 1084 (05/16/1933).
French (Transatlantic) Cable Station
Opened in July 1972 - American termination point for a telegraph
cable that came directly to Orleans, MA from France; called "Le
Direct", installed in 1898 and was almost 3200 miles long; first
French Cable was installed in 1869, landed in Duxbury MA.
The Great Transatlantic Cable
In the modern era of
instantaneous communication, it is perhaps difficult to imagine
a world only 130 years ago where sending messages and other
items to Europe was a rather time-consuming affair.
Transatlantic communications were vastly improved when Cyrus
Field, a New York paper manufacturer, completed construction of
a 2,000-mile-long cable beneath the Atlantic in 1866. This
delightful website is designed to complement the American
Experience documentary on the construction of the cable, and
will be of great interest to those with a penchant for the
history of technology. Visitors can learn about the laborious
process involved with the construction of the cable, take part
in an online poll, and learn about the science behind the
transatlantic cable. Additional materials include a detailed
timeline of related events, additional interviews with experts
in the field, and a selection of cable-related humor from the
HELL'S BELLS: A Radio History of the
8-part series: fascinating glimpse into the history of
telecommunications with great relevance for those interested in
the future of the Internet.
Guglielmo Marconi -- 1874-1937
MarconiCalling is a detail-rich, digital archive drawn from the
extensive Marconi Collection housed at Chelmsford, England. The
site provides an in-depth look at Guglielmo Marconi, the
wireless telegraph company he founded, and their impact on the
interconnected lives that we live today. The site provides links
to other useful resources, a bibliography, a timeline, and a
searchable archive that includes photographs, film clips, sound
clips, newspaper articles, artifacts, and telegrams sent and
received by the Titanic. Subjects: Marconi, Guglielmo, 1874-1937
-- Biography | Telegraph, Wireless -- Marconi system | People.
The Samuel F. B. Morse Papers at the
Library of Congress
Comprises about 6,500 items, or approximately 50,000 images,
that document Morse's invention of the electromagnetic
telegraph, his participation in the development of telegraph
systems in the United States and abroad, his career as a
painter, his family life, his travels, and his interest in early
photography, religion, and the nativist movement. Included in
the collection are correspondence, letterbooks, diaries,
scrapbooks, printed matter, maps, drawings, and other
miscellaneous materials. The papers included date from 1793 to
1919, but most are from 1807 to 1872. The collection includes
the original paper tape containing the
first telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?," sent on
May 24, 1844. The digitization of the Morse Papers is made
possible through the generous support of the AT&T Foundation.
Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation
The Post and Telecommunications Museum Foundation established as
part of the West German postal reform; historical roots go to
and the founding of the Reich Postal Museum in Berlin;
documents historic development of postal and telecommunications
in all its manifestations.
The statutory mission of the Museum Foundation to represent the
"development of communication and thus collect the related
banking, goods and people in the postal and telecommunications
and open", to and extends the range of collection areas,
however, considerably - down to the diverse forms of
communication in present and future; collections date to 1872
(Reich Postal Museum).
The Museum of Communications
Formerly known as the Vintage Telephone Equipment Museum,
reveals the history of the telephone and the equipment that
makes it all work.
New Hampshire Telephone Museum
Created by Dick and Paul Violette, who worked their way up from
apprenticeships to become Chairman and President/CEO of the
Merrimack County Telephone Company; collection of telephones,
equipment and tools begins with a replica of the very first
telephone, which carried inventor Alexander Graham Bell’s words
to his startled assistant Thomas A. Watson. ("Mr. Watson, come
here, I want to see you!"); development of the telephone from
hand-cranked magneto boxes on walls (you generated your own
electricity to call the operator) to the wireless technologies
of today. Crank a magneto telephone to connect yourself to an
antique switchboard ... and dial a telephone to see a
9-foot-tall stepping switch in action.
Porthcurno Telegraph Museum
Where telegraph cables that linked Britain with its Empire
and other nations came ashore. The valley was the hub of
international cable communications from 1870-1970 and also
training college for the communications industry until 1993.
Porthcurno was the largest cable station in the world, has only
working cable station (complete in all details except the actual
cable) in the world. Museum is owned and operated by The Cable &
Wireless Porthcurno and Collections Trust (The PK Trust), an
independent educational charity and heritage trust. The PK Trust
was created in 1997 by Cable & Wireless to hold the Company's
historic premises and collections at Porthcurno. The Trust was
to develop these resources to create a sustainable museum and
archive but also provide the basis for the regeneration of the
The Telecommunications History Group,
Maintains and operates one of the nation's largest privately
held telecommunications archives. THG is a permanent collective
memory of the telecommunications industry, dedicated to
preserving the history of the industry and to telling the
stories behind the history.
Telephone Collectors International
Organization of telephone collectors, hobbyists and historians
who are helping to preserve the history of the
telecommunications industry through the collection of telephones
and telephone related material. Our collections represent all
aspects of the industry; from the very first wooden prototypes
that started the industry to the technological marvels that made
the automatic telephone exchange possible.
Pays tribute to the telephone from a historical aspect. provides
technical information, human interest stories, links to other
telephony related web sites, resources for students and
teachers, and other features.
Telephone History Website
Nikola Tesla Museum
December 5, 1952 - Nikola Tesla Museum was founded in accordance
with the decision of the Government of the Federal People's
Republic of Yugoslavia; unique institution of science and
culture in Yugoslavia and in the world. It is the only museum in
the world which preserves the original and personal inheritance
of Nikola Tesla; plays a significant role in providing abundant
information to the researchers of history of science, inventions
and patent rights as well as for environmental protection
projects and studies of pollution-free energy sources.
Uniting a Nation: Two Giants of
The invention of the telegraph and the telephone provided the
first "paving stones" for what has today become the information
superhighway. The Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress
holds the main body of the papers of the two American inventors
most responsible for the 19th century revolution in
telecommunications, Samuel F. B. Morse and Alexander Graham
Bell. During the next few years, manuscripts and photographs
donated to the Library of Congress by descendents of Morse and
Bell will be made available online as part of the American
Memory Historical Collections. The production of these
collections is supported by a generous gift from the AT&T
Western Union Telegraph Company Records,
This listing of Western Union Telegraph Company records begins
with a concise history of the telegraph, including Samuel F.B.
Morse's invention of the early telegraph, the Morse Code system,
further developments that allowed Roman letters to be sent in
addition to dots and dashes, early commercial telegraph
services, the 1860 Pacific Telegraph Act, and the history of
Western Union Telegraph Company. From the Lemelson Center for
the Study of Invention and Innovation, Smithsonian Institution.
Wireless History Foundation
Hall of Fame
First and only effort focused solely on preserving the story of
wireless in the United States. The WHF will chronicle the
evolution of markets and technology, the contributions of
numerous organizations, and the achievements of individuals, all
of which fueled the growth of wireless communications.