July 13, 1709 - Giovanni Battista Farina
opened G. B. Farina, luxury goods shop, in Cologne, Germany;
1714 - Giovanni
Maria Farina (brother) joined company (had created eau de
Cologne fragrance in 1703, combination of oils of bergamot,
neroli, lemon, rosemary with pure alcohol); renamed Farina &
Compagnie; 1716 -
Carl Hieronymus Farina (brother) joined; formed Gebrüder Farina
& Comp. (Farina Brothers and Co.);
after 1716 - renamed Fratelli Farina (Farina
Brothers); 1732 -
renamed Johann Maria Farina (Giovanni Maria Farina); oldest
fragrance factory still standing.
- Claude Moet shipped Champagne to Paris from Epernay for first
time; Jean-Rémy Moët (grandson) expanded business; 1832
- handed business to Victor Moët (son),
Pierre-Gabriel Chandon de Briailles (son-in-law); name changed to Moët &
Chandon; 1971 - merged with Hennessy Cognac;
1987 - merged with Louis Vuitton; renamed LVMH-Moët
April 12, 1799
- Phineas Pratt of Connecticut received first US patent for
a comb-cutting machine; 1759 - first commercial
scale comb factory by Enoch Noyes of West Newbury, MA made combs
from flattened animal horns; 1789 - Andrew Lord
made first U.S. made ivory comb at Centerbrook, CT, cut the
plate and teeth with a handsaw.
- Pierre François Pascal Guerlain opened perfume store on 42,
Rue de Rivoli in Paris; 1853 - introduced Eau de Cologne
Impérial; named His Majesty's Official Perfumer
(France); 1925 - introduced Shalimar (named after
garden in Srinagar, built by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife);
one of first perfumes to successfully incorporate large amounts
of vanillin in its composition;
August 24, 1926 - Guerlain Perfumery Corporation
registered "Shalimar" trademark first used April 3, 1926
(perfumes); 1994 - acquired by
LVMH (world's largest luxury goods
- Luigi Marzotto founded, Lanificio Luigi Marzotto & Figli,
woolens mill in Valdagno, Italy;
1842 - Gaetano Marzotto (son) took over;1856 -
introduced 400-spindle mule-jenny;
1862 - bought 8 mechanical looms from Smith &
Bros. in England; 1866
- 200 employees operated carding, spinning, dyeing machines,
weaving looms; 1880
- opened spinning factory in Maglio di Spora, Italy;
1910 - company
split in half (specified in father's will): Vittorio Emanuele
Marzotto (son, led company into export business) took over
Valdagno business; Gaetano's grandsons took over Maglio mill;
1921 - Gaetano
Marzotto, Jr. took over Valdagno mill; survived Great Depression
without being nationalized, reacquired Maglio mill;
1961 - went public;
fifth-generation Giannino (son), Pietro (grandson) took over;
1985 - established
U.S. subsidiary (40% of ITL 402 billion sales outside Italy);
1986 - launched
Missoni Uomo label; acquired Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale;
1987 - acquired
Lanerossi, became leading Italian textiles group;
1991 - acquired
controlling interest in Hugo Boss Group, largest menswear maker
in Germany, from Japanese investor Akira Akagi ITL 200 billion
($165 million); 2002
- acquired Valentino S.p.A. from Holding di Partecipazioni
Industriali (HPI) for $210 million;
2005 - separated textile, clothing
production systems: Linificio e Canapificio Nazionale, main
textiles subsidiary, acquired by Zignago (Marzotto family
holding); focused on luxury fashion group: established Marzotto
S.p.A. and Valentino Fashion Group;
2010 - over half billion dollars in
annual sales, more than 3,000 people working in ten production
sites in Italy, abroad.
- Thierry Hermes founded saddlery company in Madeleine quarter
of Paris; made harnesses, bridles, riding boots for carriage
trade; over time added boots, jewelry, home decor items, and
silk scarves; 1920 -grandson, Emile, added
luggage; 1922 - Emile-Charles Hermes sold his
interest in company to Emile-Maurice Hermes (brother);
1923 - created Hermès handbag, Bolide ('racing car'),
sleek, modernist design incorporating new zip fastener
(Emile-Maurice had bought 2-year zipper patent rights);
1930s - first Hermes store opened in its current Paris
location; 1937 - started making silk headscarves
scarf; all Hermes products inspired by horses, horse motifs;
July 18, 1939 -
Hermes Corporation registered "Hermes" trademark first used
December 1936 (closcks and watches);
1951 - Robert Dumas (1905-1978) and
Jean-Rene Guerrand (1901-1993),
took over; added Hermes to their
own surname; 1978 - Dumas's son took over (5th
generation Chairman); 1984 - Birkin bag created
(for actress Jane Birkin); 1999 - acquired
35-percent stake in Gaultier Couture (Jean-Paul Gaultier).
majority of Hermes Group stock is in hands of Dumas, Guerrand,
Puech families; 2007 - sales of €1,514.9m.
Thierry Hermes - founded
- François Goyard became director of Morel (had apprenticed in
workshop of Henri Morel, since 1845 [age 17] who had acquired
Maison Martin, packing-case and trunkmaker to Duchesse of Berry
in 1836); start of La Maison Goyard;
1885 - Edmond (son) took over; renamed
E. Goyard Aine; December 3, 1931
- received patent for 'Malle Bureau' (office suitcase - portable
box transforms into writing tablet with drawers, when opened);
1937 - Robert
Goyard (grandson) took control;
1979 - Francois Edmond Goyard (great grandson)
assumed control; August 25, 1992
- Goyard A.A.R.L. Corporation registered "Goyard" trademark
first used in U.S. on January 1, 1984 (articles of fancy
leather, leather, cloth and skin articles, etc.).
Goyard - Maison Goyard
- Louis Vuitton founded Louis Vuitton Malletier ("Louis
Vuitton Trunk-Maker"), opened store in Paris on Rue Nueve des
Capucines; created luggage, bags and accessories; sold
flat-topped trunks that were lightweight and airtight, (bought
by France's Empress Eugénie in its first year of sale);
1896 - introduced Monogram canvas (considered the first
"designer logo); 1987 - merged with Moët et
Chandon and Hennessy, leading manufacturers of champagne and of
brandy, to form the world's largest luxury goods conglomerate.
Thomas Burberry (21), former apprentice to country draper,
opened outfitters shop in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England;
1870 - became known emporium, increased
development of outdoor wear for local residents, visiting
1880 - invented gabardine, breathable
fabric, yarn waterproofed before weaving; 1888 -
received patent on fabric; 1901
registered equestrian knight device logo as trademark;
October 21, 1913 -
Burberrys Limited registered "Burberry's B Prorsum" trademark
first used July 23, 1909 (suits, overcoats [shirts, and gaiters
for general sporting and military wear] for men, women, and
- introduced Burberry Check (red, camel, black, white check - known as
'Nova'), as lining for wet weather attire, registered
1872 - Simon
Tissot-Dupont (25) established prestigious leather goods
workshop in Paris; manufactured wallets and "maroquins"
(attache-cases of time, bearing initials of senior civil
servants); became official supplier to Magasins du Louvre;
1920s - Andre and
Lucien Dupont (sons) innovated, created sumptuous travel cases,
produced as one-of-a-kind pieces;
1935 - Chinese lacquer on metal;
1941 - Andre
invented first pocket petrol lighter (Ligne 1 model adjustable
gas lighter); 1961
- introduced Cricket lighter; 1970- 48% of S. T. Dupont S.A.
acquired by Gillette; 1972
- Gillette sold Crickets in U.S. ($1.49; $.70 in 1983);
1973 - Dupont
created first luxury jewelry pen (Classique, ballpoint pen in
solid silver, with very refined line); 1983
- Cricket line acquired by Swedish Match Company;
August 1987 -
Dupont acquired by Dickson Concepts Ltd., local wholesaler and
retailer of fashion products, watches and jewelry.
Simon Tissot-Dupont -
S. T. Dupont S.A.
July 1, 1880
- Hairdresser Franz Ströher (26) established Franz
Ströher-Rothenkirchen in Saxon Vogtland for production,
distribution of artificial hair; 1918 - renamed
Franz Ströher OHG; 1927 - introduced Wella brand
(production, distribution of perm machines, hair driers,
hairdressers' equipment, salon furniture); 1950 -
renamed Wella AG; introduced Koleston, first hair-conditioning
cream tint; June 2, 1953 - registered "Wella"
trademark first used December 2, 1931 (preparations for use in
the treatment of hair);
2003 - acquired by
Procter & Gamble.
- Antonio, Stefano, Quintino Cerruti, cousin founded Lanificio
Felli Cerruti, spinning and weaving factory in Biella, Italy
(between Milan, Turin); used exceptionally pure local water
source for washing, treating wool;
1915 - Silvio Cerruti (son of Antonio) took
over; 1950 - Nino
Cerruti (20) took over (son of Silvio); modernized machinery,
invested in two factories in Milan dedicated to cutting and
introduced first men’s collection; created new concept: luxury
ready-to-wear; November 1967
- opened boutique son Place de la Madeleine in Paris (quickly
accounted for 50% of sales); 1978
- introduced fine fragrances; 1980
- launched sports line based on haute couture;
1990 - sold in 30
countries; 1995 -
introduced line of jeans; 2000/2001
- acquired by Italian real estate group;
2006 - acquired by Matlin Patterson,
American investment group;
September 2008 - Florent Perrichon named
- Lanificio Felli
April 5, 1882
- Andrew Jergens Sr., Charles H. Geilfus founded The Jergens
Soap Company in Cincinnati, OH; original product - coconut oil
soap for use in hard water; 1894 - renamed Andrew Jergens & Co.;
1901 - incorporated as Andrew Jergens Co.; acquired
John H. Woodbury Company ("Woodbury Facial Soap"); acquired
Robert Eastman Company, maker of creams and lotions; most
superior formula eventually became original Jergens Lotion, soon
to become the number one selling hand lotion in America;
January 30, 1912 - registered "Jergens" trademark first
used in 1890 (toilet soap); registered second "Jergens"
trademark first used in 1893 (perfumes, toilet water, cold
cream, face lotions, talcum powder, sachet powder, face powder
and shampoo preparations); 1970 - acquired by
American Brands for $100 million; 1988 - acquired
by Kao Corporation (Japan); September 2002 -
Jergens Company expanded into hair care, acquired John Frieda
Professional Hair Care businesses.
1886 - David H.
McConnell (28) founded California Perfume Company in single room
at 126 Chambers St. in lower Manhattan; hired
Persus Foster Eames
Albee, former agent with McConnell at
Union Publishing, as
first sales woman (pioneered Avon's direct-selling); 1895
- built plant, research facility (quality, cost control) in
Suffern, NY; 1906 - advertised products for first
time; 1928 - introduced line of Avon products
(tooth brush, talc, and a cleaner); named because McConnell's
office view reminded him of Stratford-on-Avon countryside;
August 16, 1932
- registered "Avon" trademark first used
in September 1929 (shaving cream, shaving stick, toilet soap);
August 30, 1932 - registered
"Avon" trademark for perfumes, toilet waters, powder and rouge
compacts, lipsticks, rouge, face powder, etc.;
September 1939 -
company's name changed to Avon Products, Inc.
- Jeanne Lanvin (22) established millinery in rue du Faubourg
Saint-Honore in Paris; 1908 - opened custom
children's clothing department; oldest Paris fashion houses;
1909 - offered women's clothing; joined Syndicat de
la couture, achieved formal status as Couture House; 1924
- opened Lanvin Parfums; 1925 - introduced Mon
Peche ('My Sin') in U. S.; 1926 - launched men's
clothing, women's sportswear, furs, accessories; 1927
- formed Jeanne Lanvin S.A, Lanvin Parfums S.A.; introduced
Arpége perfume; April 21, 1931 - Lanvin Parfums
Inc. registered "Arpege" trademark first used in June 1928
(perfume extract); June 5, 1934 - Lanvin Parfums
Inc. registered "My Sin" trademark first used in 1923 (perfumes,
toilet water, and talcum powder); 1946 -
Marie-Blanche de Polignac (daughter) took over; 1982
- launched women's ready-to-wear; 1989 - acquired by Orcofi and
L'Oreal; 1992 - couture collections discontinued;
2001 - acquired by Harmonie SA.
- Francois Sporturno moved to Paris from Corsica, changed last
name to Coty
(variation on mother's maiden name); launched first fragrance,
La Rsoe Jacquerinot, in bottle designed by Baccarat; 1908
- opened exclusive shop at 33 Place Vendome; commissioned
jeweler, Rene Lalique, to design fragrance bottles; 1914
- introduced face powders, scented body powder; created new
category of fragrance beauty products scented with aroma of
October 8, 1906
- Karl Ludwig Nessler demonstrated first
"permanent wave" for hair, in his beauty salon in Oxford Street,
London, to an invited audience of hair stylists; soaked hair with an alkaline solution, rolled on dozen brass curlers
(metal rods weighed 1-3/4 pounds each), stronly heated rods; took about 5 hours; moved to United States,
opened salons in New York, Chicago, Detroit, Palm Beach, Philadelphia; peak
- 500 employees.
- Eugène Schueller,
French chemist, developed innovative hair-color formula; called
it Auréole; formulated, manufactured his own products, sold to
Parisian hairdressers; 1909 - registered company
as L'Oreal (liked sound of name), "Société Française de
Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux" ("Safe Hair Dye Company of
France"); 1936 - invented the first sunscreen;
March 17, 2006 - agreed to pay £652 million to
acquire ethical cosmetics company, The Body Shop.
- Max Factor (born Max Faktor in Poland) moved to Los Angeles;
1914 - created make-up specifically for
movie-actors (vs. theatrical make-up), would not crack or cake;
1920s - introduced cosmetics to the public;
November 12, 1929 - registered "MAX FACTOR'S SUM'R TAN
COSMETICS OF THE STARS HOLLYWOOD" trademark first used March 30,
1929 (preparation for creating a suntanned complexion and for
preventing sunburn and freckles); August 10, 1937
- registered "MAX FACTOR HOLLYWOOD" trademark first used
November 1, 1928 (cosmetics, perfumes, theatrical make-up and
similar preparations); June 18, 1940 - registered
"MAX FACTOR" trademark first used June 1, 1917 (perfumes,
- Florence Nightingale Graham opened salon in New York
with $6,000 loan from her
older brother; installed bright red door, adopted new name,
Elizabeth Arden (hybrid
of first, last names of her skincare mentor, former
business partner); 1912 - formulated rogues,
tinted powders; March 21,
1922 - Florence N. Lewis, aka Elizabeth Arden,
registered "Elizabeth Arden" trademark first used January 2,
1910 (skin solutions and creams, reducing lotion, bleach cream,
created business with 17
Elizabeth Arden corporations, 40 Salons worldwide; 1970
- acquired by Eli Lilly & Co.; 1989 - acquired by
2001 - acquired by FFI Fragrances (formerly
French Fragrances, Inc.) for $190 million;
name changed to
Elizabeth Arden, Inc.
- Angelo Zegna, watchmaker, opened wool mill (Lanificio Zegna)
in Trivero, in the Alpine foothills near Biella; taken over by
Ermenegildo Zegna (youngest of 10) to produce top quality
textiles for men’s clothing by selecting finest raw materials,
introducing product and process innovations, actively promoting
brand; end of the 1930s - employed over 1,000
people; 1938 - exported to United States;
January 8, 1952 -
Lanificid Rrmenegildo Zegna SNC. Co registered "Astrum Zegna"
trademark (textile and knitted fabrics made of wool, silk,
cotton, horesehair, jute, hemp, flax, and mistures of such
1960s - Angelo, Aldo (grandsons) took over management of
Ermenegildo Zegna e Figli; made transition from exclusive
production of fabrics to tailoring of high quality suits for
men, internationalization of production; 1972 -
launched Made to Measure business; 1980 - opened
first mono brand store in Paris; 1999 - acquired
Lanerie Agnona S.p.A.; 2002 - acquired Guida,
owner of Longhi brand; set up a 50-50 joint venture (ZeFer) with
Salvatore Ferragamo Group to develop global scale footwear,
leather goods business; 2006 - fourth generation
management, sales of 779.4 million euros.
Ermenegildo Zegna -
- Mario Prada founded Fratelli Prada ("Prada Brothers), Prada,
SpA; designed, sold handbags, shoes, trunks, suitcases though
two boutiques in Milan; 1978 - Miuccia Prada
(granddaughter) inherited what was still leather goods
business from her mother, led company's expansion into couture;
January 17, 1984 -
F. Ili Prada di Fernanda e Luigia Prada Partnership registered
"Prada" trademark (Leather Goods-Namely, Leather and Leather
Like Articles-Namely, Wallets, Purses, Travelling Bags, and Hand
Bags; Hides; Trunks and Suit-Cases; Rain Umbrellas; Parasols
[and Walking Sticks; Whips, Harness and Saddlery Articles];
early 1990s - acquired financially floundering
Rome-based house of Fendi (sold to LVMH).
November 4, 1914
- Edna Woodman Chase, "Vogue" magazine, organized first fashion
show, at Ritz-Carlton Hotel in New York City.
September 1915 -
Chicago chemist, started Maybell Laboratories; began selling
'Lash-Brow-Ine', mail-order product to stimulate growth
of eyebrows and lashes (had concocted lash-darkener for
his sister in 1913 from blend of Vaseline jelly with coal dust,
ash from burnt cork);
- started advertising in magazines to
drive sales; 1917 - launched Maybelline
Cake Mascara, first eye cosmetic for everyday use; 1920 -
launched eyeshadow; May 5,
1920 - changed name to Maybelline
Company; July 15, 1920
- lost trademark infringement suit against Lashbrow
Laboratories Company (Benjamin Ansehl vs. Thomas L.
Williams - 'Lash-Brow-Ine' held to infringe on 'Lashbrow',
sold since 1912); 1930
- introduced eyeliners; February 17, 1942 -
Maybelline Co. registered "Maybelline" trademark first used May
5, 1920 (mascara, eyebrow pencils, eye shadow, eyelash and
eyebrow cream, eye drops); 1960s - introduced Ultra Lash,
waterproof formula in tube dispenser, first mass-market
automatic mascara; 1967 - acquired by Plough Inc.;
introduced foundation, lip, nail lines; 1971
- launched Great Lash; America’s #1 best -selling cosmetic
product; 1990 - acquired by Wasserstein Perella; 1996
- acquired by L’Oréal.
- Guccio Gucci (formerly of London's Savoy Hotel) opened
leather-goods company, small luggage store in Florence;
1950's - green-red-green web (derived from saddle girth)
became brand identifier; 1953 - sons take over
(Aldo, Vasco, Ugo, Rodolfo); end of 1960's -
interlocking double 'G' logo introduced; 1982 -
Maurizio Gucci (Rodolfo's son) owned 50% of company; 1984
- Domenic De Sole named President of Gucci America; late
1987-89 - Bahrain-based Investcorp acquired 50% of
company from Aldo Gucci and descendants; 1993 -
Investcorp acquired remaining 50% of stock from Maurizio Gucci;
1994 - Tom Ford became creative director;
1995 - De Sole named CEO; 1999 - entered
strategic alliance with Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR), became
multi-brand group; 34% Gucci Group shares acquired by LVMF;
December 1999 - acquired Yves Saint Laurent, YSL
Beaute; February 2001 - acquired 66.7% of Bottega
Veneta (increased to 78.5% in July); July 2004 -
fully acquired by PPR; De Sole, Ford resigned.
May 5, 1921
- Coco Chanel introduced Chanel No. 5;
February 24, 1925 - Chanel Inc.
registered "Chanel" trademark first used January 1, 1920 (face
powder, perfume, eau de cologne, toilet water, lop stick, and
rouge); June 14, 1949
- Chanel Inc. registered "Chanel No. 5" trademark first used on
January 1, 1921 (perfume).
- Enid Bissett, partner with Ida Rosenthal in Enid Frocks,
custom dress business on New York's West 57th Street,
restructured boyish form bandeau to have two cups separated by
center piece of elastic; William Rosenthal (husband) created
garment shape to support natural contours of bust; named it
Maiden Form (later Maidenform®) Brassiere; sold undergarment
separately; 1923 -
1925 - formed Enid Manufacturing Company, produced
Maidenform® Brassiere exclusively; 1930 - name
changed to Maiden Form Brassiere Company; April 24, 1934
- William Rosenthal, of New York, NY, received a patent for a
"Brassiere" ("adapted to support the bust in a natural
position"); assigned to Maiden Form Brassiere Co.;
November 6, 1934 - received second patent for a
"Brassiere"; assigned to Maiden Form Brassiere Co.; first
intimate apparel company to advertise on buses, billboards,
local window and store-counter card displays, radio; 1949
- first "I Dreamed" ad (featured women in their bras acting out
fantasies of independence in public places; ran through 1969);
September 4, 1951 - Maiden Form Brasserie Co.,
Inc. registered "Maidenform" trademark first used January 1,
1924 (brassieres, bandeaux, corsets, corselettes, panties,
pantie-girdles, girdles, and garter belts); 1960 -
company renamed Maidenform, Inc.; 1997 - filed for
Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; 1999 - emerged
fro, bankruptcy; Oaktree Capital Management, LLC majority owner.
Ida Rosenthal -
- Hugo Ferdinand Boss, tailor, opened shop in Metzingen, Germany
(small town south of Stuttgart); made working clothes for
industrial workers (uniforms, raincoats);
1930 - forced into bankruptcy;
1931 - joined Nazi
party; 1933 -
became RZM-licensed (official) supplier of uniforms to SA, SS,
Hitler Youth, NSKK, other Party organizations;
1948 - Uwe and
Jochen Holy (grandsons) took over tailoring business , turned it
around, produced high quality men's wear;
1980 - sales exceeded DM 100 million;
December 3, 1985 -
Hugo Boss GmbH registered "Boss Creation Hugo Boss Paris"
trademark first used in 1924 (high fashioned men's wear);
1987 - sales of DM
500 million; 1989 -
64% ownership interest acquired by Japanese Leyton House Group;
1991 - acquired by
Marzatto S.p.A. for ITL 200 billion ($165 million);
1993 - named Peter
Littmann CEO; November 1998 - nemed Werner Baldessarini, chief
designer and marketing manager, CEO;
1999-2000 - opened 130 Hugo Boss stores;
2010 - Hugo Boss AG
owns around 330 retail stores, franchisees own over 1,000 stores
- Edoardo, Adele Fendi, newly married, opened small leathergoods
shop, fur worshop on Via del Plebiscito in Rome (Adele
Casagrande had opened leather, fur workshop in Rome in 1918,
changed name to Fendi in 1925);
1946 - five sisters joined company;
1965 - started to
work with Karl Lagerfeld, young designer becoming well-known in
Paris; created double FF logo; 1966
- Marvin Traub (Bloomingdale's) discovered Fendi bags in Rome,
introduced them in New York; 1977
- launched ready-to-wear line; 1994 - Carla Fendi named
President of the Board, took place of her sister Paola;
1995 - over 380
employees, about 70% of overall production geared for export
(100 boutiques, 2 direct Fendi stores in Rome, New York, 600
points of sale scattered in Italy, abroad);
1999 - acquired by LVMH Moet Hennessy
Louis Vuitton, Prada Holdings;
November 2001 - Prada 25.5% stake in Fendi
acquired by LVMH Group.
March 1, 1932
- Charles and Joseph Revson, along with chemist, Charles Lachman
(contributed the "L" in the REVLON name), founded Revlon; pooled
their resources, developed unique manufacturing process (used
pigments instead of dyes) for single product - nail enamel;
offered to women a rich-looking, opaque nail enamel in wide
variety of shades never before available; sold to beauty salons;
1937 - sold through department stores, selected
drugstores; 1938 - company became multimillion
dollar organization; 1941 - virtual monopoly on
beauty salon sales;
June 18, 1957 -
Revlon Inc. registered "Revlon" trademark first used May 17,
1950 (shampoo); 1973 - Charlie® fragrance
introduced; designed for a young, working woman market (1977
- sales passed $1 billion mark); 1985 - acquired
by subsidiary of MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.
March 25, 1937
- The first perfumed ad appeared in the Washington, DC "Daily
April 6, 1937
- Bausch & Lomb introduced Ray-Ban to public, high-end
manufacturer of sunglasses; aviator sunglasses commissioned in
1936 for pilot use by United States Air Force;
November 1, 1938 -
registered 'Ray-Ban' trademark first used April 6, 1937
(goggles); 1999 - acquired by Luxotica Group.
October 24, 1939
- Nylon stockings (first man-made fibre made exclusively from mineral
sources - strong, elastic, moth-proof, did not absorb
moisture), made by Du Pont, sold publicly for first time at
Braunstein's ladies shop in Wilmington, DE; specifically intended to compete with silk in women's hosiery market (eventually replaced silk stockings);
May 15, 1940 - nationwide sales began.
- Master tailor Nazareno Fonticoli, fashion designer Gaetano
Savini opened Brioni Atelier, suit shop, in Rome's central Via
Barberini; company named "Brioni" after resort island on coast
of Adriatic Sea; 1952 - first men's tailored
clothing show at Palazzo Pitti, Florence;
1961 - began wholesale distribution in United States;
1990 - Umberto Angeloni
opened 23 boutiques in most prestigious
cities, resorts in world, “hubs” for International Jet Set;
expanded line into women’s haute-couture fashion; 2000
- sales of $150 million, eight hand-production factories,
diverse product line.
Nazareno Fonticoli, Gaetano
September 11, 1945
- Toni, Incorporated (St.
Paul, MN) registered "Toni" trademark first used August 1, 1944
(home permanent waving kit).
- Jerry and Eileen Ford started modeling agency in apartment on East side of Manhattan; introduced payment system
(models paid in advance of their work), established 5-day work
week (models paid on Friday, less 10% Ford fee); December
2007 - acquired by Stone Tower Equity Partners.
July 5, 1946
- Bikini, first two-piece bathing suit, made debut during outdoor fashion show at Piscine Molitor, popular
swimming pool in Paris; invented
by Jacques Heim, designed by Louis Reard, named
after South Pacific atoll where atomic bomb tested in World War
II (Heim and
Reard had developed competing prototypes; Heim called his "atom", advertised it as "the world's smallest
bathing suit"; Reard's swimsuit, basically bra top, two
inverted triangles of cloth connected by string, was significantly smaller
- made of 30 inches of
fabric, promoted as "smaller than the world's
smallest bathing suit" Reard's business soared, kept bikini mystique alive
in advertisements by declaring
that two-piece suit wasn't genuine bikini "unless it could
be pulled through a wedding ring"); modeled by Micheline
Bernardini, Parisian showgirl, exotic dancer at Casino de Paris
(no qualms about appearing
nearly nude in public).
1949 - Charles
Evans (salesman in aunt's clothing store), Joseph Picone
(father's tailor) formed Evan-Picone partnership to create
sample from designs of fly-fronts on women's skirts (believed
they would work as well as on men's trousers); became successful
manufacturer of women's sportswear; 1962 -
acquired by Revlon.
- Pierre Cardin opened fashion house on Rue Richepanse;
1953 - presented first collection; 1954 -
introduced "bubble dresses"; opened first boutiques in Paris:
EVE, then ADAM; 1959 - first time collection of
ready-to-wear for women at Printemps department store in Paris;
1961 - started distribution of ready-to-wear and
accessories for men; 1963 - same for women;
1979 - first foreign couturier to present collection in
China; 1986 - signed contract with USSR for local
production of ready-to-wear for men, women children.
- Hazel Gladys Bishop established Hazel Bishop, Inc. to
manufacture "Lasting Lipstick"; enlisted help of advertising
professional Raymond Spector; introduced non-smear ("stays on
you not on him") kissproof lipstick (stayed on the lips longer
than any other product then available) for $1 per tube;
1951 - Spector partner forced her out of the $10 million
company she created.
- Los Angeles-based chemist named Alberto introduced Alberto VO5
Conditioning Hairdressing (five organic emollients) to
rejuvenate hair of Hollywood movie stars damaged by beaming
studio lights; Blaine Culver, business partner, started beauty
products company; acquired by Leonard (36) and Bernice Lavin for
$40,000; renamed Albert-Culver Co.; discontinued all products
but VO5; February 25, 1958 - Lobco, Inc. (dba
Alberto-Culver Co.) registered "Alberto VO5" trademark first
used in January 1939 (preparation used as a hair dressing and as
a hair scalp conditioner); became number one brand in its
category; 1961 - went public; 1969 -
acquired Sally Beauty Company, Inc.; 1972 -
persuaded television networks to abandon policies of only
selling 60-second commercial spots; bought 30-second ads, ran
two commercials back to back; 1983 - introduced
Mrs. Dash line of herbs, spices.
- Jacques Courtin opened Institut Clarins beauty salon on Rue
Tronchet in Paris; named for Clarins, Roman jailer saved
Christians from being devoured at the Coliseum by overfeeding
lions; founded Clarins to produce luxury skin-care products,
makeup made primarily from plant extracts; 2006 -
$1.2 billion in sales.
September 20, 1955
- Evan-Picone, Inc. registered "Tailored by Evan-Picone New
York" trademark first used September 1, 1949 (skirts, slacks,
shorts, and pedal pushers, for women and misses).
- Yves Rocher started company focused on nature, feminine beauty
in La Gacilly in Brittany, France; products based on beauty
through plants (no synthetic additives); early pioneer of
process of selling cosmetics by mail order;
1965 - published The Green Book of
Beauty (translated into 30 languages);
1969 - opened first store on Boulevard
Haussmann in Paris; 2009
- 40 million customers in 80 countries., sales of 2 billion
euros; Bris Rocher (grandson) president of Yves Rocher Group.
- Leonardo Del Vecchio founded Luxottica s.a.s., limited
partnership, in Agordo; employed ten people, contract
manufacturer of eyewear parts; 1971 - only
business became manufacture, sale of finished eyeglass frames;
first collection presented at MIDO (International Exhibition of
Optics, Optometry and Ophthalmology) in Milan; 1974
- acquired Italian firm Scarrone, its first distribution
company; 1988 - signed license agreement with
Giorgio Armani; 1995 - acquired US Shoe
Corporation, owner of LensCrafters, direct distribution through
largest optical retail chain in North America (870 stores);
1999 - acquired Ray-Ban (best known sunwear brand in
world); 2001 - acquired Sunglass Hut, Inc.,
largest sunwear store chain in world (more than 1,550 sales
points in North America, approximately 300 stores throughout the
rest of world); consolidated direct market penetration);
2007 - 27 brands, approximately 52,000 employees
worldwide; June 20, 2007 - agreed to acquire
Oakley Inc. in an all-cash deal worth about $2.1 billion.
Leonardo Del Vecchio
- founder Luxotica Group
Garavani debuted Valentino fashions in Florence; teamed with
Giancarlo Giammetti to form business;
1998 - acquired by HdP, Italian conglomerate
controlled, in part, by Gianni Agnelli, head of Fiat, for about
$300 million; 2002
- acquired by Marzotto Apparel, Milan-based textile company, for
$210 million; May 16, 2007 - controlling interest
(29.6%) in Valentino Fashion Group SpA acquired by Permira
Advisers (Europe's biggest buyout fund) for $1.06 billion.
Valentino Garavani -
Valentino Fashion Group SpA
January 1962 - Yves Saint Laurent
presented first collection in former private residence of
painter Forain, at 30 bis rue Spontini à Paris (had been former
Art Director at Christian Dior company since 1957, had formed
partnership with Pierre Bergé in 1961 to open fashion house); 80
dressmakers in 3 workshops created the fashions;
September 16, 1966
- opened Rive Gauche, his first ready-to-wear boutique, at 21
rue de Tournon; January 7, 2002
- presented final collection; retired from Haute Couture.
- Luciano, Gilberto, Carlo, Giuliana Benetton founded
- Ralph Lauren established Polo label with successful line (26
boxes) of ties (wide, handmade ties using unexpected,
flamboyant, opulent materials); 1969 - established
first shop-within-a-shop designer boutique for men in
Bloomingdale’s in New York City; 1971 - introduced
women's line; opened first store in Beverly Hills, CA; first
American designer with his own freestanding store;
February 5, 1974 - registered 'Polo by Ralph Lauren'
trademark (men's suits, slacks, ties, sweaters, shoes, shirts,
hats, belts, socks, and ladies' blouses, skirts, suits and
dresses); July 29, 1975 - Polo Fashions, Inc.
registered 'Chaps by Ralph Lauren' trademark (jackets, pants,
suits and slacks; brand name first used January 23, 1974);
1986 - opened flagship store in Rhinelander mansion
(Madison Avenue at 72nd Street); 2002 - $10
billion global business.
- Sidney Kimmel founded, became President of Jones Apparel
Division of W. R. Grace; 1975 - acquired by Kimmel
and partner, renamed Jones Apparel Group; May 15, 1991
- went public; 1996 - sales of $1 billion;
1993 - acquired Evan-Picone label; October 1998
- acquired Sun Apparel, Inc; June 1999
- acquired Nine West Group Inc.; December 2004 -
acquired Barney's New York, Inc.; for $400 million; June
22, 2007 - sold to Istithmar, investment arm of Dubai
government, for $825 million.
- Charlie Clifford, former Peace Corps volunteer, founded Tumi
Inc. (named for an Inca god), imported leather duffle bags from
Colombia; 1980s - introduced garment bag;
1997 - opened first store in Santa Monica, CA;
October 2002 - Oaktree Capital Management, LLC, Los
Angeles-based private equity firm, acquired controlling
interest; October 2004 - acquired by Doughty
Hanson (UK buyout firm) for $276 million.
Charlie Clifford -
- Liz Claiborne, relatively unknown dress designer, Art
Ortenberg (husband in textiles, former boss for 20 years),
Leonard Boxer and Jerome Chazen established Liz Claiborne Inc.
with less than half a million dollars; design-driven company to
provide ensemble driven sportswear, available for many years at
designer level prices (Calvin Klein, Bill Blass), affordable for
the working woman; worked with retailers to test concept of
presenting all brand's related sportswear pieces in one
department, streamlined consumer's shopping experience;
1981 - went public (sales of $117 million, net income of
$20 million); 1985 - first company founded by a
woman to be listed in Fortune 500; 1990 - largest
women's apparel maker (sales of $1.4 billion, 35 million
garments shipped); 2006 - sales of $5 billion.
- John Paul DeJoria (formerly
of Redken Laboratories, leading professional salon product
Paul Mitchell (hairdresser) established partnership with
borrowed $700.00; launched professional hair care system around
new styling method, hair sculpting, and new styling product,
Hair Sculpting Lotion; eventually become known as John Paul
Mitchell Systems; products marketed under brand name Paul
Mitchell; traveled extensively, conducted no-cost product
demonstrations for salon owners, promised to buy back any unsold
products; 1989 - Paul Mitchell died; 2007
- retail sales of approximately $800 million, over 90 products.
John Paul DeJoria -
co-founder John Paul Mitchell Systems
- Kenneth Cole incorporated Kenneth
Cole Productions, Inc.; debut
collection of ladies' footwear (followed in father's footsteps,
former senior executive of El Greco, Inc., shoe manufacturing,
design company, manufactured CANDIES women's shoes) from 40-foot trailer truck parked on 6th Avenue, across from shoe
industry trade show HQ at New York Hilton; sold 40,000 pairs of
shoes (entire stock) in two and a half days; 1984
- first public service campaign (AIDS Research); 1994
- sales of $84.9 million; opened Bloomingdale's
Manhattan flagship concept shop; 1996 - operated
17 retail stores in United States, store in Amsterdam,
Singapore; 2005 - sales at record level of $518
million; products sold in more than 7,500 department, specialty
stores, through Consumer Direct business (more than 80 retail,
outlet stores, consumer catalogs, interactive websites).
- Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana founded Dolce & Gabbana,
leading international luxury goods groups; 2005 -
annual sales of 1,151.3 million euros; December 2006
- over 3,000 employees, retail network of 87 stores, 11 factory
- Joseph Abboud founded JA Apparel Corp; owns Joseph Abboud
brand name; menswear label has grown into a $150 million
worldwide wholesaler, retailer, and licensor of men?s clothing,
accessories, and home furnishings; 2000 - sold for
$65 million to RCS MediaGroup.
- Rembrandt Group Limited of South Africa (founded by Anton
Rupert, now Remgro Limited) spun off international assets owned;
formed Compagnie Financiere Richemont AG; owns minority holding
in Cartier Monde SA. Rothmans International (holds investments
in Cartier monde, Alfred Dunhill, Montblanc, Chloé); 1989
- acquired Philip Morris's 30% interest in Rothmans
International; 1993 - separated tobacco, luxury
goods operations into Rothmans International BV/PLC, Vendôme
Luxury Group SA/PLC; 1988 - bought out Vendôme
Luxury Group minority shareholders; 2003 -
completed acquisition of control of Van Cleef & Arpels.
July 15, 1997
- Fashion designer Gianni Versace was shot to death outside his
home in Miami; suspected gunman Andrew Phillip Cunanan was found
dead eight days later.
March 17, 2006
- The Body Shop agreed to $1.2 billion takeover by the French
cosmetics firm L'Oréal; 1976 - started in
Brighton, UK as ethical alternative to traditional approach to
cosmetics; 2,085 branches worldwide, 304 in UK.
March 12, 2007
- The Weinstein Company and Hilco Consumer Capital announced
that they had acquired Halston (brokered by Jimmy Choo) from
Neema Clothing for an undisclosed amount.
February 13, 2008
- Liz Claiborne agreed to sell Ellen Tracy Brand to group of
investors including Radius Partners and Windsong Brands for up
to $42 million in cash.
(JA Apparel Corp.), Jospeh Abboud with Ellen
Threads: My Life Behind the Seams in the High-Stakes World of
Fashion. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 256 p.). Founder.
Abboud, Joseph; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.
(Alberto-Culver Co.), Leonard H. Lavin with
Daniel Paisner (2003).
Winners Make It Happen: Reflections of a Self-Made Man.
(Chicago, IL: Bonus Books, 238 p.). Founding President, CEO,
Chairman of Alberto-Culver Corporation. Lavin, Leonard H.;
Alberto-Culver Co.--History; Businessmen--United
States--Biography; Toilet preparations industry--United
(Elizabeth Arden), Nancy Shuker (1989).
Elizabeth Arden: Cosmetics Entrepreneur. (Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett, 112 p.). Arden, Elizabeth,
1878-1966; Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Cosmetics
(Avon), Sonny Kleinfield (1986).
Staying at the Top: The Life of a CEO. (New York, NY:
New American Library, 298 p.). Reporter (New York Times).
Waldron, Hicks; Avon Products, inc.; Directors of
corporations--United States--Biography; Chief executive
David Hall McConnell
- founder Avon Products
Albee - pioneered Avon's
direct-selling method ( = first general agent - in
(Avon), Laura Klepacki (2005).
Avon :Building The World's Premier Company For Women.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 264 p.). Former Mass-Market Beauty Editor
(Women's Wear Daily). Avon Products, Inc.
(Beene), Brenda Cullerton; foreword by Richard
Martin and Harold Koda (1995).
Geoffrey Beene. (New York, NY: H. N. Abrams, 141 p.).
Beene, Geoffrey; Fashion designers--United States--Biography;
Costume design--United States--History--20th century.
(Benetton), a cura di Giuseppe Nardin; con un
saggio introduttivo di Raffaele Gaeta (1987). La Benetton:
Strategia e Struttura di un'Impresa di Successo. (Roma, IT:
Edizioni Lavoro, 138 p.). Benetton (Firm); Textile
Luciano Benetton -
Benetton Group (http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/B/Luciano-Benetton-12127596-1-402.jpg)
(Benetton), Luciano Benetton con Andrea Lee
(1990). Io e i Miei Fratelli. (Milano, IT: Sperling &
Kupfer, 305 p.). Benetton (Firm); Clothing trade--Italy;
Clothing trade; Retail trade--Italy.
(Benetton), Sergio Saviane (1998). Il
Miliardario: La Vita Segreta di Luciano Benetton. (Venezia,
IT: Marsilio, 171 p.). Benetton, Luciano, 1935- ; Clothing
trade--Italy. Industrialist and co-founder with his 3 brothers
of the clothing and textile company of Treviso (Veneto).
(Benetton), Jonathan Mantle (1999).
Benetton: The Family, the Business and the Brand.
(London, UK: Little, Brown, 337 p.). Benetton (Firm) -- History.
(Benetton), Giorgio Brunetti, Paolo Bortoluzzi
(2004). Benetton: Da United Colors a Edizione Holding.
(Torino, Italy: ISEDI: UTET, 256 p.). Benetton (Firm); Clothing
(Blass), Bill Blass(2002).
Bare Blass. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 181 p.).
Blass, Bill; Fashion designers--United States--Biography;
Costume design--United States--History--20th century.
(Brioni Roman Style S.p.A.), Ed. Cristina
Giorgetti; additional contributions from Stephen Bayley ... [et
al ; translations, Deborah Hodges Maschietto, Colin Woodhead]
Brioni, Fifty Years of Style. (Firenze, IT: Octavo, 295
p.). Brioni (Firm)--History; Fashion
design--Italy--History--20th century; Men’s
(Pierre Cardin), Valerie Mendes (1990).
Pierre Cardin: Past, Present, Future (London, UK:
3Nishen Publishing, 192 p.). Cardin, Pierre; Haute
(Oleg Cassini), Oleg Cassini (1987).
In My Own Fashion: An Autobiography. (New York, NY:
Simon & Schuster, 379 p.). Cassini, Oleg, 1913- ; Fashion
(Chanel), Marcel Haedrich; Translated from the
French by Charles Lam Markmann (1972).
Coco Chanel; Her Life, Her Secrets. (Boston, MA: Little,
Brown, 277 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971.
http://www.nytimes. com/learning/general/ onthisday/bday/0819.html
(Chanel), Edmonde Charles-Roux (1981).
Chanel and Her World. (London, UK: Weidenfeld &
Nicolson, 354 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Fashion
designers--France--Biography; Women fashion
designers--France--Biography; France--Social life and
(Chanel), Axel Madsen (1990).
Chanel: A Woman of Her Own. (New York, NY: Holt, 388
p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Women fashion
(Chanel), Amy De La Haye, Shelley Tobin
Chanel, The Couturiere at Work. (Woodstock, NY: Overlook
Press, 136 p.). Assistant Curator in the Textiles and Dress
Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum; Curator of
Costumes for the National Trust in Devon, England. Chanel, Coco,
1883-1971; Fashion design--France--History--20th century.
(Chanel), Janet Wallach (1998).
Chanel: Her Style and Her Life. (New York, NY: N.
Talese, 180 p.). Chanel, Coco, 1883-1971; Costume
(Chanel), Henry Gidel (2000).
Coco Chanel. (Paris, FR: Flammarion, 437 p.). Chanel,
Coco, 1883-1971; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Women
fashion designers--France--Biography; Costume
design--France--History--20th century; Woman - Fashion -
(Chanel), Tilar J. Mazzeo (2010).
The Secret of Chanel No. 5: The Intimate History of the World’s
Most Famous Perfume. (New York, NY: Harper, 304 p.).
Associate Professor of English (Colby College). Chanel, Coco,
1883-1971; Parfums Chanel (Firm); Chanel No. 5 perfume; Perfumes
industry --France --History --20th century. Journey to discover
secret behind creation, iconic status, extraordinary success of
Chanel No. 5, world’s most famous perfume; where art and
sensuality met entrepreneurship and desire; how pioneering
celebrity fragrance, introduced in late 1920s, took on life of
its own, beaome cultural monument.
(Liz Claiborne Inc.), Jane L. Collins (2003).
Threads: Gender, Labor, and Power in the Global Apparel Industry.
(Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 207 p.). Professor of
Rural Sociology and Women's Studies (University of Wisconsin,
Madison). Liz Claiborne Inc.; Women clothing
workers--Virginia--Martinsville; Knit goods
workers--Virginia--Martinsville; Clothing trade--United States;
Consumers--United States--Attitudes; Women clothing
workers--Mexico--Aguascalientes; Knit goods
aspects--United States--Case studies; Globalization--Economic
aspects--Mexico--Case studies; International business
enterprises--United States--Case studies. Diverse ties that link
First , Third World workers, managers, producers,
consumers; human face on globalization.
(Clarins SA), Jacques Courtin (2006). Une
Reussite en Beaute. (Paris, FR: Lattes, 232 p.). Founder
Clarins SA. Courtin, Jacques, 1921-2007; Clarins
(Firm)--History; Toilet preparations industry--France--History.
(Kenneth Cole Productions), Kenneth Cole
What You Stand For
Is More Important Than What You Stand In.
(New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 208 p.). Founder, Kenneth Cole
Productions. Kenneth Cole Productions; Advertising--Fashion.
(Coty), Elisabeth Barille (1995).
Coty: Parfumeur et Visionnaire. (Paris, FR: Editions
Assouline, 180 p.). Coty, Francois, 1874-1934; Coty (Firm);
Francois Coty - Coty
(Coty), Roulhac B. Toledano and Elizabeth Z.
Francois Coty: Fragrance, Power, Money. (Gretna, LA:
Pelican Pub. Co., 312 p.). Artist, Writer, and Preserver of
Historic American Treasures; Granddaughter-in-law of François Coty,
Former Director of Cosmetics and Fragrance for Coty, Inc. Coty,
Francois, 1874-1934; Businesspeople --France --Biography;
Industrialists --France --Biography; Politicians --France
--Biography. Revolutionized fragrance industry during first
thirty years of twentieth century; "Emperor of Fragrance",
France's first billionaire; orphaned at age seven; 1904 - created first fragrance; 1906 -
millionaire; commissioned Baccarat to design beautiful bottles
for his perfumes; 1926 - one of world's five richest men; owned
more than forty French newspapers, dozens of chateaux, estates
throughout Europe, statesman, artist, lover.
(Dior - founded 1947), Christian Dior;
Translated from the French by Antonia Fraser (1957).
Christian Dior and I. (New York, NY: Dutton, 251 p.).
Dior, Christian; Fashion designers--France--Paris.
(Dior), Marie-France Pochna; translated from
the French by Joanna Savill; foreword by Stanley Marcus (1996).
Christian Dior: The Man Who Made the World Look New.
(New York, NY: Arcade Pub., 314 p.). Dior, Christian; Fashion
(Dior), Esmeralda de Rethy, Jean-Louis Perreau
Christian Dior: The Early Years, 1947-1957. (New York,
NY: Vendome Press, 127 p.). Dior, Christian; Christian Dior,
Inc.; Costume design--France--Paris--History--20th century;
Christian Dior (Dior) (2007).
Dior by Dior. (London, UK: Victoria and Albert Museum,
178 p.). Dior, Christian; Christian Dior, Inc.; Fashion
Insight into workings of a great
fashion house, private man behind high-profile establishment.
(Perry Ellis), Jonathan Moor (1988).
Perry Ellis. (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 247 p.).
Ellis, Perry, 1940-1986; Fashion designers--United
(Esther's Beauty Supply Company), Joseph
Washing the Elephant: The Authorized Biography of Bettie Esther
Parham. (Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance, 175 p.). Parham,
Bettie Esther; Esther's Beauty Supply Company; African American
women executives -- Biography; African American businesspeople
-- Biography; Businesswomen -- United States -- Biography; Hair
preparations industry -- United States.
(Max Factor), Fred E. Basten (2008).
Max Factor: The Man Who Changed the Faces of the World.
(New York, NY: Arcade Pub., 172 p.). Assistant to the
Public Relations Director at Max Factor. Factor, Max,
1872?-1938; Cosmetics industry --United States
--Biography; Cosmetics --United States.
Father of modern
make-up; former beautician, wigmaker to Russian
imperial family, Romanovs, opened shop in theater district
of Los Angeles in 1908;
catered to stage actors, sold cosmetics and wigs;
created make-up, invented
false eyelashes, lip gloss, foundation, eye shadow,
eyebrow pencil, concealer; began selling innovative
cosmetics to general public; changed faces of world,
created cosmetics empire that launched
multibillion-dollar beauty industry.
(Ferragamo), Salvatore Ferragamo (1972).
Shoemaker of Dreams; The Autobiography of Salvatore Ferragamo.
(New York, NY: Crown, 223 p. [orig. pub. 1957]). Ferragamo,
Salvatore, 1898-1960; Shoemakers--Italy--Biography.
(Ferragamo), Stefania Ricci, Cristina Morozzi,
Wanda Ferragamo and Samuel Kung (2009).
Salvatore Ferragamo - Evolving Legend 1928-2008. (New
York, NY: Rizzoli, 192 p.). Director of Museo Salvatore
Ferragamo, Florence. Ferragamo, Salvatore ,1898-1960;
Shoemakers--Italy--Biography. 1927 - Salvatore Ferragamo founded
Salvatore Ferragamo Italia S.p.A.; made name famous in
California, first in Santa Barbara, then in Hollywood; created
footwear for most beautiful women in world, "divas" of emerging
American cinema; 2009 - luxury brand with more than 450 stores
in over 55 countries.
(FUBU), Daymond John, with Daniel Paisner
Display of Power: How FUBU Changed a World of Fashion, Branding
and Lifestyle. (Nashville, TN: Naked Ink, 223 p.).
Founder and CEO of Fashion Label FUBU. FUBU; Costume
design--United States--History; Costume design--History.
Began as bunch of tie-top hats
made in author's home in Hollis, Queens; mortgaged home for
$100,000, turned half of house into factory, other half for
living space for team of neighborhood friends. FUBU - originally
BUFU, By Us For Us.
(Princess Galitzine), Irene Galitzine (1996).
Dalla Russia alla Russia. (Milan, IT: Longanesi, 320 p.).
Galitzine, Irene; Fashion--Italy--Rome--History--20th century;
(Giorgio Inc.), Steve Ginsberg (1989).
Reeking Havoc: The Unauthorized Story of Giorgio. (New
York, NY: Warner Books, 262 p.). Giorgio, Inc.; Perfumes
(Gucci), Gerald McKnight (1987).
Gucci: A House Divided. (New York, NY: D. I. Fine, 362
p.). Gucci (Firm); Clothing trade--Italy; Clothing trade.
(Gucci), Sarah Gay Forden (2000).
The House of Gucci: A Sensational Story of Murder, Madness,
Glamour, and Greed (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 351
p.). Gucci, Maurizio, 1948-1995; Gucci (Firm);
Businessmen--Italy--Biography; Clothing trade--Italy; Trials
(Gucci), Tom Ford, Bridget Foley (2004).
Tom Ford. (New York, NY: Rizzoli International, 304 p.).
Former Creative Director (Gucci, Yves Saint Laurent). Ford, Tom;
Gucci; Yves Saint Laurent; Arts & Photography; Fashion Design.
(Gucci), Sarah Mower (2006).
Gucci by Gucci. (New York, NY: Vendome Press, 456 p.).
Fashion Journalist; Contributing Editor to Vogue and Style.com.
Gucci (Firm)--History; Fashion design--Italy--History--20th
century. Story of the
brand, since 1921 inception in Florence, Italy; history of
Florentine family-owned saddler that has imprinted its name on
fashion consciousness; history of company, glorious visual
exploration of its far-reaching influence.
(Gucci), Jenny Gucci (2008).
Gucci Wars: How I Survived Murder and Intrigue at the Heart of
the World's Biggest Fashion House. (London, UK: John
Blake Publishing Ltd., 288 p.). Former Mrs. Paolo Gucci
(grandson of founder). Gucci. Former "Gucci wife" (Paulo Gucci)
reveals history of betrayal, jealousy, murder; family torn apart
by rivalry, greed, in-fighting; Paolo became cruel, vindictive;
refused to support wife, daughter; starved his racehorses in
attempt to plead poverty; fortune not found after 13 years.
(Guerlain), Colette Fellous (1987).
Guerlain. (Paris, FR: Denoel, 160 p.). Guerlain
(History), Perfumes Industry (France) - History.
Pierre François Pascal Guerlain
(Guess Inc.), Christopher Byron (1992).
Skin Tight: The Bizarre Story of Guess v. Jordache--Glamour,
Greed, and Dirty Tricks in the Fashion Industry. (New
York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 364 p.). Guess (Firm)--Trials,
litigation, etc.; Jordache (Firm)--Trials, litigation, etc.;
Trials (Fraud)--California--Los Angeles; Clothing trade--Corrupt
(Haggar), Joy G. Spiegel (1978).
That Haggar Man: A Biographical Portrait. (New York, NY:
Random House, 149 p.). Haggar, J. M., 1892- ; Businessmen --
United States -- Biography; Men's clothing industry -- United
States -- History.
(Haggar), Ed R. Haggar (2001).
"Big Ed" and the Haggar Family: Behind an Apparel Giant.
(Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 207 p.). Haggar Corporation--History;
Men's clothing industry--Texas--History; Clothing
(Halston), Steven Gaines (1991).
Simply Halston: The Untold Story. (New York, NY: Putnam,
320 p.). Halston, 1932-1990; Fashion designers--United
Roy Halston Frowick
(Halston), Elaine Gross & Fred Rottman (1999).
Halston: An American Original. (New York, NY:
HarperCollins, 236 p.). Halston, 1932-1990; Fashion
designers--United States--Biography; Costume design--United
(Harper Method), Jane R. Plitt (2000).
Martha Matilda Harper and the American Dream: How One Woman
Changed the Face of Modern Business. (Syracuse, NY:
Syracuse University Press, 184 p.). Visiting Scholar (University
of Rochester). Harper, Martha Matilda--Biography;
Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Beauty shop supplies
Martha Matilda Harper
(Marc Jacobs), Bridget Foley (2008).
Marc Jacobs. (New York, NY: Assouline, 80 p.).
Executive Editor of Women's Wear Daily and W magazine. Jacobs,
Marc; fashion -- United States -- history. From whiz kid to
international fashion superstar.
(Jergens), Paul F. Erwin (1965). With
Lotions of Love. (Cincinnati, OH: Author, 107 p.). Jergens
Andrew Jergens Sr.
(Calvin Klein), Steven Gaines and Sharon
Obsession: The Lives and Times of Calvin Klein. (New
York, NY: Carol Publishing Group, 414 p.). Klein, Calvin, 1942-
; Fashion designers--United States--Biography.
(Calvin Klein), Lisa Marsh (2003).
The House of Klein: Fashion, Controversy, and a Business
Obsession. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 232 p.). Fashion
Reporter (New York Post). Klein, Calvin, 1942- ; Calvin Klein,
Inc.; Fashion designers United States Biography; Costume design
United States History 20th century.
(Koscot Interplanetary), John Frasca (1972).
The Unstoppable Glenn Turner. (Orlando, FL: Glenn W.
Turner Enterprises, 218 p.). Turner, Glenn, 1935- ; Success in
(Koscot Interplanetary), Glenn W. Turner
Turner, Turner, Turner: The King of Network Marketing.
(Orlando, FL: Glen W. Turner Enterprises, 330 p.). Turner, Glen
W.; Koscot Interplanetary; cosmetics industry--United States.
(Karl Lagerfeld), Alicia Drake (2006).
The Beautiful Fall: Lagerfeld, Saint Laurent, and Glorious
Excess in 1970s Paris. (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 437
p.). Former Contributing Editor (W, Paris Vogue). Lagerfeld,
Karl; Saint Laurent, Yves; haute couture; Paris -- 1970s.
Bitter rivalry between
(German-born) Lagerfeld and (Algerian-born) Saint Laurent.
(Jeanne Lanvin S.A.), Jerome Picon (2002).
Jeanne Lanvin. (Paris, FR: Flammarion, 393 p.). Lanvin,
Jeanne, 1867-1946; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Women
Jeanne Lanvin -
Jeanne Lanvin S. A.
(Jeanne Lanvin S.A.), Dean L Merceron,
Contribution by Alber Elbaz and Harold Koda (2007).
Lanvin. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 370 p.). Lanvin, Jeanne,
1867-1946; Lanvin S. A.; Fashion design--France--History--20th
House of Lanvin -
oldest surviving couture house; key collections from 1909 -
1946; currently experiencing period of great acclaim, emerging
as darling of press, Hollywood, larger fashion community.
(Estee Lauder), Lee Israel (1985).
Estée Lauder: Beyond the Magic: An Unauthorized Biography
(New York, NY: Macmillan, 186 p.). Lauder, Estée; Cosmetics
(Estee Lauder ), Estee Lauder (1985).
Estée: A Success Story. (New York, NY: Random House, 222
p.). Founder, Estee Lauder, Inc. Lauder, Estée; Estée Lauder,
Inc.--History; Perfumes industry--United States; Cosmetics
industry--United States; Businesswomen--United
(L’Bri Pure N’ Natural), Linda & Brian
Kaminski; with Jim Waldsmith (2007).
Dare to Dream: The Story of L’Bri Pure N’ Natural.
(Snowflake, AZ: Cedar Hill Pub., 136 p.). L'Bri Pure N’ Natural
(Firm); Cosmetics industry --United States --History.
wife built successful business of skin care products.
Photographs by Philippe Garcia (2009).
Longchamp. (New York, NY: Abrams, 208 p.). Cassegrain.
Philippe; Longchamp; Luxury goods. 1948 - Philippe Cassegrain
founded Longchamp as leather goods for smokers, expanded into
small leather goods in 1950s, opened first Longchamp boutiques
in 1970s and '80s; partnerships with artists Thomas Heatherwick,
Tracey Emin, advertising campaigns with supermodel Kate Moss
cemented company's reputation as stylish innovator.
(L'Oréal), Michael Bar-Zohar (1996).
Bitter Scent: The Case of L'Oreal, Nazis and the Arab Boycott.
(New York, NY: Dutton, 264 p.). L'Oréal (Firm)--History;.
(L'Oréal), François Dalle (2001).
L'Aventure L'Oréal. (Paris, FR: Jacob, 395 p.). Former CEO
(1957-1984). Dalle, François, 1918- ; L'Oréal (Firm)--Officials
and employees--Biography; Toilet preparations
(L'Oréal), Bruno Abescat (2002).
La Saga des Bettancourt: L'Oréal, Une Fortune Française.
(Paris, FR: Plon, 279 p.). Bettencourt, André; Bettencourt,
Liliane; L'Oréal (Firm)--History;
(Luxottica Group), Giorgio Brunetti, Arnaldo
Camuffo; con un’Intervista a Leonardo del Vecchio (2000). Del
Vecchio e Luxottica: Come si diventa leader mondiali.
(Torino, Italy: UTET, 295 p.). Del Vecchio, Leonardo; Luxottica
Entrepreneurship--Italy--Case studies; Optical trade--Italy.
(LVMH), Claude Vincent, Philippe Monnin
(1990). Guerre du Luxe: l'Affaire LVMH. (Paris, FR:
Editions F. Bourin, 211 p.). Louis Vuitton Moët-Hennessy (Firm);
Consolidation and merger of corporations--France; Conglomerate
Jean-Remy Moet - Grandson
(LVMH), Nadège Forestier, Nazanine Ravaï.
(1990). Bernard Arnault, Ou, Le Goût Du Pouvoir (a Taste of
Power) (Paris, FR: O. Orban, 303 p.). Arnault, Bernard,
1949- ; Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (Firm)--Management;
(LVMH), Airy Routier (2003).
L'Ange Exterminateur: La Vraie Vie de Bernard Arnault.
(Paris, FR: Albin Michel, 422 p.). Arnault, Bernard, 1949- ;
Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (Firm)--Management--History;
(Marilyn Miglin Institute), Marilyn Miglin
Best Face Forward. (Louisville, KY: Chicago Spectrum
Press, 301 p.). Miglin, Marilyn;
(John Paul Mitchell Systems), Jocelyn Fujii
Paul Mitchell: Man, Work, Vision: Who Was He? (Honolulu,
HI: The Paul Mitchell Trust, 112 p.). Mitchell, Paul, 1936-1989;
Beauty operators--United States--Biography; Beauty
States--Equipment and supplies.
(Mary Kay Cosmetics), Mary Kay Ash (1986).
Mary Kay (New York, NY: Perennial, 200 p. [rev. ed.]).
Founder, Mary Kay Cosmetics. Ash, Mary Kay; Mary Kay Cosmetics;
Cosmetics industry--United States--Biography. Selling;
Biography; Entrepreneur; Beauty, Personal; Women- owned business
(Mary Kay Cosmetics), Mary Kay Ash (1995).
Mary Kay, You Can Have It All: Lifetime Wisdom from America's
Foremost Woman Entrepreneur. (Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub.,
258 p.). Success in business; Success; Businesswomen.
(Mary Kay Cosmetics), Mary Kay Ash, with
Yvonne Pendleton (2008).
The Mary Kay Way: Timeless Principles from America’s Greatest
Woman Entrepreneur. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 238 p. [orig.
pub. in 1984; revised, updated]). Founder Mary Kay, Inc. Ash,
Mary Kay; Management; Success in business.
Inspiration, real, proven success principles
that represent 45 year success story of Mary Kay
Ash; timeless guide to entrepreneurial
(Maybelline), Alan Andrews Ragland, Sharrie
Williams and Bettie Youngs (2010).
The Maybelline Story and the Spirited Family Dynasty Behind It.
(Del Mar, CA: Bettie Youngs Books, 416 p.). Heir to the
Maybelline Legacy. Maybelline (Firm); Cosmetics industry --
United States -- History. Tom Lyle Williams
started company in 1915, became billion-dollar business
to produce, sell easy-to-use product to
darken eyelashes; 1920 - re-named Maybelline in sister's honor; four generations, humanity, glamour,
seedy underside of family intoxicated by quest for power,
wealth, physical perfection; man whose vision rocketed him to
success, woman held in his orbit.
Tom Lyle Williams -
founder, Maybelline (http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_PPla6DZmGKc/TTXYyoLsASI/AAAAAAAAAGg/
(M&M Products Company), Cornell McBride
A Cut Above: How Cornell McBride Made Millions in the Hair Biz.
(Lithonia, GA: MRL Pub., 252 p.). Hair preparations industry --
United States. Invented
Sta Sof Fro, one of most famous hair-care products in
(Occitane), Pierre Magnan; translated from the
French by Richard Seaver (2003).
The Essence of Provence: The Story of L'Occitane. (New
York, NY: Arcade Pub., 135 p.). Occitane (Firm)--History;
Cosmetics industry--France--Provence-Côte d'Azur; Soap
(Pinault Printemps Redoute), Pierre Daix
François Pinault: Essai Biographique. (Paris, FR:
Editions de Fallois, 257 p.). Pinault, François;
(Pinault Printemps Redoute), Caroline Monnot
et Pierre-Angel Gay (1999).
François Pinault Milliardaire, ou, Les Secrets d'Une Incroyable
Fortune. (Paris, FR: Balland, 238 P.). Pinault,
François; Businesspeople--France--Biography; Capitalists and
(Pinault Printemps Redoute), Jean Bothorel
François Pinault: Une Enfance Bretonne. (Paris, FR:
Laffont, 153 p.). Pinault, François;
(Polo), Jeffrey A.Trachtenberg (1988).
Ralph Lauren: The Man Behind the Mystique (Boston, MA:
Little, Brown, 302 p.). Lauren, Ralph; Fashion designers--United
(Polo), Colin McDowell (2001).
RalphLauren: The Man, the Vision, the Style. (London,
UK: Cassell, 203 p.). Lauren, Ralph; Fashion designers--United
(Polo), Michael Gross (2003).
Genuine Authentic: The Real Life of Ralph Lauren. (New
York, NY: HarperCollins, 392 p.). Lauren, Ralph; Fashion
(Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation), Ralph Lauren
Ralph Lauren. (New York, NY: Rizzoli, 500 p.). Founder,
Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation. Lauren, Ralph; Fashion
designers--United States--Biography. 1967 - designed neckties under
Polo label; only designer to receive CFDA’s four highest
honors. Author speaks candidly about himself, his art, peek into
mind of one of America’s most accomplished fashion designers of
(Revlon), Andrew Tobias (1976).
Fire and Ice: The Story of Charles Revson the Man Who Built the
Revlon Empire (New York, NY: Morrow, 282 p.). Revson,
Charles, 1906-1975; Revlon, inc.; Cosmetics industry--United
Revson - founder Revlon
(Revlon), Richard Hack (1996).
When Money Is King: How Revlon's Ron Perelman Mastered the World
of Finance to Create One of America's Greatest Business Empires,
and Found Glamour, Beauty, and the High Life in the Bargain
(Beverly Hills, CA: Dove Books, 285 p.). Perelman, Ronald;
Capitalists and financiers--United States--Biography;
(Helena Rubinstein), Patrick O'Higgins (1971).
Madame; An Intimate Biography of Helena Rubinstein. (New
York, NY: Viking, 296 p.). Rubinstein, Helena, 1870-1965.
(Helena Rubinstein), Lindy Woodhead (2004).
War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein and Miss Elizabeth Arden:
Their Lives, Their Times, Their Rivalry. (Hoboken, NJ:
Wiley, 492 p.). Former Journalist, Fashion PR Executive.
Rubinstein, Helena, 1870-1965; Arden, Elizabeth, 1878-1966;
Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Cosmetics
industry--United States--History; Beauty culture--United
(Rubenstein Helena Inc.), Ruth Brandon (2011).
Ugly Beauty: Helena Rubinstein, L’Oreal, and the Blemished
History of Looking Good. (New York, NY: Harper, 304
p.). Historian, Biographer and Novelist. Rubinstein, Helena,
1870-1965; Helena Rubinstein, inc.; L’Oréal (Firm); Beauty,
Personal. Founding of the beauty business; Helena Rubinstein
(1870–1965), Polish Jew from poor family with small salon in
Australia, became first woman tycoon, self-made millionaire;
Eugène Schueller (1881–1957), French chemist, found success in
hair dyes; scandal when L’Oréal (founded by Schueller, Nazi
collaborator) took over Helena Rubinstein (Polish Jew).
(Sassoon), Directed by Craig Teper (2011).
The Movie. Life of Vidal Sassoon, from early days in
Jewish orphanage in London, to time as soldier, beginnings on Bond
Street, revolution he caused; 1960s - pioneered geometric,
Bauhaus-inspired hairdos, "wash and wear" philosophy liberated
generations of women from tyranny of salon; revolutionized art
of hairstyling, left indelible mark on popular culture.
(Sassoon), Vidal Sassoon (2011).
Vidal: The Autobiography. (London, UK: Macmillan UK,
360 p.). Sassoon, Vidal; Fashion -- history.
From an impoverished childhood (Spanish & Portuguese
Jewish Orphanage in Maida Vale), to fighting fascists in
London's East End, fighting in army of fledgling state of Israel
in late 1940s to global fame as father of modern hairdressing
with salons all over world, hairdressing school, global brand.
(Tony & Guy), Guy Mascolo (2003).
The Birth of Toni & Guy. (Tenterden, UK: Circular
Sounds, 160 p.). Co-Founder. Mascolo. Family; Toni & Guy. Firm;
Beauty operators. Great Britain. Biography.
(Gianni Versace S.p.A.), Deborah Ball
House of Versace: The Untold Story of Genius, Murder, and
Survival. (New York, NY: Crown, 343 p.). Reporter
(Wall Street Journal Europe). Versace, Gianni; Gianni Versace
S.p.A. --History; Fashion design --Italy --History; Fashion
designers --Italy; Clothing trade --Italy --History.
creative genius; from a poor, backward part of southern Italy, transformed fashion world through intuitive understanding of
women, how changing culture influenced way they wanted to dress;
combined virtuosic talent, extraordinary
ambition to almost single-handedly create celebrity culture;
fashion, celebrity, business drama, jet-set lifestyles,
(von Furstenberg), Diane von Furstenberg, with
Linda Bird Francke (1998).
Diane: A Signature Life. (New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster, 237 p.). Von Furstenberg, Diane; Women fashion
(Louis Vuitton), Stéphanie Bonvicini (2004). Louis
Vuitton: Une Saga Française. (Paris, FR: Fayard, 363 p.).
Vuitton, Louis, 1821-1892; Vuitton family; Louis Vuitton
(Firm)--History; Louis Vuitton Moët-Hennessy (Firm)--History;
Luxury goods industry--France--History; Luggage
(Louis Vuitton), Paul-Gérard Pasols;
translated from the French by Lenora Ammon (2005).
Louis Vuitton: The Birth of Modern Luxury. (New York,
NY: Harry N. Abrams, 616 p.). Former Director of Communications
for Louis Vuitton. Vuitton, Louis, 1821-1892; Louis Vuitton
(Firm)--History; Luggage--Design--History; Trunks
(Luggage)--History. History of House of Vuitton.
(Louis Vuitton), Jill Gasparina,
Olivier Salliard, Taro Igarashi, Glenn O'Brien (2009).
Louis Vuitton: Art, Fashion and Architecture. (New
York, NY: Rizzoli, 400 p.). Richest, most varied
associations, among luxury brands, with world of art (artists, architects, designers, photographers); house’s most visible collaborations;
patronage during one of most fertile periods of contemporary
(Louis Vuitton Japan), Kyojiro Hata (2004).
The Building of Luxury: The Visionary Genius Behind Louis
Vuitton Japan. (New York, NY: Assouline, 128 p.).
Director of Louis Vuitton Japan. Vuitton, Louis; luxury goods;
(Madame C. J. Walker Manufacturing Co.), A'Lelia Bundles (2001).
On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C.J. Walker.
(New York, NY: Scribner, 415 p.). Great-great Granddaughter.
Walker, C. J., Madam, 1867-1919; Afro-American women
executives--Biography; Cosmetics industry--United
Madame C. J. Walker
May 26, 1919
http://www.nytimes. com/learning/general/ onthisday/bday/1223.html
(Madam C. J. Walker
Manufacturing Co.), Beverly Lowry (2003).
Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madam C. J. Walker.
(New York, NY: Knopf, 481 p.). Head of Creative Non-Fiction
Program (George Mason University). Walker, C. J., Madam,
1867-1919; African American women executives--Biography;
Cosmetics industry--United States--History.
(YSL), Axel Madsen (1979).
Living for Design: The Yves Saint Laurent Story. (New
York, NY: Delacorte Press, 246 p.). Saint Laurent, Yves; Fashion
Yves St. Laurent
(YSL), Yves Saint Larent ; dessins d'Yves
Saint Laurent; préface de Bernard-Henri Lévy; commentaires
d'Hélène de Turckheim (1986). Yves Saint Laurent. (Paris,
FR: Musée des arts de la mode, 221 p.). Saint Laurent, Yves;
Costume designers -- France -- Biography; Costume design --
France -- History -- 20th century.
(YSL), Laurence Benaïm (1993).
Yves Saint Laurent. (Paris, FR: B. Grasset, 475 p.).
Saint Laurent, Yves; Fashion designers--France--Biography.
(YSL), Alice Rawsthorn (1996).
Yves Saint Laurent: A Biography. (New York, NY: Nan A.
Talese, 405 p.). Correspondent, Financial Times. Saint Laurent,
Yves; Fashion designers--France--Biography; Fashion
(YSL), Pierre Berge et Jéromine Savignon
Saint Laurent Rive Gauche: La Revolution de la Mode.
(Paris, FR: Editions de la Martinière, p.). Co-Founder of Yves
Saint Laurent Couture House. Saint Laurent, Yves; Berge, Pierre;
Rive Gauche; fashion merchandising -- 1960s.
September 26, 1966
- Berge and Saint laurent opened Rive Gauche boutique at 21 rue
de Tournon in Paris; offered simple clothes, impeccably
tailored, at unbeatable prices carried home in shooping bag with
orange and rose-colored edges (the logo of the boutique);
(Zara), Cecilia Monllor (2001). Zarapolis:
La Historia Secreta de un Imperio de la Moda. (Barcelona,
Spain: Ediciones del Bronce, 287 p.). Ortega Gaona, Amancio,
1936- ; Zara (Firm)--History; Fashion merchandising--Spain.
Frederick H. Abernathy, John T. Dunlop, Janice
H. Hammond and David Weill (1999).
A Stitch in Time:
Lean Retailing and the
Transformation of Manufacturing : Lessons from the Apparel and
. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 368 p.).
Clothing trade--United States--Management; Manufacturing
industries--United States--Management--Data processing; Retail
trade--United States--Management; Just-in-time systems;
Organizational change; Manufacturing industries--Management;
Textile industry--United States--Management.
Teri Agins (1999).
The End of Fashion: The Mass Marketing of the Clothing Business.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 319 p.). Reporter, Wall Street Journal.
Clothing trade; Clothing and dress--Marketing.
Ed. Regina Lee Blaszczyk (2007).
Producing Fashion: Commerce, Culture, and Consumers.
(Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press,, 363 p.).
Visiting Scholar in the Department of the History and Sociology
of Science (University of Pennsylvania). Fashion design --20th
century --History; Fashion merchandising --20th century
--History; Consumersâ€™ preferences --20th century --History;
Marketing --Management --20th century --History; Product
management --20th century --History. Historical role of
business, commerce in creating international market for style
goods; how economic institutions in Europe, North America laid
foundation for global fashion system, sustained it commercially
through mechanisms of advertising, licensing, marketing,
publishing, retailing; how public and private institutions
worked to shape fashion, style, taste with varying degrees of
Chandler Burr (2002).
The Emperor of Scent: A Story of Obsession, Perfume, and the
Last Mystery of the Senses. (New York, NY: Random House,
318 p.). Turin, Luca; Smell; Nose; Biophysicists--Great
Luca Turin, pioneering scientist obsessed with "smell track" of
The Perfect Scent: A Year Inside the Perfume Industry in Paris
and New York. (New York, NY: Holt, 306 p.). Pperfume
Critic (New York Times). Perfumes industry--Popular works;
Perfumes--Popular works. Process of creating a perfume; personalities which envision,
design, create, launch perfumes that drive billion-dollar
industry; year behind scenes observing creation of two major
fragrances (Hermes, Coty).
Carole Conover (1978).
Cover Girls: The Story of Harry Conover (Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 224 p.). Conover, Harry, 1912- ;
Models (Persons) -- United States; Businessmen -- United States
Irene Daria (1990).
The Fashion Cycle: A Behind-the-Scenes Look at a Year with Bill
Blass, Liz Claiborne, Donna Karan, Arnold Scaasi, and Adrienne
Vittadini. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 240 p.).
Costume design--United States; Costume designers--United States.
Simon Doonan (1998).
Confessions of a Window Dresser: Tales from a Life in Fashion.
(New York, NY: Penguin Studio, 239 p.). Barney's "doyen of
display". Doonan, Simon, 1952- ; Window dressers--Great
Stuart Ewen and Elizabeth Ewen (1982).
Channels of Desire: Mass Images and the Shaping of American
Consciousness. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 312 p.).
Fashion History, Advertising, Consumers.
Carole Collier Frick (2002).
Dressing Renaissance Florence: Families, Fortunes, & Fine
Clothing. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 347 p.). Associate Professor of History (Southern
Illinois University, Edwardsville). Clothing
Costume--Italy--Florence--History--15th century; Florence
(Italy)--Social life and customs.
Michael Gross (1995).
Model: The Ugly Business of Beautiful Women. (New York,
NY: Morrow, 524 p.). Esquire magazine. Modeling agencies; Models
(Persons) -- United States. Day-to-day business of beautiful
young women, sex, drugs; history of modeling industry.
Susannah Handley (1999).
Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution: A Celebration of
Design from Art Silk to Nylon and Thinking Fibres.
(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 192 p.).
Clothing trade--History--20th century; Fashion--History--20th
century; Synthetic fabrics; Nylon.
Ed. Beth Harris (2005).
Famine and Fashion: Needlewomen in the Nineteenth Century.
(Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 252 p.). Women
dressmakers--History--19th century; Dressmaking--History--19th
century; Fashion--History--19th century.
Daniel Delis Hill (2004).
As Seen in Vogue: A Century of American Fashion in Advertising.
(Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, 226 p.). Vogue;
Advertising--Fashion--United States--History--20th century;
Fashion--United States--History--20th century; Costume--United
States--History--20th century; Dress accessories--United
Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry. (New
York, NY Oxford University Press, 416 p.). Isidor Straus
Professor of Business History (Harvard Business School). Beauty
industry -- history. Beauty industry - from emergence in
19th century to present day; how today's global giants grew; how
successive generations of entrepreneurs built brands which
shaped perceptions of beauty, business organizations needed to
market them; how they democratized access to beauty products, defined gender and ethnic borders of
beauty, its association with handful of cities; homogenization of beauty ideals throughout
world; effect of globalization.
Morag Martin (2009).
Selling Beauty: Cosmetics, Commerce, and French Society,
1750-1830. (Baltimore, MD,
Johns Hopkins University Press, 228 p.).
Professor of History (College at Brockport, State University of
Cosmetics industry --France --History.
Flourishing commerce of cosmetics as political ideals and
Enlightenment philosophies radically altered popular sentiment;
evolution of popular tastes, standards of beauty during late
18th, early 19th centuries; French citizenry rebelled against
excesses of aristocracy, shifted consumer beauty practices;
social and economic world of cosmetic production, consumption;
criticisms against use of cosmetics; how producers
and retailers responded to quickly evolving fashions; survival
of industry depended on ability to find customers among emerging
working and middle classes; use of cosmetics seen as threat to
social morals; healthfulness of products questioned; cosmetics producers reassured consumers
of moral, physical safety of products.
Robert O'Byrne (2000).
After a Fashion: A History of the Irish Fashion Industry.
(Dublin, IR: Town House and Country House, 180 p.). Fashion
design--Ireland--History; Fashion--Ireland--History; Fashion
Kathy Lee Peiss (1999).
Hope in a Jar: The Making of America's Beauty Culture.
(New York, NY: Holt, 334 p.). Beauty culture--United
States--History; Cosmetics--United States--History. Masks and
faces -- Women who painted -- Beauty culture and women's
commerce -- The rise of the mass market -- Promoting the made-up
woman -- Everyday cosmetic practices -- Shades of difference --
Identity and the market.
Teresa Riordan (2004).
Inventing Beauty: A History of the Innovations That Have Made Us
Beautiful. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 307 p.).
Technology Columnist (New York Times). Beauty,
Personal--History; Beauty culture--History; Cosmetics--History;
Clothing and dress--History.
Rob Schorman (2003).
Selling Style: Clothing and Social Change at the Turn of the
Century. (Philadelphia, PA: PENN/University of
Pennsylvania Press,, 212 p.). Fashion merchandising--United
States--History--19th century; Clothing trade--United
States--History--19th century; Social change--United
Ed. Philip Scranton (2000).
Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern
America. (New York, NY: Routledge, 340 p.). Beauty,
Personal--United States--History; Clothing trade--United
States--History; Fashion--United States--History; United
Sarah Abrevaya Stein (2008).
Plumes: Ostrich Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of
Global Commerce. (New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 244 p.). Maurice Amado Chair in
Sephardic Studies, Department of History (University of
California, Los Angeles). Ostrich feather industry --
History; Jewish merchants -- History. Global commerce,
colonial economic practices, rise and fall of glamorous luxury item
from 1880s until First
World War; thirst for exotic ornament among
fashionable women in Europe, America
prompted bustling global trade in ostrich feathers; when
feathers fell out of fashion with consumers, result was
economic catastrophe for many; prominent, varied roles of Jews in feather trade across global commodity
Susan Mosher Stuard (2006).
Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century
Italy. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania
Press, 344 p.). Professor of History Emeritus (Haverford
College). Luxury goods industry--Italy--History--To 1500;
Luxuries--Italy--History--To 1500; Clothing and
Fashion--Italy--History--To 1500; Consumption
(Economics)--Italy--History--To 1500; Italy--Economic
conditions. Arrival of
fashion in European history.
Kelley Styring (2007).
In Your Purse: Archaeology of the American Handbag.
(Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 112 p.). Former Head of Market
Research at both Procter & Gamble and Frito-Lay. Role of purse
in a woman's life. Deep-seated needs a purse and its contents fulfill, styles of
purses that facilitate organization, products that perform in
Thuy Linh Nguyen Tu (2010).
The Beautiful Generation: Asian Americans and the Cultural
Economy of Fashion. (Durham, NC: Duke University
Press, 259 p.). Assistant Professor of Asian Pacific American
Studies (New York University). Asian American fashion designers;
Fashion -- Social aspects -- United States; Fashion -- Economic
aspects -- United States. Role of Asian American designers in
New York’s fashion industry; how they relate to garment workers
who produce their goods, to Asianness as a fashionable
commodity; 1990s - Young Asian Americans emerged as leading
fashion designers (Doo-Ri Chung, Derek Lam, Thakoon Panichgul,
Alexander Wang, Jason Wu); have won prestigious awards, been
chosen to head major clothing labels, had designs featured in
Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, other fashion magazines; “Asian” shapes,
fabrics, iconography, colors filled couture runways, mass-market
clothing racks; rise of Asian American designers to historical
patterns of immigration, racial formation, globalized labor,
familial and family-like connections between designers and
Mark Tungate (2005).
Fashion Brands: Branding Style from Armani to Zara.
(Sterling, VA: Kogan Page, 243 p.). Fashion merchandising; Brand
name products; Advertising--Fashion.
Rachel C. Weingarten (2006).
Hello, Gorgeous!: Beauty Products in America, 40s-60s.
(Portland, OR: Collectors Press, 176 p.). President, GTK
Marketing Group. Beauty culture--United States--History--20th
century; Beauty, Personal--United States--History--20th century;
Cosmetics--United States--History--20th century.
Products that became staples for
generations of women, set standard for innovations in industry.
Claire Wilcox (2007).
The Golden Age of Couture: Paris and London 1947-1957.
(New York, NY: Abrams, 224 p.). Senior Curator in the Victoria
&Albert Museum’s Textiles & Fashion Department. Coutre; Fashion
Design -- History. History
of couture - from Parisian dressmaking workshops to large
commercial industry in mid-20th century; inner workings of
exclusive design houses, inspiration behind some of most famous
styles of all time.
Business History Links
Benetton Advertising History
Luciano Benetton: "The purpose of advertising is not to sell
more. It's to do with institutional publicity, whose aim is to
communicate the company's values (...) We need to convey a
single strong image, which can be shared anywhere in the world."
Oliviero Toscani pursues this: "I am not here to sell pullovers,
but to promote an image"... Benetton's advertising draws public
attention to universal themes like racial integration, the
protection of the environment, Aids...
International Perfume Museum
International Perfume Museum's exceptional collections retrace
the history of perfumes, and also that of soap, and make-up and
cosmetics, over 4,000 years.
Perfume Museum of Barcelona
The Perfume Museum of Barcelona, installed in the Paseo de
Gracia 39, it was inaugurated in 1963 in order to show the
perfume vessels and containers evolution.
Unofficial Calvin Klein Ads Archive
This is not a catalog. It is merely a collection of previously
published Calvin Klein magazine advertisements. A collection of
more than 300 reproductions of advertisements from 1980 to the
present, produced to sell Calvin Klein products, such as jeans,
underwear, swimwear, and fragrances. Organized according to
featured model or product. Most ads are annotated with name and
date of magazine where they appeared; some list name of