- Friedrich Jacob Merck acquired ownership of "Engel-Apotheke"
[Angel Pharmacy] in Darmstadt;
- Heinrich Emanuel Merck initiated
move to large-scale production of alkaloids;
1889 - Georg Merck (grandson) took over office in New York, established
Merck & Co.;
- first Merck Manual published; 1925 - George W.
Merck assumed control; 1930's - pharmaceutical
began; 1953 - merged with Sharp & Dohme =
for fully integrated, multi-national producer, distributor
of pharmaceutical products; world´s oldest still
operating pharmaceutical, chemical company.
- Johann Rudolf Geigy-Gemuseus began trading in “Materials,
Chemicals, Dyes and Drugs of all Kinds"; 1914 -
name changed to J.R. Geigy Ltd.; 1945 -
abbreviation, CIBA, became company’s name; 1938 -
created pharmaceutical department.
- Chobei Takeda I (32) started business selling traditional
Japanese, Chinese medicines in Doshomachi, Osaka, center of
medicine trade in Japan; bought medicines from wholesalers,
divided them into smaller batches, sold them to local medicine
merchants, doctors; beginning of present-day Takeda Chemical
Industries, Ltd.; 1871 - Chobei Takeda IV formed
cooperative union for purchasing Western medicines (quinine,
anti-malaria drug, and phenol, an anti-cholera drug), began
transactions with foreign trading companies; 1895,
- became pharmaceutical manufacturer (bismuth subgallate,
antidiarrheal agent, and quinine hydrochloride); 1925
- Incorporated as Chobei Takeda & Co., Ltd.; 1943
- name changed to Takeda Pharmaceutical Industries Limited;
1961 - English name changed to Takeda Chemical
Chobei Takeda I
- Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.
April 30, 1796
- Samuel Lee, Jr. of Connecticut, received a patent for
"Composition of Billious Pills"; first U.S. patent for pill;
marketed as "Lee's Windham Pills" (composed of gamboge, aloes,
soap, nitrate of potassa).
- John K. Smith opened first drugstore in Philadelphia;
1865 - Mahlon Kline joined Smith and Shoemaker as
bookkeeper. 1875 - Mahlon K Smith and Company
renamed Smith, Kline and Company; 1891 - acquired
French, Richards and Company, 1929 - renamed Smith
Kline and French Laboratories; 1952 - introduced
first time-released medicine, Dexedrine; 1960 -
launches Contac, cold remedy; November 21, 1961
- registered "Contac" trademark first used February 7, 1961
(Oral Nasal Decongestant); 1982 - acquired
Allergan, eye and skincare business; merged with Beckman
Instruments Inc (specialized in diagnostics, measurement
instruments and supplies); renamed SmithKline Beckman;
1989 - merged with The Beecham Group plc, formed
SmithKline Beecham plc; 1994 - third-largest
over-the-counter medicines company in world, number one in
Europe, international markets; December 27, 2000 -
merged with Glaxo Wellcome, renamed GlaxoSmithKline, world's
largest pharmaceutical company by market share (at time of
June 23, 1839 - Julius
Wilhelm Braun purchased Rosen-Apotheke, pharmacy in Melsungen,
Germany; expanded to mail-order business for local herbs;
1864 - Bernhard
Braun (eldest son) took over pharmacy; began producing
pharmaceutical products (migraine sticks, plasters);
1867 - registered
company as "B. Braun" (pharmacy and pharmaceutical products);
1893 - opened
branch in New York; shortly opened offices in London, Paris,
Constantinople, Buenos Aires, Tokyo;
1900 - Carl Braun (grandson) took over;
1908 - produced
first absorbable suture material (catgut) from sheep intestines
(used Kuhns method); 1914
- medico-mechanical workshop began manufacturing splints for
surgery, simple extensions, blood pressure measuring devices;
1923 - set up own
company health insurance fund; 1925 - established first foreign
production facilities in Milan, Italy;
1929 - Otto Braun (great grandson) took
over; established The Carl Braun Relief Fund in father's memory
to support needy employees; 1930
- developed modified Tyrode´s solution Sterofundin® (basis for
all later infusion solutions); 1935 - began production of
Synthofil A, non-absorbable synthetic suture material; invented
first surgical electric motor;
1937 - Dr. Bernd Braun (grandson, youngest son
of Carl Braun), joined company as Scientific Director;
1939 - 500
employees; 1949 -
developed Supramid-Braun, surgical suture material made from
nylon; 1951 -
produced first injection pump for continuous infusions;
1953 - began
production of infusion devices made of glass;
1956 - began
production of 'infusors' (infusion devices made of plastic);
1958 - more than
1,000 for first time; 1964
- more than 1,700 employees, sales of approximately DM 50
million; 1966 -
established B. Braun Foundation to promote education, further
training of doctors, nursing professionals;
1969 - sales
exceeded DM 100 million, workforce more than 2,000 employees;
1976 - acquired
controlling interest in Aesculap AG; B. Braun Melsungen AG sales
of DM 424 million in fiscal 1975/76, 3,098 employees;
1977 - Ludwig
Georg Braun (grandson, son of Otto Braun) became Chairman of the
Board; 1997 -
acquired McGaw, Inc. (California), largest single acquisition in
company's history; 1998
- incorporated Aesculap AG & Co KG into B. Braun Group as
Aesculap Division; sales of DM 4 billion, more than 27,000
employees worldwide; 2000
- sold B. Braun Biotech, biotechnology operation; 2007 -
launched worldwide investment projects program (total investment
of approximately € 1.4 billion);
2008 - 100th anniversary of industrial
production of sterile sutures (awarded international "Future of
Sututres" prize, endowed with prize money of 400,000 Euros).
Julius Wilhelm Braun
- B. Braun
November 3, 1839
- First Opium War between China and Britain began.
Beecham, farm worker from Oxfordshire, launched Beecham's
Pills laxative business in England; 1945 - Beecham
Group Ltd established (replaced Beecham Pills Ltd, Beecham
Estates Ltd; incorporated Beecham Research Laboratories;
1989 -SmithKline Beckman merged with The Beecham Group
plc, formed SmithKline Beecham.
- Cousins Charles Pfizer (chemist), Charles Erhart
(confectioner), young entrepreneurs from Germany, borrowed
$2,500 from Charles Pfizer's father, bought small brick building
on Bartlett Street in Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, NY,
formed Charles Pfizer &
Co.as small chemical manufacturer; first product - santonin,
used to treat intestinal worms (terrible taste); blended
santonin with almond-toffee flavoring and shaped it into a candy
cone - immediate success; 1857 - opened office in
downtown Manhattan on Beekman Street; 1860 -
manufactured borax, boric acid, first important producer in
United States; 1880 - began producing citric acid
(became America's leading producer, company's biggest product in
the next century); 1900 - incorporated; 1906
- sales of about $3.4 million, nearly 200 employees; 2006
- sales of $48.4 billion
1851 - Ernst
Schering, a pharmacist, opened the "Green Pharmacy" in the north
of Berlin; 1928 - incorporated in New York City;
1941 - President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered
Schering AG's U.S. assets seized; 1952 - acquired
by syndicate headed by Merrill Lynch, went public; 1971
- merged with Plough Inc., worldwide manufacturer of consumer
products; formed Schering Plough (antibiotics, antihistamines,
pharmaceuticals with household consumer products such as
Coppertone, Di-Gel, Maybelline cosmetics); 1979 -
acquired Scholl, Inc.
- William R. Warner launched drug store in Philadelphia, PA;
invented tablet-coating process to encase harsh-tasting
medicines in sugar shells (innovation earned Warner place
in Smithsonian Institution); 1886 - gave up retail shop; focused solely on drug manufacturing under name
William R. Warner & Co.; 1879 - Dr Joseph Lawrence, Jordan Wheat Lambert formulated amber-colored Listerine as disinfectant for surgical procedures (named after English
physician Sir Joseph Lister who had performed first ever
antiseptic surgery in 1865); 1884 - Jordan Wheat
Lambert launched Lambert Pharmacal Company in St. Louis to
manufacture, market Listerine to medical community;
Warner & Co. acquired by Pfeiffer Chemical (Henry and
1914 - became one of first prescription products
available over the counter, founded mouthwash category; March
31, 1955 - pharmaceuticals marketer Warner-Hudnut merged
with Lambert Pharmacal Co., created Warner-Lambert
1860 - John and
Frank Wyeth founded John Wyeth & Brother, retail drugstore with
small research lab, in Philadelphia, PA; 1862 -
published first catalog of drugs for wholesale distribution;
1872 - employee
Henry Bower invented machine to make tablets from
medicinal powders, allowed mass production of pills with
pre-measured dosages (Thomas J. Young, of Philadelphia received
a patent on October 8, 1874 for a "Machine for Making Pills,
Lozenges, &c.", assigned to Henry Bower);
1907 - Stuart Wyeth (John's son) became president;
1929 - controlling interest in company bequeathed to
Harvard University; 1931 - acquired by American
Home products for $2.9 million;
October 15, 2009 - acquired by Pfizer Inc. for
August 1, 1863
- Dye salesman Friedrich Bayer, master dyer Johann Friedrich
Weskott established Friedr. Bayer et
comp., factory in Barmen, Germany
to manufacture, produce synthetic dyestuffs
from coal-tar derivatives;
July 1, 1881 - descendants of Bayer and Weskott
established joint stock company Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr.
Bayer & Co.; 1888 - pharmaceutical department
established; 1894 -
Hoffmann joined company as
chemist in chemical laboratory; August 10, 1897
- created acetylsalicylic
acid (ASA) in chemically pure, stable form by acetylating
salicylic acid with acetic acid; pain-relieving, fever-lowering,
anti-inflammatory substance; 1899 - launched under
trade name Aspirin, initially as powder supplied in glass
1866 - Albert
Hartley Robins founded apothecary shop in Richmond, VA;
1896 - Claiborne Robins (son) organized A, H. Robins
Company to package, sell remedy for stomach disorders to
doctors; 1933 - E. Claiborne Robins (grandson)
took over; 1963 - went public; June 12, 1970
- acquired rights to Dalkon Shield (IUD) from Dalkon Corporation
for $750,000 plus 10% of net sales; June 1974 -
about 2.8 million Dalkon Shields sold; June 28, 1974
- voluntarily halted further distribution at request of US Food
and Drug Administration because of reported association with
pregnancy-related complications; September 1980 -
device recalled; company advised physicians to remove Dalkon
Shield from asymptomatic women because of risk of pelvic
inflammatory disease; August 21, 1985 - filed for
Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; 1989 - acquired
by American Home Products Company.
26, 1866 - Hervey Coke Parke, Dr. Samuel
P. Duffield formed partnership in small drugstore in
Detroit. MI; 1867
- George S. Davis joined partnership;
Suffield withdrew; 1871
- named Parke-Davis & Company;
1873 - built original research
laboratory built; 1875
- incorporated; 1876
- first profit; developed first organized, systematic
method of clinically testing new drugs;
1902 - built first industrial
laboratory devoted exclusively to pharmacological
research; marked institutionalization of pure science
research activity (responsible for many "wonder drugs");
- acquired by Warner Lambert.
Hervey Coke Parke
- Leopold Gerstle founded Gerstle Medicine Co. in Union, TN;
manufactured St. Joseph's Aspirin; 1920 - acquired
by Plough Inc.; November 22, 1927 - Plough Inc.
registered "St. Joseph's Pure Aspirin" trademark first used
April 22, 1926 (medicinal preparation-namely aspirin);
1971 - merged with Schering Corporation; 2000
- acquired by McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals,
Division of McNeil-PPC, Inc. (Johnson & Johnson).
- Joseph Nathan (38) established Joseph Nathan and Co.,
general trading company (colonial
produce, fancy goods, clocks, jewelry, ironmongery, patent
Wellington, New Zealand (foundation for Glaxo); 1884
- pioneer frozen meat exporting, became chairman of Wellington
Meat Export Company; November 1886 -
Nathan-financed Wellington - Manawatu Railway opened;
built or bought into about 17 creameries in Manawatu; 1899
Nathan and Company London Ltd (capital raising mechanism);
1904 - secured, refined drying process for
growing concern about fresh milk bacterial disease, "the liquid
October 27, 1906
- registered "Glaxo' trademark for dried milk (had tried 'Lacto'
bu too close to other names); 1908 -
department opened in London,
Glaxo Baby Book published (million copies sold by 1922);
1913 - became British public company; 1918
- 'Glaxo' dominated sales of Nathan and Co Ltd;
1927 - Alec Nathan (based in London) named Chairman;
1935 - Glaxo Department renamed Glaxo
Laboratories; 1947 - Glaxo absorbed Nathan and
Co., became parent company; August 6, 1957 -
Glaxo Laboratories Ltd. registered "Glaxo" trademark in U. S.
(pharmaceutical preparations); 1958 - acquires
Allen and Hanburys Ltd.;
- merged with British Drug Houses (BDH); 1995 -
merged with Wellcome, formed Glaxo Wellcome;
December 27, 2000 - merged with SmithKline Beecham,
renamed GlaxoSmithKline, world's largest pharmaceutical company
by market share (at time of merger).
- Alexander Clavel sold dye factory to new company, Bindschedler
& Busch; 1884 - reorganized as joint-stock company
with name "Gesellschaft für Chemische Industrie Basel" (Company
for Chemical Industry Basel); 1945/ - abbreviation,
"Ciba", so widespread, adopted as company's name.
Clavel - founder CIBA
May 10, 1876
- Colonel Eli Lilly (38), pharmaceutical chemist, opened for
business at 15 W. Pearl St., downtown Indianapolis, IN; staff of
three: drug compounder, bottler and finisher, Josiah K. Lilly,
Sr. (14-year-old son); 1886 - hired young chemist to function as
full-time scientist, one of first companies to initiate bona
fide pharmaceutical research program; 1923 -
introduced Iletin, world's first commercially available insulin
product; 2006 - sales of $15.6 billion; average
cost to discover, develop new drug - $800 million to $1.2
billion; average length of time from discovery to patient - 10
to 15 years; 2007 - approximately 41,350 employees
worldwide (about 8,000 engaged in research and development),
clinical research conducted in more than 50 countries, research
and development facilities located in 9 countries, manufacturing
plants located in 13 countries, products marketed in 143
March 17, 1879
- Robert McNeil (23), graduate of Philadelphia College of
Pharmacy and Science, paid $167 for drugstore (with fixtures,
inventory, soda fountain, retail pharmacy) in Kensington section
(mill district) of Philadelphia, PA; $5.79 in first-day sales;
1904 - Robert
Lincoln McNeil (son) joined business;
1914 - McNeils (father and son) formed
partnership, called Firm of Robert McNeil;
1920s - abandoned retail business,
shifted to direct marketing of prescription pharmaceuticals to
doctors and hospitals; 1933
- incorporated as McNeil Laboratories;
1938 - Robert Lincoln McNeil Jr. joined
family business as first member of research department;
1955 - McNeil
Laboratories introduced Tylenol Elixir for Children; first
product under Tylenol name (compound first discovered by
French chemist Charles Gerhardt in 1852), first aspirin-free pain reliever
(available by prescription only);
April 10, 1962 - McNeil Laboratories registered
"Co-Tylenol" trademark first used February 8, 1961 (Pediatric
Cold Preparations); 1959
- acquired by Johnson & Johnson;
1960 - Tylenol approved for sale without
- McNeil Laboratories divided into McNeil Pharmaceutical, McNeil
Consumer Products Company; 2001
- McNeil Consumer Healthcare changed name to McNeil Consumer &
Specialty Pharmaceuticals; 2004
- annual sales of $2.1 billion, 2,600 employees.
- Two young Americans, Silas Mainville Burroughs and Henry
Solomon Wellcome, established a pharmaceutical company,
Burroughs Wellcome & Co. in London, UK, to promote new form of
compressed pill; 1895 - Burroughs died, the
company flourished under Wellcome's leadership; 1936
- Wellcome Trust established, at his death, for medical
research; 1995 - merged with Glaxo, formed Glaxo
- Dr. John Samuel Carter (Carter's Little Liver Pills), Brent
Good established Carter Medicine Company; 1929 -
Harry Hoyt, Sr. (son-in-law of Good's son's brother-in-law)
became managing director; acquired controlling interest;
1935 - introduced Arrid antiperspirant; October
15, 1935 - Feminine Products, Inc. registered "Arrid"
trademark first used May 23, 1935 (deodorant cream); company
sales exceeded $1 million; 1937 - renamed Carter
Products, Inc.; 1955 - introduced Miltown
tranquilizer (developed by Dr. Frank M. Berger of company's
Wallace Laboratories division); May 3, 1955 -
registered "Miltown" trademark first used June 19, 1954
(medication for use as a muscular relaxant and hypnotic); became
best-selling drug ever marketed in U. S.; 1957 -
went public; November 3, 1959 - registered
"Carter's Pills" trademark first used [in another form] in 1891
(laxative); Federal Trade Commission ruled company could not use
'liver' in pill advertising; 1965 - name changed
to Carter-Wallace, Inc. (reflected contribution of Wallace
Laboratory division); 1970 - sales exceeded $125
million (toiletries, proprietary drugs, prescription drugs);
1985 - acquired Youngs Drug Products Corporation
(maker of Trojan-brand condoms); 1991 - acquired
Dramamine from Procter & Gamble (sales of $13 million);
August 1993 - introduced Felbatol (for control of
epileptic seizures); January 1994 - first
reported; December 1995 - class action lawsuit
filed against company; October 1996 - Marvin
Davis bid $835 million for company; blocked; March 1997
- introduced ASTELIN, antihistamine for treatment of seasonal
allergic rhinitis; September 1999 - introduced
Trojan Supra condom (first polyurethane condom); September
28, 2001 - Wallace Laboratories (pharmaceutical unit),
Wampole Laboratories (diagnostics unit), rights to
Carter-Wallace name acquired by MedPointe Capital Partners, The
Carlyle Group, The Cypress Group for approximately $408 million;
consumer products business aquired for approximately $739
million by Armkel (partnership of consumer goods company Church
& Dwight, private equity group Kelso & Company.
- Dr. Franklin Miles, specialist in treatment of eye and ear
disorders, with interest in connection of nervous system to
patient overall health, founded Dr. Miles Medical Company in
Elkhart, IN; home remedies (Restorative Nervine) became
base of growing product line; 1935 - name changed
to Miles Laboratories; 1979 - acquired by Bayer AG
for $253 million (most expensive acquisition by foreign
chemical, pharmaceutical company ever made in U. S.)
October 14, 1884
- William E. Upjohn, of
Hastings, MI, received a patent for a "Process for Making
"friable" pills, (easily crumble and dissolve); 1886
- with brothers (Henry,
Frederick Lawrence, James Townley) founded Upjohn Pill and
Granule Company in Kalamazoo, MI; 1902 - name
changed to The Upjohn Company; 1909 - W.E. Upjohn
bought out remaining brothers, took sole control; May 1930
- Dr. Lawrence N. Upjohn (nephew)
became President of company; 1953 -
Everett G. Upjohn (Lawrence's
son) became President, Chairman; 1959 -
listed on NYSE; 1985 - sales of $2 billion; November 1995
- merged with Pharmacia AB of Sweden; renamed Pharmacia &
Upjohn, Inc., world’s ninth largest pharmaceutical firm (more
than 30,000 employees, sales of $7 billion, annual
research budget of more than $1 billion); April 2000
- merged with Monsanto and Searle, renamed Pharmacia Corp.;
April 16, 2003 - acquired by Pfizer.
- Robert Wood Johnson, James Wood Johnson, Edward Mead
Johnson began operations in New Brunswick, NJ in surgical
dressings industry; 14 employees on fourth floor of former
wallpaper factory; October 28, 1887 - Johnson &
Johnson - J & J
Johnson - J & J
- Dr. Alfred Kern and Edouard Sandoz established Kern & Sandoz,
chemical company, in Basel, Switzerland; 1895 -
produced first pharmaceutical substance, antipyrine,
fever-controlling-agent; partnership reorganized as joint-stock
company "Chemische Fabrik vormals Sandoz".
December 13, 1887
- William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers officially
incorporated, invested $5,000 into a failing drug manufacturing,
Clinton Pharmaceutical Company (Clinton, NY); Bristol as
president, John Myers as vice president; May 1898
- company renamed Bristol, Myers Company (hyphen replaced the
comma after Myers’s death in 1899, when the company became a
corporation); 1900 - Bristol-Myers turns
profitable; first nationally recognized product is laxative
- Gideon D. Searle, young druggist, founded G .D. Searle &
Company in Omaha, NE; April 10, 1908 -
incorporated in Chicago; 1934 - laxative Metamucil
is introduced; 1949 - introduced Dramamine, first
motion sickness treatment; 1951 - Enovid, first
contraceptive of its kind to reach the market; 1965
- discovered aspartame, artificial sweetener; 1973
- merged with Will Ross (included optical retailing unit, Vision
Centers [(later Pearle Vision Centers[; 1977 -
Donald H. Rumsfield, former U.S. secretary of defense, named
president and CEO (first outsider to lead company); July
1981 - FDA approved aspartame as table top sweetener and
food additive in a number of items; 1985 - Pearle
Vision Centers divested; acquired by Monsanto Company for $2.7
- Isaac E. Emerson, a Baltimore pharmacist, created a headache
remedy, granular effervescent salt, named "Bromo-Seltzer";
became so successful that he abandoned his retail business to
devote his time to the manufacture of his product; 1891
- incorporated Emerson Drug Company in Maryland; 1956
- merged with Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company.
- Dr. Wallace C.
Abbott, practicing physician, began manufacturing dosimetric
granules in an apartment in Chicago; one of founders of modern
pharmacy; 1894 - acquired, became editor of The
Alkaloidal Clinic; 1900 - officially incorporated
Abbott Alkaloidal Company; 1906 - established
company’s sales force to reach more physicians; 1910
- established first European agency in London, branches in New
York, San Francisco, Seattle, Toronto India; 1915
- name changed to Abbott Laboratories to reflect commitment to
new areas of research, beyond alkaloids; 1946 -
first pharmaceutical company to have special laboratory for
radioactive pharmaceuticals, lead to creation of what will
become world’s leading immunodiagnostics business; 1959
- introduced new logo (featured a stylized "a" symbol still in
May 1, 1889
- Bayer introduced aspirin in powder form (Germany).
October 1, 1896
- Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche founded F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co as
successor company to Hoffmann, Traub & Co. in Basel,
Switzerland; 1905 - established Hoffmann-La Roche
Chemical Works Inc. in New York City, first offices in US;
1934 - first 50 kilograms of vitamin C produced,
start of vitamin manufacturing at Roche; first vitamin
preparation, Redoxon, launched; 1938 - vitamins as
company’s mainstay; 1960 - Librium launched as
first of new class of agents known as benzodiazepines;
1962 - introduced Fluoro-uracil Roche, company's first
anticancer drug; 1963 - introduced Valium Roche,
sedative and anxiolytic drug (benzodiazepine family); 1964
- acquired French fragrance company Roure Bertrand Dupont;
1968 - opened Roche Institute of Molecular Biology,
one of first centers for Research and Development; 1982
- introduced Rocephin, antibiotic of cephalosporin class
(outsold all other Roche products world-wide by 1987);
1986 - launched Roferon-A (interferon alfa-2a), Roche's
first genetically engineered drug, for the treatment of hairy
cell leukaemia; 1989 - formed Roche Holding AG,
holding company; 1990 - acquired controlling
interest in Genentech for $2.1 billion; 1991 -
formed Givaudan-Roure, fragrances and flavors division;
1994 - acquired Syntex; June 1999 -
completed acquisition of Genentech for $4.2 billion
20, 1999 - offered 16% of Genentech stock in public
offering; raised nearly $2 billion (total of 42% of shares
eventually sold); 2000 - spun Givaudan-Roure off
as separate company; 2003 - sold Vitamins & Fine
Chemicals Division (world's leading supplier of vitamins,
carotenoids) to Dutch Life Science and Performance Materials
company; 2004 - sold consumer health business
(over-the-counter medicines) to Bayer Consumer Care;
July 21, 2008 -
made surprise $43.7 billion ($89/share) bid for 44.1% of
Genentech it doesn't own; rejected;
Roche’s three biggest-selling drugs
(cancer medicines Rituxan, Herceptin, Avastin = $15 of $45
billion in sales) produced by Genentech.
Hoffmann and Adele La Roche - Roche AG
August 10, 1897
- Dr. Felix Hoffmann, chemist in chemical laboratory at
Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer
& Co.; created chemically pure, stable form of
acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin);
better pain-relieving, fever-lowering,
for his father's rheumatoid arthritis than salicylic acid
previously used; improved on earlier work of French chemist
Charles Frederic Gerhardt who derived acetylsalicylic acid from
plants, though only in impure, unstable form (1853);
1899 - launched under trade name Aspirin,
initially as powder supplied in glass bottles.
1899 - First
Edition of the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy published
under the title: "Merck's Manual of the Materia Medica", a
192-page book based on the United States Pharmacopoeia; intent -
to provide clinically relevant material to meet the needs of
practicing physicians; now in 17th edition.
March 6, 1899
- Chemist Felix Hoffman (of Elberfeld, Germany) received a
German patent for aspirin; registered as a trademark;
February 27, 1900 - received U.S. patent for
"Acetyl Salicylic Acid" (aspirin"), a "new and useful
Improvement in the Manufacture or Production of Acetyl Salicylic
- Pfizer filed official certificate of incorporation in the
state of New Jersey, with authorized capital of $2 million;
1905 - Emile Pfizer, Charles Pfizer's youngest son,
appointed President; last member of the Pfizer/Erhart family to
be actively involved with the company; June 22, 1942
- went public, offered 240,000 shares of new common stock.
- Haim Salomon, Moshe Gutel Levin bought small store near Old
City walls in Jerusalem, Israel; distributed imported medicines
to Jewish hospitals, local organizations
of Jewish settlements for their pharmacies; 1915 -
Israel Asher Elshtein joined company, name changed to to
"Salomon Levin Elshtein Ltd.; pharmaceutical marketing arm of
Teva in Israel;
1935 - Elsa Kuver, Dr. Gunter Friedlander established
Teva ((Hebrew for nature); February 13, 1944 -
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Incorporated; 1951
- went public; 1964 - Assia Chemical Laboratories,
Zori Pharmaceuticals Inc. merged, acquired controlling interest
in Teva; 1976 - three companies merged, formed
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.; Eli Hurvitz (CEO of Assia)
named CEO, President; Israel’s largest company; 1980
- acquired Ikapharm, second largest Israeli drug manufacturer;
1982 - granted FDA approval for Kfar Saba
(Ikapharm) manufacturing plant; 1988 - acquired
Abic, second largest Israeli pharmaceutical company; 2000
- acquired Novopharm in Canada (r with its Hungarian subsidiary
Teva Pharmaceutical Works Ltd. Hungary), became largest generic
pharmaceutical company in North America; July 18, 2008
- signed a definitive agreement to acquire Barr Pharmaceuticals,
Inc., fourth largest generic drug company worldwide.
July 9, 1902
- Patent is obtained for barbituric acid - hope for insomniacs;
1864 - Adolf von Baeyer, twenty-nine-year-old
assistant of Friedrich August Kekule (discoverer of the
molecular structure of benzene) in Ghent, synthesized barbituric
acid, first barbiturate; 1903 - German chemist
Emil Fischer and his collaborator Joseph von Mering modified a
class of drugs originally synthesized in 1864 in a way that made
them effective as sedatives and hypnotics; realized that their
new drug, "diethyl barbituric acid," or barbital (colorless
crystalline organic compound. used in medicine as a soporific),
was a sedative - did not taste unpleasant, had few side effects,
acted at therapeutic levels far beneath the toxic dose.
- Edward Mead Johnson, Sr. founded Mead Johnson & Company in
Jersey City, NJ (had previously founded Johnson & Johnson with
his brothers; had formed The American Ferment Company in 1896 to
manufacture product designed to aid digestion);
1907 - assigned
first Mead Johnson sales representative in Canada;
1910 - introduced
its first major infant feeding product;
1911 - introduced carbohydrate
milk-modifier, Dextri-Maltose®; first clinically supported,
physician recommended infant feeding product in United States;
1924 - introduced
Cod Liver Oil (first standardized cod liver oil, source of
vitamins A and D); October 4, 1932
- registered "Pablum" trademark first used June 4, 1932
(specially prepared cereal food consisting of a mixture of wheat
meal, oatmeal, and yellow corn meal, to which have been added
wheat embryo, dried yeast, powdered dehydrated alfalfa leaf, and
powdered beef bone prepared for human use);
1933 - launched
Pablum; first precooked, vitamin- and mineral-fortified instant
cereal for babies; 1934
- Lambert Johnson (son) took over;
1955 - D. Mead (grandson) assumed
control; March 12,
1963 - Mead Johnson & Company registered "Metrecal"
trademark first used April 24, 1959 (special food product of
high and complete nutritive value for use in weight reducing
diets and where concentrated and complete foods are desired, and
consisting principally of nonfat milk solids, soya flour, whole
milk, solids, sucrose, starch, and corn oil, with added vitamins
and minerals); 1967 -
acquired by Bristol-Myers Squibb;
2003 - adult nutrition lines acquired by
Edward Mead Johnson
- Mead Johnson
- Abe Plough (16), Memphis entrepreneur, founded Plough, Inc.;
borrowed $125 from his father, started as one man business;
created product called Plough's
Antiseptic Healing Oil (linseed
oil, carbolic acid, camphor); 1918 - incorporated
as Plough Chemical Co. (later changed to Plough, Inc.);
1920 - acquired St. Joseph Company (Chattanooga, TN),
children's aspirin; 1951 - incorporated;
1954 - net sales of $254.5 million; 1971 -
merged with Schering Corporation, primarily manufacturer of
prescription pharmaceuticals; Plough was Chairman of both
Plough, Incorporated, and Schering-Plough.
January 1, 1915
- Bayer pharmaceuticals in Germany made aspirin available for
the first time in tablet form (vs. powder); 1829 -
Salicin, the parent compound of the salicylate drug family
isolated from willow bark; 1875 - sodium
salicylate used as commercial pain reliever, side effects
(bleeding of stomach lining); 1897 - Felix
Hoffman, German chemist working for Bayer, found suitable, less
acidic medication - acetylsalicylic acid (marketed by Bayer
under the name "Aspirin"); became biggest selling drug in world
as analgesic (anti-pain), anti-inflammatory, antipyretic
(fever-reducing) medication; May 30, 1922 - Bayer
Company, Inc. registered "Bayer" trademark first sued January 2,
1895 (Preparations or Medicines for Pains and Aches of Nervous
or Organic Origin and for Rheumatic, Neuralgic, and Gouty
August 5, 1924
- H. A. Metz Laboratories, Inc. (New York, NY) registered
trademark "Novocain" (anaesthetics); September 8, 1917
- trademark first used.
February 4, 1926
- Group of managers from Sterling Products, Household Products
founded American Home Products as diversified holding company;
1930 - acquired Anacin, became company's leading
product; 1931 - acquired John Wyeth & Brother from
Harvard University for $2.9 million; 1943 - six
companies merged into Wyeth Laboratories; 1944 -
one of 22 companies selected by government to manufacture
penicillin; 1958 - Dristan Tablets launched;
1984 - Advil introduced (first non-prescription
ibuprofen in U. S.); most famous prescription-to-OTC switch in
product history; 1989 - acquired A. H. Robins
(ChapStick, Robitussin); 1994 - Effexor introduced
(first serotonin and norepinephrene reuptake inhibitor for
treatment of depression); 1994 - acquired American Cyanimid
(Centrum); March 11, 2002 - American Home Products
changed name to Wyeth to reflect change to global pharmaceutical
February 14, 1929
- Sir Alexander Fleming, young bacteriologist, introduced mold
by-product called penicillin to cure bacterial infections; had
left plate of staphylococcus bacteria uncovered, noticed a mold
had fallen on culture, killed many of the bacteria; identified
mold as penicillium notatum (similar to kind found on bread).
February 21, 1931
- Miles Laboratories introduced Alka Seltzer in the U.S.; Hub
Beardsley, president of Miles Laboratories asked chief chemist,
Maurice Treneer, to develop an effervescent tablet to ward off
illness, with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and sodium
bicarbonate as the main ingredients (had worked for staff
members of the local newspaper); June 9, 1931
- Dr. Miles Medical Company (Elkhart, IN) registered
"Alka-Seltzer" trademark first used December 20, 1930
(antic-acid effervescent preparations); 1951 -
Speedy Alka-Seltzer character created; featured Alka-Seltzer
tablet body with hat, "effervescent" wand; 1953
- Paul Margulies wrote the "Plop, Plop, Fizz, Fizz" theme song;
2005 - Alka-Seltzer sold over 300 million tablets.
May 12, 1938
- Sandoz Labs manufactured LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide).
- Dr. George Rieveschl, chemical engineer (organic chemist),
synthesized antihistamine compund
(beta-dimethylaminoethyl-benzhydryl ether hydrochloride) at
University of Cincinnati, tested it at laboratories of
Parke-Davis; renamed Benadryl; September 4, 1945 -
Parke, Davis & Company registered "Benedryl" trademark first
used November 27, 1944 (pharmaceutical preparations containing
diphenhydamine hydrochloride); May 1946 - Pfizer
Corporation bought rights, marketed it as presecription drug;
June 3, 1947 - George Rieveschl, Jr, of Grosse Point
Woods, MI, received a patent for "Dialkylaminoalkyl Benzhydryl
Ethers and Salts Thereof" ("new class of chemical compounds of
therapeutic value"); early 1960s - sales of about
$6 million/year; 1980s - FDA allowed Benadryl to
become generic over-the-counter drug (sales rose to $180
April 16, 1943
- Albert Hoffman, Swiss chemist working at Sandoz
pharmaceutical research laboratory in Basel, Switzerland,
accidentally absorbed through his skin some Lysergic Acid
Diethylamide (LSD-25), synthetic drug he had created in 1938 as
part of his research into the medicinal value of lysergic acid
compounds; experienced restlessness, dizziness, "extreme
activity of imagination"; April 19 - consumed 250
micrograms of the drug; was disturbed by unusual sensations and
hallucinations; 1960's - widespread use of the
so-called "mind-expanding" drug began when counterculture
figures (Albert M. Hubbard, Timothy Leary, Ken Kesey) publicly
expounded on benefits of using LSD as recreational drug;
1965 - made illegal in United States.
April 10, 1944
- Dr. Robert Burns Woodward and Dr. William von Eggers Doering
produced the first synthetic quinine at the Converse Memorial
Laboratory, Harvard University (anti-malarial drug, organic
May 15, 1945
- Wallace & Tiernan Products Inc. registered "Desenex" trademark
first used June 20, 1944 (fungicidal composition for therapeutic
May 25, 1948
- Andrew J. Moyer, of Peoria, IL, received a patent for a
"Method of Production of Penicillin" ("method of increasing the
penicillin content of culture liquors of a penicillin-producing
mold"); method of mass production of penicillin; assigned to the
United States of America (as represented by the Secretary of
September 21, 1948
- Selman A. Waksman, of New Brunswick, NJ, and Albert Schatz, of
Passaic, NJ, received a patent for ""Streptomycin and Process
for Preparation" ("by cultivation under particular controlled
conditions of strains of the microorganism Actinomyes griseus");
assigned to Rutgers Research and Endowment Foundation.
January 27, 1950
- Science magazine announced the new antibiotic terramyacin
(made by Charles Pfizer & Co.); isolated from Indiana soil, and
found effective against pneumonia, dysentery, and other
infections; first pharmaceutical discovered and developed
exclusively by Pfizer scientists.
March 15, 1950
- United States Food and Drug Administration approved
Terramycin® (oxytetracycline), a broad-spectrum antibiotic;
Pfizer's first branded drug; July 18, 1950 - Ben A
Sobin, of New York, NY, Alexander C. Finlay, of Long Island
City, NY and Jasper H. Kane, of Garden City, NY received a
patent for "Terramycin and Its Production"; assigned to Chas.
Pfizer & Co., Inc.
July 18, 1950 -
G. D. Searle & Co. registered "Dramamine" trademark first used
December 31, 1948 (dimenhydrinate tablets useful in the
prevention and treatment of motion sickness, nausea, and
vomiting, and a histamine antagonist).
May 29, 1951
- James W. Clapp and Richard O. Roblin received a patent for
"Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Methods of Preparation Thereof"
(improved sulfonamide drugs, synthetic antibacterial drugs
containing the sulfanilamide molecular structure); first
chemical substances systematically used to cure, prevent
bacterial infections in humans (fewer than 20 off 5,000 sulfa
drugs prepared and tested continue to have therapeutic value
because resistant strains of bacteria develop; useful in the
treatment of urinary tract infection); more potent antibacterial
drugs have largely replaced the sulfa drugs.
June 22, 1954
- American Chicle Company, Long Island City, NY, registered
"Rolaids" (antacid mints) trademark.
January 11, 1955
- Lloyd H. Conover, of Oakdale, CT, received a patent for
"Tetracycline" )"concerned with the preparation of the hitherto
undescribed compounds derived from chlor-tetracycline");
May 9, 1960
- The Food and Drug Administration approved use of world's first
commercially produced birth-control bill--Enovid-10, made by the
G.D. Searle Company of Chicago, IL; Margaret Sanger (opened the
first birth-control clinic in the United States in 1916)
commissioned development of "the pill"; 1953 -
gave $150,000 to Dr. Gregory Pincus (biochemist at the Worcester
Foundation for Experimental Biology) and John Rock (gynecologist
at Harvard Medical School) to continue his prior research and
develop a safe and effective oral contraceptive for women;
1954 - clinical tests of the pill, which used
synthetic progesterone and estrogen to repress ovulation in
women, were initiated; original version contained at least five
times the estrogen that it does today, and ten times the
progestin; about 99 percent effective in preventing pregnancy;
women still need a doctor's prescription, available
over-the-counter in many other countries.
August 18, 1960
- Searle Drug Company marketed first oral contraceptive in
April 10, 1962
- McNeil Laboratories, Incorporated registered "Co-Tylenol"
trademark first used February 8, 1961 (Pediatric Cold
Preparations); May 5, 1970 - registered "Tylenol"
trademark first used April 5, 1955 (analgesic antipyretic
October 6, 1966
- LSD declared illegal in the United States.
- Ciba and Geigy merged, formed Ciba-Geigy Ltd.
December 9, 1975
- SmithKline Corporation registered "Tagamet" trademark first
used on June 16, 1974 (pharmaceutical preparation for
gastrointestinal disorders); 1976 - introduced
Tagamet (cimetidine), H2 blocker, in UK (1977 in US);
revolutionized treatment of peptic ulcers.
January 16, 1980
-Scientists in Boston produce interferon, a natural
virus-fighting substance through genetic engineering.
September 3, 1985
- Eli Lilly and Company registered "Prozac" trademark first used
January 28, 1985 (pharmaceutical products, namely
March 20, 1987
- The FDA approved the sale of AZT (azidothymidine), an
antiviral drug believed to prolong the lives of some AIDS
patients; first authorized antiretroviral AIDS drug; 1964
- originally developed by Dr. Jerome Horowitz of the Michigan
Cancer Foundation as a possible treatment for cancer;
February 1985 - National Cancer Institute, under the
direction of Dr. Samuel Broder, tested AZT and found that it was
a potent inhibitor of AIDS.
- American Medical Association said that Retin-A, anti-acne
drug, could also reduce wrinkles caused by exposure to sun.
October 28, 1988
- French manufacturer Roussel Uclaf states that it will resume
distribution of abortion drug RU-486.
May 28, 1991
- Alice A. Christen (Metairie, LA), Donna M. Gibson (New
Orleans, LA) and John Bland (Kenner, LA) received a patent for the
"Production of Taxol or Taxol-Like Compounds in Cell Culture"
("procedures will provide a supply of chemotherapeutic agents");
important break-through in cancer treatment; only existed
naturally in the bark of the Pacific Yew, Taxus Brevifolia,
found solely in the Pacific Northwest, where the number of trees
is limited; vast number of trees must be felled in order to
collect the large amount of bark necessary for commercial drug
production; patent assigned to U.S. Dept of Agriculture.
- Ciba Geigy merged with Sandoz, formed Novartis AG,
world's second-largest drugmaker.
February 24, 1997
- The Food and Drug Administration named six brands of birth
control as safe and effective ''morning-after'' pills for
September 15, 1997
- Two popular diet drugs, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, were
withdrawn from the market by their manufacturers after the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a possible link
between heart-valve damage and these drugs - often used in
combination with another appetite suppressant, phentermine.
March 27, 1998
- The Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Viagra,
made by Pfizer, to fight male impotence.
January 17, 2000
- British pharmaceutical companies Glaxo Wellcome PLC and
SmithKline Beecham PLC agreed to merger that would create
world's largest drug maker.
September 28, 2000
- Capping a 12-year battle, the government approved use of the
abortion pill RU-486.
December 30, 2003
- The federal government announced it would ban the sale of
ephedra, an herbal stimulant linked to 155 deaths and dozens of
heart attacks and strokes.
September 30, 2004
- Merck, maker of Vioxx, heavily promoted arthritis drug, pulled
it from the market after a study found it doubled the risk of
heart attacks and strokes.
October 5, 2004
- Americans' supply of flu vaccine was abruptly cut in half as
British regulators unexpectedly shut down Chiron Corp., a major
October 15, 2004
- The Food and Drug Administration ordered that all
antidepressants carry strong warnings that they ''increase the
risk of suicidal thinking and behavior'' in children who take
April 7, 2005
- Painkiller Bextra taken off market; FDA said all
similar prescription drugs should strongly warn about possible
risk of heart attacks and strokes.
October 14, 2008
- Money follows power; health care industry splits
political campaign contributions evenly between
Democrats and Republicans (vs. 2-to-1 contribution edge
to Republican party in last decade):
October 22, 2008 - Number of prescriptions
filled (3.8 billion in 2007) increased 72% between 1997-2007;
average number of prescriptions filled by each American
increased from 8.9 in 1997 to 12.6 in 2007
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The Aspirin Wars: Money, Medicine, and 100 Years of Rampant
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Golden Past, Golden Future: The First Fifty Years of Beckman
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The Story of Taxol: Nature and Politics in the Pursuit of an
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Henry Wellcome. (London, UK: Hoder & Stoughton, 422 p.).
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how FDA cultivated reputation for competence, vigilance
throughout last century; how organizational image enabled agency
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with drug companies, advocacy groups, media, research hospitals
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Glaxo: A History to 1962. (New York, NY: Cambridge
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The Business of Medicine: The Extraordinary History of Glaxo, A
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Robert Wood Johnson: The Gentleman Rebel (State College,
PA: Lillian Press, 736 p.). Johnson, Robert Wood, 1893-1968.;
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(Johnson & Johnson), Bo Agebro ...;
photographer: Lars Ohlsson; translation Craig Pratt (2006).
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Put the Moose on the Table: Lessons in Leadership from a CEO's
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(Marion Laboratories), Anne
Prescription for Success: The Life and Values of Ewing Marion
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Kauffman, Ewing Marion, 1916-1993; Marion Laboratories--History;
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Medicine, Science, and Merck. (New York, NY: Cambridge
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(G. D. Searle), Charles
Medawar and Barbara Freese (1982).
Diplomacy: Decoding the Conduct of a Multinational
Pharmaceutical Company and the Failure of a Western Remedy for
the Third World. (London, UK: Social Audit, 119 p.). G.D.
Searle & Co.; Developing countries -- Drug trade -- Moral and
ethical aspects; Developing countries -- Drug trade -- State
(Sigma-Aldrich Corporation), Alfred Bader
Adventures of a Chemist Collector.
(London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 288 p.). Founder of the
Aldrich Chemical Company, Former President, CEO, Chairman,
Chairman Emeritus of Sigma-Aldrich. Bader, Alfred, 1924- ;
Sigma-Aldrich Corporation; Chemists--United States--Biography;
Art--Collectors and collecting--United States--Biography.History.
John Francis Marion (1980).
The Fine Old House (Philadelphia, PA: SmithKline Corp.,
251 p.). SmithKline Corporation--History.
(SmithKline Beecham), Anne Francis (1968).
A Guinea A Box: A Biography. (London, UK: Hale, 191 p.).
Beecham, Thomas, 1820-1907. Beecham started Beecham's Pills
laxative business in England in 1842 - became widely successful.
(SmithKline Beecham), H.G. Lazell. (1975).
From Pills to Penicillin: The Beecham Story: A Personal Account.
(London, UK: Heinemann, 208 p.). Beecham Group Limited;
Pharmaceutical industry -- Great Britain.
(SmithKline Beecham), Robert P.
Bauman, Peter Jackson, and Joanne T. Lawrence (1997).
From Promise to Performance: A Journey of Transformation at
(Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 302 p.).
SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals--Management; Pharmaceutical
industry--Great Britain--Management; Pharmaceutical
(Syntex Pharmaceuticals), Wendy B. Murphy
Science & Serendipity: A Half Century of Innovation at Syntex.
(White Plains, NY: Benjamin Co., 143 p.). Syntex
(Upjohn), Leonard Engel (1961).
Medicine Makers of Kalamazoo. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 261 p.). Upjohn Company.
William E. Upjohn
(Upjohn), Robert D.B. Carlisle
A Century of Caring: The Upjohn Story (Elmsford, NY:
Benjamin Co., 256 p.). Upjohn Company--History; Pharmaceutical
(Vertex Pharmaceuticals), Barry Werth (1994).
The Billion-Dollar Molecule: One Company's Quest for the Perfect
Drug. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 445 p.). Vertex
Pharmaceuticals Incorporated; Pharmaceutical biotechnology;
Pharmaceutical industry--United States.
(Warner-Lambert), Elmer Holmes Bobst (1973).
Bobst: The Autobiography of a Pharmaceutical Pioneer.
(New York, NY: McKay, 360 p.). Former CEO (Warner-Lambert).
Bobst, Elmer Holmes; Pharmaceutical industry--Biography.
Arthur Allen (2007).
Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine’s Greatest
Lifesaver. (New York, NY: Norton, 512 p.).
Washington-based Journalist. Vaccination--History; Communicable
States; Vaccines--history--United States; Dissent and
Disputes--history--United States; Health Policy--history--United
States; History, Modern 1601---United States;
Vaccination--adverse effects--United States; Vaccines--adverse
effects--United States. 200-year history of vaccination; shifting understanding of
vaccination since its creation.
Marcia Angell (2004).
The Truth about the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What
To Do about It. (New York, NY: Random House, 305 p.).
Pharmaceutical industry--United States--Costs;
Drugs--Prices--United States; Drugs--Research--United
States--Finance; Prescription pricing--United States;
Advertising--Drugs--United States; Pharmaceutical policy--United
Eds. Tom Blackett and Rebecca Robins (2001).
Brand Medicine: The Role of Branding in the Pharmaceutical
Industry. (New York, NY: Palgrave, 308 p.). Group Deputy
Chairman of Interbrand; Senior Consultant of Interbrand
Healthcare. Pharmaceutical industry--United States;
Drugs--United States--Marketing; Brand name products--United
States; Brand choice--United States.
Jorg Blech; translated by Gisela Wallor Hajjar
Inventing Disease and Pushing Pills: Pharmaceutical Companies
and the Medicalisation of Normal Life. (New York, NY:
Routledge, 176 p.). Molecular Biologist, Science Editor of Der
Spiegel. Drug utilization; Pharmaceutical industry;
Drugs--Social aspects; Drug Industry; Marketing; Sociology,
pharmaceutical industry is redefining health; many normal life
processes systematically reinterpreted as pathological to create
new markets for treatments.
Thea Cooper and Arthur Ainsberg (2010).
Breakthrough: Elizabeth Hughes, the Discovery of Insulin, and
the Making of a Medical Miracle. (New York, NY: St.
Martin’s Press 320 p.). Gossett, Elizabeth Hughes, 1908-1981
--Health; Insulin --History; Diabetes --Treatment --History.
1919 - Elizabeth Hughes, 11-year-old daughter of
Charles Evans Hughes, America's
most-distinguished jurist and politician, had been diagnosed with juvenile diabetes
death sentence); starvation - only accepted form of treatment (whittled her down to
45 pounds skin, bones); Frederick Banting, Charles Best
(Canadian researchers) identified, purified insulin from animal pancreases,
spawned scientific jealousy, intense business
competition, fistfights; Elizabeth became one of first diabetics
to receive insulin injections – while discoverers,
little known pharmaceutical company struggled to make it
available to rest of world; Elizabeth Hughes died in 1981
Richard Davenport-Hines (2002).
The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Global History of Narcotics.
(New York, NY: Norton, 466 p.). Drug abuse--History;
Narcotics--History; Drugs of abuse--History; Drug
traffic--History; Narcotics, Control of--History.
Richard A. Epstein (2006).
Overdose: How Government Regulation Stifles Pharmaceutical
Innovation. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 296
p.). James Parker Hall Distinguished Service Professor of Law
(University of Chicago), and Peter and Kirstin Bedford Senior
Fellow (Hoover Institution). United States. Food and Drug
Administration; United States. Food and Drug Administration;
Pharmaceutical industry--Government policy--United States; Drug
Industry--United States; Public Policy--United States;
Government Regulation--United States. Tortuous course of new drug
from early development to final delivery; regulatory framework
that surrounds all aspects of drug making.
Alfonso Gambardella (1995).
Science and Innovation: The US Pharmaceutical Industry During
the 1980s. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
199 p.). Pharmaceutical industry--United States; Pharmaceutical
States--History--20th century; Drugs--Research--United
States--Costs; Pharmacy--Research--United States--Costs.
Paul Gootenberg (2009),
Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. (Chapel
Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 442 p). Professor
of History (Stony Brook University in New York). Cocaine
industry --Peru --History; Drug traffic --Peru.
Rise of one of
most spectacular, now illegal Latin American exports: cocaine;
drug's transformations from origins as medical commodity in 19th
century to repression during early 20th century, dramatic
reemergence as illicit good after World War II, American cocaine
epidemic of 1980s, seemingly endless U.S. drug war in Andes;
people, products, processes (Sgmund Freud, Coca-Cola, Pablo
Escobar; Andean actors - Peruvian pharmacist who developed
techniques for refining cocaine on industrial scale, creators of
original drug-smuggling networks later taken over by Colombian
Merrill Goozner (2004).
The $800 Million Pill: The Truth Behind the Cost of New Drugs.
(Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 297 p.). Former
Chief Economics Correspondent (Chicago Tribune). Prescription
pricing; Drugs--Prices; Pharmaceutical industry; Consumer
Dan Hurley (2006).
Natural Causes: Death, Lies, and Politics in America’s Herbal
Supplement Industry. (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 324
p.). Herbs--Toxicology; Dietary supplements--Toxicology; Herb
industry--United States; Dietary supplements industry--United
States. $20 billion/year
industry despite lack of evidence that products are safe,
John L. LaMattina (2008).
Drug Truths: Dispelling the Myths About Pharma R&D.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 136 p.). Former Senior Vice President,
Pfizer, Inc. and President, Pfizer Global Research and
Development. Drug development --United States; Pharmaceutical
industry --United States; Drugs --Research --United States; Drug
Industry --economics --United States; Drug Design --United
States; Research Design --United States. Insider's account of pharmaceutical
industry drug discovery process, real costs of misperceptions
about industry, high stakes of developing
drugs, triumphs when new compounds reach market, save
lives, despair when new compounds fail.
Jacky Law (2006).
Big Pharma: How Modern Medicine is Damaging Your Health and What
You Can Do About It. (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf, 256
p.). Pharmaceutical industry; Drug Industry; Marketing;
Sociology, Medical; Drugs--Marketing; Advertising--Drugs.
Small number of corporations
dominate global healthcare agenda, crowd out public good.
Jonathan Liebenau (1987).
Medical Science and Medical Industry: The Formation of the
American Pharmaceutical Industry (Baltimore, MD: Johns
Hopkins University Press, 207 p.). Pharmaceutical
industry--United States--History; Pharmaceutical policy--United
States--History; Medical innovations--United States--History;
Drug Industry--history--United States; Technology,
Du Liping (2005).
The Marketing of Traditional Medicines in China: The Case of
Guangzi Province. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 277
p.). Lecturer in Chinese (University of Melbourne).
Drugs--China--Marketing--History; Medicine, Chinese--History;
Marketing--China--History; Drugs--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu
Zizhiqu--Marketing--History; Medicine, Chinese--China--Guangxi
Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Case studies; Pharmaceutical
industry--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Case studies;
Marketing--China--Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu--Case studies. Marketing system distinct from
well-known rural marketing system for trade in
Tom Mahoney (1959).
The Merchants of Life; An Account of the American Pharmaceutical
Industry. (New York, NY: Harper, 278 p.). Pharmaceutical
industry--United States; Drug trade--United States.
Ray Moynihan and Alan Cassels (2005).
Selling Sickness: How the World’s Biggest Pharmaceutical
Companies Are Turning Us All into Patients. (New York,
NY: Nation Books, 254 p.). Pharmaceutical industry; Drug
Industry; Marketing; Sociology, Medical; Drugs--Marketing;
and more ordinary life is "medicalized".
Melody Petersen (2008).
Our Daily Meds: How the Pharmaceutical Companies Transformed
Themselves into Slick Marketing Machines and Hooked the Nation
on Prescription Drugs. (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and
Giroux, 448 p.). Covered Pharmaceuticals for The New York Times.
Drugs--United States--Marketing; Drug
Industry--economics--United States; Drug
Industry--ethics--United States; Biomedical
Research--economics--United States; Marketing--ethics--United
States; Physician’s Practice Patterns--ethics--United States;
Prescriptions, Drug--economics--United States. Industry with promise to help so many is
now leaving legacy of needless harm:
how corporate salesmanship has triumphed over science;
inside biggest pharmaceutical companies, how promotion driven
industry has taken over practice of medicine, changing American
life; selling dangerous medicines as if they were Coca-Cola or
Toine Pieters (2005).
Interferon: The Science and Selling of a Miracle Drug.
(New York, NY: Routledge, 264 p.). Professor of the History of
Pharmacy (Groningen University), Senior Lecturer in the History
of Medicine (VU Amsterdam Medical Centre, The Netherlands).
Interferon--History; Interferon industry--History. Beginnings,
history, fate of Interferon.
Viviane Quirke (2004).
Collaboration in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Changing
Relationships in Britain and France, 1935-1965. (New
York, NY: Routledge, 224 p.).
Drugs--Research--France--History--20th century; Pharmaceutical
Pharmacy--Research--Great Britain--History--20th century;
Drugs--Research--Great Britain--History--20th century;
Pharmaceutical industry--Great Britain--History--20th century;
Drugs--Research--International cooperation; Pharmaceutical
industry--International cooperation; Drug
Industry--history--France; Drug Industry--history--Great
Britain; History, 20th Century--France; History, 20th
Century--Great Britain; International
Cooperation--history--Great Britain; Technology,
Pharmaceutical--history--Great Britain. 'British decline' after war;
evolution of co-operation in Britain and France, helped to
disseminate culture of research, resulted in
transformation of medical sciences, pharmaceutical industry in
Trish Regan (2011).
Joint Ventures: Inside America's Almost Legal Marijuana Industry.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). CNBC Anchor. Marijuana industry
--United States. Emerald Triangle Northern Californias
Mendocino, Humboldt and Trinity counties where many small-time,
part-time marijuana growers contribute to a trade that generates
roughly a billion dollars a year; cannabis growers, dispensary
owners, founder of Oaksterdam University ("the first formal
school for marijuana in the United States"), cops, legalization
opponents, people who've lost big after making millions; how
small time growers get their start, make (or lose) fortune,
struggle with violence, try to keep up with constantly changing
laws and regulations, walk increasingly fine line with Feds ;
inconsistencies between state and federal law; illogical hurdles
that make growing legal medicinal marijuana incredibly risky;
current, potential impact of legalized marijuana on local
economies, link between marijuana, violent Mexican cartels; can
decriminalization work on national scale (as in Portugal since
Jeffrey Robinson (2001). Prescription
Games: Money, Ego, and Power Inside the Global Pharmaceutical
Industry. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 343 p.).
Pharmaceutical industry--United States; Pharmaceutical
industry--Moral and ethical aspects.
Eds. Michael A. Santoro, Thomas M. Gorrie
Ethics and the Pharmaceutical Industry. (New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press, 492 p.). Associate Professorin the
Business Environment Department (Rutgers Business School);
Corporate Vice President, Government Affairs & Policy (Johnson &
Johnson). Pharmaceutical industry; Drugs--Marketing--Moral and
ethical aspects; Drugs--Research--Moral and ethical aspects;
Medical innovations--Social aspects; Social responsibility of
business. Growing tension between the industry and the public.
Role of intellectual
property rights and patent protection; moral, economic
requisites of research, clinical trials; drug pricing;
Bernice Schacter (2006).
The New Medicines: How Drugs Are Created, Approved, Marketed,
and Sold. (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 280 p.).
Biomedical Consultant and Writer. Drug development--Popular
works; Clinical trials--Popular works; Pharmaceutical
industry--Popular works; Consumer education; Drug
Industry--organization & administration--United States;
Pharmaceutical Preparations--economics--United States; Clinical
Trials--United States; Drug Design--United States; Drugs,
Investigational--economics--United States; Legislation,
Drug--United States. Path
from bench to bedside.
Joseph F. Spillane (2000).
Cocaine: From Medical Marvel to Modern Menace in the United
States, 1884-1920. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 214 p.). Cocaine habit--United
States--History; Cocaine--United States--History; Cocaine
industry--United States--History; Narcotics, Control of--United
Leonard J. Weber (2006).
Profits Before People?: Ethical Standards and the Marketing of
Prescription Drugs. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University
Press, 168 p.). Former Faculty Member (University of Detroit
Mercy). Pharmaceutical industry--Moral and ethical
aspects--United States; Marketing--Moral and ethical
aspects--United States; Drug Industry--ethics--United States;
Drug Industry--economics--United States;
Marketing--ethics--United States; Pharmaceutical
industry practices that have raised ethical concerns.
James Harvey Young (1961).
The Toadstool Millionaires; A Social History of Patent Medicines
in America before Federal Regulation. (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 282 p.). Patent medicines; Patent
medicines--Law and legislation--United States.
Business History Links
FDA Centennial, 1906-2006
On June 30th 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Food
and Drugs Act, which prohibiting interstate commerce in
misbranded and adulterated foods, drinks, and drugs. Broadly
understood, this action was part of the Progressive Movement in
the United States which brought forth a number of substantial
changes in the way that government interacted with private
industry and so on. 100 years on, the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) has decided to celebrate the centennial of
this act by creating this site. Starting at the homepage,
visitors can learn about events created to celebrate the FDA’s
legacy as well as read a nice feature titled "This Week in FDA
History". Visitors may also want to look through a nice graphic
presentation titled "FDA’s Role in Protecting and Promoting
Public Health". Through images and text, this presentation
brings together some highlights of their work over the years,
including information about the effects of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. Finally, the site also contains
a short quiz on FDA history.
Patent Medicine Trade Cards
Website for an ongoing effort to digitize a collection of 19th
century "small, colorfully illustrated advertising cards touting
a particular medicine and its many cures. The illustrations
often have little to do with any of the ailments purported to be
cured. They were pure advertising and very collectible."
Searchable by keyword, such as "oil, extract, tonic, disease,
ache, consumption, ague, dyspepsia, kidney, liver, heart,
bowels, [and] appetite."