April 29, 1813
- Jacob Frederick Hummel, of Philadelphia, PA, received a
patent for a "Varnish of Elastic Gum to Render Water Proof";
1820 - Thomas
"masticator", first machine specifically designed for processing
of rubber; if strongly processed (masticated), rubber became
plastic, could be made to flow, developed method of milling
Charles Macintosh with
(named "Pickled" rubber) to
produce macintosh coats;
1837 - received British patent for mastication
process; November 21, 1843 - received
British patent for 'vulcanisation' process for rubber (14
patents between 1820-1847).
May 30, 1821
- James Boyd, of Boston, MA, received a patent for a "Fire
Engine Hose"; fire hose of cotton web lined with rubber (to
replace riveted leather hose which dried out, cracked, burst
from excessive pressure); improved hose - 40 to 50 feet in
length, weighed more than 85 pounds with the couplings; hose
oilers were developed to keep the leather supple and pliable;
1871 - Cincinnati
Fire Department used B.F. Goodrich Company's new rubber hose
reinforced with cotton ply.
June 17, 1837 - Charles Goodyear
received first patent for "Improvement in the Process of
Divesting Caothchouc, Gum-Elastic, or Inida Rubber of Its
Adhesive Properties, and also of Bleaching the Same, and thereby
Adapting It to Various Useful Purposes"; resolved to solve
problem of india-rubber's melting in summer heat; devised
process to treat India rubber with metallic solutions such as
copper nitrate and strong acid for a few minutes, followed by
washing with water; process treated rubber on the surface and
below the surface to a useful condition; patent explained method
and use of water paste of quicklime to bleach rubber for which
he listed various new purposes; obtained additional patents to
revise process by using sulphur and oil of turpentine.
March 9, 1844
- Charles Goodyear, of New York, NY received a patent for
"India-Rubber Fabric" ("Corrugated or Shirred India-Rubber
Goods...by the stretching of strips, or threads, of india-rubber
to such extent as may be desired"); received a second patent for
"Improvement in India-Rubber Fabrics";
June 15, 1844
- Charles Goodyear received patent for "An Improvement in
India-Rubber Fabrics" -
treating india rubber so that it would lose its adhesiveness and
susceptibility to extremes of heat and cold;
accidentally dropped a mixture of natural rubber and powdered
sulphur on a hot stove in Woburn, MA; heat completed the
March 17, 1845
- Stephen Perry of London, owner of rubber manufacturing company
Messers Perry and Co., received patent for the rubber band;
first made from vulcanized rubber.
December 10, 1845
- Civil engineer Robert W. Thompson
received a British patent for world's first pneumatic tires
(carriage wheels with inflated tubes of heavy rubber stretched
around their rims); became popular on horse-drawn carriages,
later prevented the first motorcar passengers from being shaken
May 8, 1847
- Robert W. Thomson, of Adelphi, Middlesex, England,
received first U.S. patent for a "Carriage Wheel" ("improvement
in carriage wheels"); rubber tires; application of elastic
bearings around rims of carriage wheels; June 10, 1846
- received British patent.
September 1856 - Henry Lee Norris,
Spencer Thomas Parmelee established Norris & Co. in Edinburgh,
Scotland to manufacture Indian rubber overshoes footwear,
boots based on rubber patent of
Charles Goodyear (had acquired Castle Silk Mills);
September 1857 -
registererd North British Rubber Company as limited liability
company; expanded production to range of rubber products (tyres,
conveyor belts, combs, golf balls, hot water bottle, rubber
flooring); 1870 -
succeeded by William Erskine Bartlett (received a British patent
on October 21, 1890 for beaded edge tires - could hook securely
to wheel's rim to remain firmly attached by compressed air in
tire; patent acquired in 1907 by British Dunlop tyre company);
WW I -
manufactured 1,185,036 pairsch boots to cope with Army's demands
for sturdy boot suitable for conditions in flooded trenches;
WW II - supplied
vast quantities of wellingtons and thigh boots;
1946 - acquiried
Heathhall, extensive factory in Dumfriesshire (built in 1912 to
manufacture car, aeronautical engines);
1958 - introduced Green Hunter and Royal
Hunter wellingtons; 1966 - renamed Uniroyal Limited;
sold golf ball production business; was sold off; tyre factory
at Newbridge near Edinburgh acquired by Continental;
1986 - Uniroyal
acquired by The Gates Rubber Company Limited (Denver, CO); name
changed to The Gates Rubber Company Ltd.;
1996 - Consumer and Industrial Division
of Gates acquired by Tomkins PLC of London;
May 2002 - Hunter
Boot Ltd. became Hunter Division of Interfloor Group Limited
(formed by Rutland Fund Management Limited; Europe’s leading
manufacturer of underlays for carpets, laminated flooring); sold
in 2004 to MBI Fortis Bank NV, GLE Development Capital Ltd;
renamed Hunter Boot Ltd.;
April 2006 - filed
for bankruptcy protection; acquired by consortium led by
Conservative party treasurer Jonathan Marland, Peter Mullen,
shirt maker Thomas Pink, private investor Julian Taylor,
1869 - Dr. Benjamin Franklin Goodrich
with J.P. Morris became largest stockholder in Hudson River
Rubber Company in New York for $5,000.00 under a license
agreement with Charles Goodyear;
1870 - established first rubber company west of
the Allegheny Mountains (Akron, Ohio);
December 31, 1870 - began partnership,
Goodrich, Tew Company; February
19, 1871 - began making such rubber products as
fire hoses, industrial belts and bicycle tires;
March 1871 -
opened Akron Rubber Works with 20 workers;
1880 - B.F. Goodrich (Benjamin F.)
Company incorporated; September
24, 1907 - registered "Goodrich" trademark first
used January 1, 1894 (pneumatic tires made wholly or partly of
rubber or having rubber incorporated therewith);
1961 - company
exited tire industry, focused on aerospace, performance
1872 - Giovanni Battista
Pirelli established Pirelli SpA in Milan.
1888 - John Boyd Dunlop, Harvey Du Cros
established Pneumatic Tyre and Booth's Cycle Agency Ltd in
Dublin, Ireland (Dunlop, Scottish veterinarian, had devised,
fitted rubber air tubes held on to wooden ring in 1887; tacked
linen covering around wheels as major improvement in riding
comfort); December 7, 1888
- received British patent for "An Improvement in Tyres of Wheels
for Bicycles, Tricycles or other Road Cars" (Robert William
Thomson had earlier patent for "carriage wheels" with pneumatic
tire, there was little demand for it in his lifetime, was
forgotten); pneumatic tire (rubber tube filled with air); 1889
- first used Dunlop Rubber Company name for private company
created to serve as manufacturing unit for founder
company; 1890 -
began commercial production; 1893 - name changed to Pneumatic Tyre Company Limited;
1894 - Dunlop joined Tubeless (Fleuss) Pneumatic Tyre Company,
competitor; 1896 -
Dunlop patents acquired by du Cros for £3000; original company name changed to Dunlop
Pneumatic Tyre Company Limited; Byrne Bros., financed by Du
Cros, went public as Rubber Tyre Manufacturing Company
(Birmingham, UK business produced general rubber goods);
acquired by Du Cros; name changed to Dunlop Rubber Company
Limited; 1912 - acquired original company;
1912 - acquired
original company ; 1913 - original
company name changed to Parent Tyre Company Limited;
founder company went into liquidation.
1887 - Colonel Samuel Pomeroy Colt
appointed receiver for bankrupt National Rubber Company of
Bristol, RI; manufactured variety of rubber goods (rubber boots,
shoes); 1888 -
reorganized as National India Rubber Company; acquired
controlling interest in several smaller companies;
consolidated holdings with fledgling U.S. Rubber Company in
Naugatuck, CT; became United States Rubber Company; largest
manufacturer of rubber goods in world;
1896 - one of 12 original industrial
stocks in first Dow Industrial average;
1901 - Colt president (Chairman in
1918); January 2, 1917
- registered "Keds" trademark first used July 14, 1916 (rubber,
leather, and fabric boots and shoes);
1961 - name changed to Uniroyal Inc.;
September 10, 1963
- registered "Uniroyal" trademark first used September 5, 1962
(rubber adhesives); August 1986
- merged with tire division of B.F. Goodrich Company in joint
venture private partnership, became Uniroyal Goodrich Tire
Company (Goodrich held 50% interest);
June 1988 - Goodrich stake acquired for
$225 million. by Clayton & Dubilier, Inc.;
May 1990 - acquired by Michelin Group
for about $1.5 billion.
Samuel Pomeroy Colt -
United States Rubber
June 2, 1891
- John Boyd Dunlop, of Belfast, Ireland received a patent for a
"Tire for Vehicle-Wheels" ("pneumatic or inflated tires for the
wheels of velocipedes and other vehicles").
May 28, 1889 - Andre and Edouard
Michelin began manufacturing rubber bicycle tires (1886 - had
taken over failing family agricultural goods business in small
central French town of Clermont-Ferrand in Auvergne region of
France); September 11, 1891 - Edouard Michelin received a French
patent (received U. S. patent on May 16, 1893) for a
"Pneumatic-Tire" ("comprises two distinct and independent
parts...to permit the rapid removal of the exterior tire for the
purpose of changing or repairing the air chamber in case of its
becoming broken or deteriorated"); detachable tire; 1898 -
introduced 'Michelin Man' (known as Bibendum in rest of world;
by Marius Rossillon O'Gallop, well-known illustrator); 1900
- introduced Michelin Guide as motorist's guide (included
driving distances, locations of gas stations, hotels, spare
parts, repair services).
June 2, 1891 - John Boyd Dunlop, of
Belfast, Ireland received a patent for a "Tire for
Vehicle-Wheels" ("pneumatic or inflated tires for the wheels of
velocipedes and other vehicles").
1892 - Nine rubber companies in
Naugatuck, CT consolidated operations, founded U. S. Rubber
Company; May 26, 1896
- included in twelve industrial manufacturing stocks in Dow
Industrial average created by Charles Dow (until 1930);
1961 - name
changed to Uniroyal Inc.;
September 10, 1963 - registered "Uniroyal"
trademark first used September 5, 1962 (rubber adhesives);
August 1986 -
merged with B.F. Goodrich Company, became Uniroyal Goodrich Tire
Company; June 1988
- Goodrich sold its 50% stake for $225 million to group of
investors led by Clayton & Dubilier, Inc., private equity firm;
May 1990 -
acquired by Michelin Group for $1.5 billion.
June 7, 1892 -
John F. Palmer, of Riverside, IL, received two patents for a
"Pneumatic Tire"; first self-healing bicycle cord tire; tread
portion designed to operate under compression, any puncture
would tend to close rather than open: manufactured by B.F.
20, 1892 - Alexander T. Brown and George F.
Stillman, of Syracuse, New York, received a patent for a
"Pneumatic Tire for Vehicles"; inflatable (pneumatic) automobile
tire; automobile tire that could be easily detached or mounted
to the rim of wheel (no permanent connection between tire and
wheel necessary, no tools for tightening required, other than
those to inflate).
August 29, 1898
- Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. incorporated in Ohio;
November 21, 1898 - Frank
A. Seiberling (38)
and 13 workers began production of bicycle, carriage tires,
horseshoe pads, fire hose, rubber poker chips in converted
strawboard factory in East Akron, OH; first month sales =
1900 - Harvey
Firestone (31) incorporated Firestone Tire & Rubber Company in
Akron, OH; 1902 -
first factory opened with 12 employees;
1906 - sold 2,000 sets of detachable
tires to Henry Ford for first mass-produced automobiles in
America; 1907 -
developed first commercial "demountable rim" (made tire repair,
replacement easier); 1911
- first Indianapolis 500 winner drove on Firestone tires;
March 29, 1921 -
registered "Firestone" trademark first used in 1900 (rubber
tires); 1971 -
developed first steel belted radial tire;
1979 - introduced temporary spare tire;
1988 - acquired by
August 3, 1900
- Inventor and entrepreneur Harvey S. Firestone (31)
incorporated Firestone Tire & Rubber Company in Akron, OH; began
production of carriage tires with only 12 employees; 1908
- Henry Ford chose Firestone tires for the Model T.
June 14,1904 -
Frank A. Seiberling and William C. Stevens. of Akron, OH,
received a patent for a "Machine for Making Outer Castings for
Double-Tube Tires"; tire making machine.
August 23, 1904 -
Harry D. Weed, of Canastota, NY, received a patent for
"Grip-Tread for Pneumatic Tires" ("applicable for use on the
traction-wheels of automobiles to prevent the tire from slipping
on slippery pavements...composed entirely of chains linked
together and applied to the sides and periphery of the tire and
held in place solely by the inflation of the tire"); tire chains
- Trelleborgs Gummifabriks AB is founded. Under the management
of Henry Dunker, rapidly becomes Scandinavia's leading
rubber-production company, with bicycle and car tires,
industrial rubber goods and raincoats as its principal products;
2005 -one of
world's leading groups in polymer technology.
1911 - Charles
Gates, Sr. bought The Colorado Tire and Leather Company in
Denver, CO for $3,500; made single product, Durable Tread,
steel-studded band of leather that motorists fastened to flimsy
car tires to extend mileage; renamed The Gates Rubber Company;
1917 - John Gates
(brother) invented rubber and fabric V-belt; world's largest
manufacturer of V-belts within decade (still is);
1954 - opened
first international manufacturing facility in Brantford, ON,
Canada; grew into one of world's largest manufacturers of
industrial, automotive belts and hoses, host of related
products; only non-tire producing rubber company with sales,
manufacturing operations in all of world's major markets;
1996 - largest
non-tire rubber company in world; acquired by Tomkins plc.
- Gates Rubber (http://www.gates.com/img/brochures/charlesgates.gif)
February 4, 1913 - Louis H.
Perlman, of New York City, received patent for a "Wheel";
demountable tire-carrying rim for cars (similar those used on
today's cars, but wider);
first automobile tire rim designed to be removed and remounted.
April 14, 1914
- Stacy G. Carkhuff (Firestone Rubber Co.) received a
patent for a "Vehicle-Tire"; first U.S. patent for non-skid tire
pattern; abrupt oblique edges of raised portions molded on the
tire provided against skidding in all directions; arranged in
rows diagonally across the tread surface of the tire.
April 5, 1923
- Firestone Tire and Rubber Company began the first regular
production of balloon tires (large-section, thin-walled tires
with a small bead) for commercial use; wider contact area,
more comfortable ride, reduced the danger of high-pressure
steel-wheeled tractor could be replaced with pneumatic tires
with better grip, less vibration, more comfort, lower fuel
consumption; created a new worldwide market in agricultural and
earth-moving tires; 1932 - Firestone low-pressure
balloon tires revolutionized work on farms.
1923 - Goodyear bought rights to manufacture
November 12, 1923 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber
Company announces it has purchased all patents and rights to
manufacture Zeppelin dirigibles.
May 27, 1924 - Thomas A. Edison received
a patent for a "Method of Producing Chlorinated Rubber".
May 12,1925 -
Alden L. Putnam, of Detroit, MI, received a patent for a
"Pneumatic Treaded Vehicle Wheel"; treaded pneumatic tire.
April 10, 1930
- Synthetic rubber first produced.
- Ishibashi Shojiro founded Bridgestone Tire Corporation; name
was transposed English translation of his last name ("Stone
Bridge" transposed better sounding "Bridge Stone"); made company
name and trademark; guaranteed exchange of any defective tire
for new one; one hundred thousand tires had to be recalled
during following three years;
after WW II - operated 46 plants in 23 nations;
1984 - name
changed to Bridgestone Corporation;
March 1988 - acquired 88-year-old
Firestone Tire & Rubber for $2.6 billion.
founder, Bridgestone Tire
1932 - Thomas A. Edison received a patent for
"Production of Molded Articles" ("improved method for molding
such articles as are made of rubber containing material or the
like and to molds or platens used in carrying out such method
and coated to prevent the material of the articles molded from
adhering to the molds when such articles are removed
1932 - Douglas Frank Twiss and Edward Arthur
Murphy, of Birmingham, UK, received a patent for the
"Manufacture of Goods from Aqueous Dispersions of or Containing
Rubber and Similar Resins" ("manufacture of goods of rubber or
similar material by known operations such as dipping, spreading,
coating, moulding, extrusion, chemical deposition or
electrophoretic deposition from emulsions or dispersions of
rubber or similar materials...represent a penultimate stage and
are in a more or less pasty condition containing a relatively
large proportion of water...for the most part lacking in
mechanical strength and easily lose their shape"); foam rubber
(developed in 1929 as frothed natural latex rubber); assigned to
Dunlop Rubber Company Limited;
1934 - ubiquitous - used on motorcycle seats,
London bus seats, Shakespeare Memorial Theatre seats,
1933 - Waldo L. Semon, of Silver Lake Village,
OH, received a patent for a "Synthetic Rubber-Like Composition
and Method of Making Same"; plasticized PVC (polyvinyl chloride
in a rubber-like form); vinyl - for use as water-proof boots or
shoes, insulating coatings, resilient flooring material.
June 4, 1940
- Synthetic rubber tire unveiled.
December 27, 1941
- U.S. government began to ration rubber, due to shortages
caused by World War II; tires were first items restricted by
1947 - B.F. Goodrich Co. announced the development of a
- Park Incheon founded Samyang Tire Co., Ltd. in Yang-dong,
Kwangju City, Korea; January 1961
- produced first tire, averaged 20 per day;
April 1963 -
manufactured first compact passenger car tire in Korea;
June 1964 -
developed tube; January 1969
- developed snow tire; 1976
- became leader in tire sector, listed on Korea Stock Exchange;
December 1976 -
produced one million tires in year (record in Korea);
April 1978 -
developed Korea's first TB radial tire;
July 1983 - total output exceeded 30
million tires; September 1984
- Kumho Corporation merged with Kumho Tire;
July 21, 1987 -
Kumho & Co., Inc. registered "Kumho" trademark first used
October 28, 1986 (automotive vehicle tires and inner tubes);
December 1990 -
total output exceeded 100 million tires;
August 1992 - ranked among top 10 in
world tire market; March 1996
- name changed to Kumho Tire Co., Ltd.;
2003 - ranked 9th in world tire
August 9, 2000
- Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. announced it was recalling 6.5
million tires that had been implicated in hundreds of accidents
and at least 46 deaths.
(Canadian Tire), Ian Brown (1989).
Freewheeling: The Feuds, Broods, and Outrageous Fortunes of the
Billes Family and Canada's Favorite Company. (Toronto,
ON: Harper & Collins, 339 p.). Canadian Tire
Corporation--History; Billes family.
(Canadian Tire), Rod McQueen (2001). Can't
Buy Me Love: How Martha Billes Made Canadian Tire Hers.
(Toronto, ON: Stoddart, 282 p.). Martha Billes; Canadian Tire
(Continental AG - established 1871), Paul
Erker; Trans. Frederick S. Gardiner (1996).
Competition and Growth: A Contemporary History of the
Continental AG. (Dusseldorf, GER: ECON, 320 p.). Free
University (Berlin). Continental AG--History; Rubber industry
(Firestone), Harvey S. Firestone in
collaboration with Samuel Crowther (1926).
Men and Rubber; the Story of Business. (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 279 p.). Firestone Tire and Rubber Company.
(Firestone), Harvey S. Firestone, Jr. (1932).
The Romance and Drama of the Rubber Industry. (Akron,
OH: The Company, 127 p.). Firestone Tire and Rubber Company;
Rubber industry and trade -- History; Tires, Rubber.
(Firestone), Alfred Lief (1951). The
Firestone Story, A History of the Firestone Tire & Rubber
Company. (New York, NY: Whittlesey House, 437 p.).
Firestone, Harvey Samuel, 1868-1938; Firestone Tire and Rubber
(Firestone), Alfred Lief with a foreword by
Allen Nevins (1951).
Harvey Firestone: Free Man of Enterprise. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 324 p.). Firestone, Harvey Samuel, 1868-1938;
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company; Industrialists--United
(Firestone), Wayne Chatfield Taylor (1956).
The Firestone Operations in Liberia. (Washington, DC:
National Planning Association, 115 p.). Firestone Plantations
Company; Rubber industry and trade -- Liberia; Liberia --
(Firestone), Paul Dickson and William Hickman
Firestone: A Legend, a Century, a Celebration, 1900-2000.
(New York, NY: Forbes Custom Publishing. Firestone, Harvey
Samuel, 1868-1938; Firestone Tire and Rubber Company--History;
Industrialists--United States--Biography; Tire industry--United
States--History; Rubber industry and trade--United
(General Tire), Dennis J. O'Neill (1966).
A Whale of a Territory; The Story of Bill O'Neil. (New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 249 p.). O'Neil, William Francis; General
Tire & Rubber Co.
(Goodrich - origins to 1870), Mansel G.
Blackford, K. Austin Kerr (1996).
B.F. Goodrich: Tradition and Transformation, 1870-1995.
(Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 507 p.). B.F.
Goodrich Company--History; Rubber industry and trade--United
States--History; Tire industry--United States--History.
(Goodyear), Rev. Bradford K. Peirce (1866).
Trials of an Inventor: Life and Discoveries of Charles Goodyear.
(New York, NY: Carlton & Porter, 224 p.). Goodyear, Charles,
Seiberling - Founder of
(Goodyear), Norman Beasley (1931). Men
Working; A Story of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. (New
York, NY: Harper & Brothers, 296 p.). Goodyear Tire and Rubber
(Goodyear), Ralph F. Wolf (1939).
India Rubber Man; The Story of Charles Goodyear.
(Caldwell, ID: The Caxton printers, ltd., 291 p.). Goodyear,
(Goodyear), Adolph C. Regli (1941).
Rubber's Goodyear; The Story of Man's Perseverance. (New
York, NY: J. Messner, 248 p.). Goodyear, Charles, 1800-1860;
Rubber industry and trade--United States.
(Goodyear), Hugh Allen (1949).
The House of Goodyear; Fifty Years of Men and Industry.
(Cleveland, OH: Corday & Gross, 691 p.). Goodyear Tire and
Rubber Company; Tires, Rubber; Rubber industry and trade.
(Goodyear), Paul W. Litchfield (1954).
Industrial Voyage; My Life as an Industrial Lieutenant.
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 347 p.). Goodyear Tire and Rubber
(Goodyear), Hugh Allen (1976).
The House of Goodyear: A Story of Rubber and of Modern Business.
(New York, NY: Arno Press, 417 p. (Reprint of 1943 ed.)).
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company; Tires, Rubber; Rubber industry
(Goodyear), Maurice O'Reilly; edited by James
T. Keating (1983).
The Goodyear Story. (Elmsford, NY: Benjamin Co., 223
p.). Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company; Tire industry--United
States--History; Rubber industry and trade--United
(Goodyear), Bryan D. Palmer (1994).
Goodyear Invades the Backcountry: The Corporate Takeover of a
Rural Town. (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 180
p.). Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company; Tire industry -- Ontario
-- Napanee; Rubber industry and trade -- Ontario -- Napanee.
(Goodyear), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (1997).
The Legend of Goodyear: The First 100 Years. (Ft.
Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, 251 p.). Goodyear Tire
and Rubber Company--History; Tire industry--United
States--History; Rubber industry and trade--United
(Goodyear), Richard Korman (2002).
The Goodyear Story: An Inventor's Obsession and the Struggle for
a Rubber Monopoly. (San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books,
230 p.). Goodyear, Charles, 1800-1860; Goodyear Tire and Rubber
(Goodyear), Charles Slack (2002).
Noble Obsession: Charles Goodyear, Thomas Hancock, and the Race
To Unlock the Greatest Industrial Secret of the Nineteenth
Century. (New York, NY: Hyperion, p.). Goodyear,
Charles, 1800-1860; Hancock, Thomas; Goodyear Tire and Rubber
Rubber Company- Documentary), Roger Hagopian (2009).
Destination Watertown: The
Armenians of Hood Rubber.
(Watertown, MA, Roger Hagopian, 60 min.). Rug and upholstery
Cleaner, Arts and Crafts Vendor, Freelance Videographer. Rubber
industry--history--Massachusetts; Hood Rubber Company;
Watertown, MA--history. Factory and people
who worked there from 1890s to 1920s; 1896 - Arthur and
Frederic Hood founded chemical research lab; moved
on to production of shoes, boots, tires; 1920 - produced
one-fifth of United State’s footware; 1929 - acquired by B.F.
Goodrich; 1969 - closed; interviews with former company
employees and Hood family descendants; focuses on working
conditions; end of 1920s - approximately 3,500 Armenians (10% of
population) living in Watertown, MA; more than 500 worked at
Hood Rubber. Available at firstname.lastname@example.org.
(Michelin), Alain Jemain; préface de Bernard
Michelin: Un Siècle de Secrets. (Paris, FR:
Calmann-Lévy, 261 p.). Pneu Michelin (Firm)--History; Tire
Andre, Edourd Michelin
(Michelin), Stephen L. Harp (2001).
Marketing Michelin: Advertising and Cultural Identity in
Twentieth-Century France. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 368 p.). Associate Professor of History
(University of Akron). Pneu Michelin (Firm)--History;
(Michelin), Herbert Lottman (2003).
The Michelin Men: Driving an Empire. (New York, NY: I.
B. Tauris, 310 p.). Pneu Michelin (Firm)--History; Tire
(Peruvian Amazon Company), Ovidio Lagos
Arana, rey del Caucho: Terror y Atrocidades en el Alto Amazonas.
(Buenos Aires, Argentina: Emecé Editores, 397 p.). Arana, Julio
César; Peruvian Amazon Company -- History; Businesspeople --
Peru -- Biography; Rubber industry and trade -- Amazon River
Region -- History; Indians of South America -- Crimes against --
Amazon River Region -- History.
(Pirelli), Francesca Polese (2004). Alla
Ricerca di un’Industria Nuova: Il Viaggio all’Estero del Giovane
Pirelli e le Origini di Una Grande Impresa, 1870-1877.
(Venezia, IT: Marsilio, 210 p.). Pirelli, Giovanni Battista,
1848-1932 --Travel--Europe; Pirelli, societa` per
azioni--History; Rubber industry and trade--Italy--History;
Europe--Description and travel. Origins of first Italian
rubber manufacturing company.
(United States Rubber Company), Glenn D.
History of the United States Rubber Company; A Case Study in
Corporation Management. (Bloomington, IN: Bureau of
Business Research, Graduate School of Business, Indiana
University, 477 p.). United States Rubber Company.
- U. S. Rubber
(United States Rubber Company) (2008).
Irish Titan, Irish Toilers: Joseph Banigan and
Nineteenth-Century New England Labor. (Hanover, NH:
University Press of New England, 288 p.). Professor at the Labor
Research Center (University of Rhode Island). Banigan, Joseph;
United States Rubber Company -- history; Irish -- United States
-- history. 1847 - Joseph
Banigan, Irish Potato Famine refugee, established himself in
Rhode Island as entrepreneur in emerging local rubber footwear
industry, became president of United States Rubber Company, one
of nation’s major cartels, New England’s first Irish-Catholic
millionaire; Irish-American experience during critical period.
Hugh Allen; with a foreword by Lloyd C.
Rubber's Home Town, The Real-Life Story of Akron. (New
York, NY: Stratford House, 265 p.). Akron (Ohio)--History.
Janet Bloor, John D. Sinclair (2004).
Rubber: Fun, Fashion, Fetish. (New York, NY: Thames &
Hudson, 112 p.). Head of Euroco Costumes Ltd. (costume/fabric
effects - silicone rubber textiles for Broadway and film);
Screenwriter/Filmmaker. Rubber--history; Arts & Photography;
Design; Textile & Costume.
John H. Drabble (1973). Rubber in Malaysia,
1876-1922; The Genesis of the Industry. (New York, NY:
Oxford University Press, 256 p.). Honorary Research Associate
(University of Sydney). Rubber industry and trade -- Malaysia --
Malaya -- History.
Michael J. French (1990).
The U.S. Tire Industry: A History. (Boston, MA: Twayne
Publishers, 156 p.). Tire industry--United States--History.
Vernon Herbert and Attilio Bisio (1985).
Synthetic Rubber: A Project That Had To Succeed.
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 243 p.). Rubber, Artificial --
History; Rubber industry and trade -- United States -- History.
Joe Jackson (2008).
The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power and the Seeds
of Empire. (New York, NY: Viking, 432 p.). Rubber
industry and trade--Amazon River Region--History. Reckless
courage and ambition.
1876 - Henry Wickham smuggled 70,000 rubber tree seeds (Hevea
brasiliensis tree) out of rainforests of Brazil, delivered them
to Victorian England’s most prestigious scientists at Kew Royal
Botanic Gardens; seeds planted around world in England’s
colonial outposts; gave rise to great rubber boom of early
twentieth century; changed world economy, bankrupted
Brazil, made UK a world power again, pave way for America's
John Loadman (2005).
Tears of the Tree: The Story of Rubber - A Modern Marvel.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 336 p.). Retired Head of
the Materials Characterization Group (Natural Rubber Producers'
Research Association). Rubber --History; Rubber industry and
trade --History. Four thousand years of rubber: from
significance in Mayan religious rituals, culture to pivotal role
in today's world (seen through lives of adventurers and
scientists who promoted it, lusted after it, tamed it into
ubiquitous, crucial material); lives of those who caused deaths
of millions of natives in Africa, South America while seeking to
satisfy developing world's demand for material; why rubber ages,
deteriorates and how ravages of time may be ameliorated; current
concern for environment, various options for 'waste disposal'.
John Loadman and Francis James (2009).
The Hancocks of Marlborough: Rubber, Art and the Industrial
Revolution: A Family of Inventive Genius. (New York,
NY: Oxford University Press, 274 p.).
Retired Head of the Materials
Characterization Group (Natural Rubber Producers' Research
Hancock, Thomas; Hancock family --England --Marlborough;
Inventors --England --Marlborough --Biography; Rubber industry
--Great Britain --History; Industrial revolution --Great Britain
--History. Hancock family from Great Fire of Marlborough in 1653
to present day; six brothers made tremendous contribution to
19th-century science, art: 1) Walter designed, ran first steam
carriages to carry passengers on common roads of England - began
age of mechanized transport; 2) Thomas founded UK rubber
industry - discovered how to vulcanize rubber reliably; 3)
Charles- well established painter, instrumental in manufacture
of gutta percha-coated undersea cables used by electric
telegraph to begin global information highway; 4) John, James,
William made significant contributions to development of
Victorian science, culture.
Steve Love and David Giffels (1999).
Wheels of Fortune: The Story of Rubber in Akron. (Akron,
OH: University of Akron Press, 359 p.). Goodyear Tire and Rubber
Company--History; B.F. Goodrich Company--History; Firestone Tire
and Rubber Company--History; General Tire & Rubber Co.--History;
Rubber industry and trade--Ohio--Akron--History; Tire
D. J. M. Tate (1996).
The RGA History of the Plantation Industry in the Malay
Peninsula. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 647
p.). Plantations--Malay Peninsula--History; Industries--Malay
Peninsula--History; Rubber industry and trade--Malay
Peninsula--History; Malay Peninsula--History; Malay
Peninsula--Colonial influence. Commissioned by The Rubber
Growers' Association (Malaysia) Berhad.
John Tully (2011).
The Devil’s Milk: A Social History of Rubber. (New
York, NY: Monthly Review Press 416 p.). Lecturer in Politics and
International Studies (Victoria University, Melbourne
Australia). Rubber industry and trade. History of modern world
told through multiple lives of rubber: all advancements made
possible by rubber have occurred against backdrop of seemingly
endless exploitation, conquest, slavery, war (industrial
machinery, telegraph technology, medical equipment, countless
consumer goods); rubber production has always been site of
struggle, oppressed who toil closest to “the devil's milk” in
all its forms have never accepted their immiseration without
Barbara Weinstein (1983).
The Amazon Rubber Boom, 1850-1920. (Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press, 356 p.). Rubber industry and
Charles M. Wilson (1943). Trees & Test
Tubes; The Story of Rubber. (New York, NY: Holt, 352 p.).
Howard and Ralph Wolf (1936). Rubber; A
Story of Glory and Greed. (New York, NY: Covici, Friede, 533
p.). India-rubber industry--History; India-rubber.
William Woodruff (1958).
The Rise of the British Rubber Industry During the Nineteenth
Century. (Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press,
246 p.). Historian and Emeritus Graduate Research Professor
(University of Florida). Rubber industry and trade -- Great Britain -- History.
Business History Links
The International Rubber Market,
Essay about natural rubber extraction and commercialization
during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Initially "the
best source of latex, the milky fluid from which natural rubber
products were made, was hevea brasiliensis, which grew
predominantly in the Brazilian Amazon (but also in the Amazonian
regions of Bolivia and Peru)." Later, Southeast Asian
plantations developed a low-cost alternative to South American
production methods. Includes graphs. By two history professors.
Tire Industry Hall of Fame
United States Synthetic Rubber Program,
Illustrated essay about the origins of synthetic rubber, which
was developed by a consortium of companies after Southeast Asia
cut off the U.S. supply of natural rubber at the beginning of
World War II. Includes a bibliography. Part of the American
Chemical Society National Historic Chemical Landmarks website.