June 26, 1498
- Chinese credited with inventing toothbrush.
September 23, 1518
- The Royal College of Physicians established to protect
citizens from medical charlatans and quacks.
April 1, 1578
- William Harvey of England discovered blood circulation.
1750 - Sir John
Pringle, military surgeon, formerly professor of moral
philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, coined term
'antiseptic' (had investigated preservative properties of
various salts [antiseptics] on beef, other substances to
disinfect wounds; found suspension of bleaching powder,
'chloride of lime', most effective).
May 11, 1751
governor of Pennsylvania approved charter of
The Pennsylvania Hospital, first in America, to include treatment of people with mental
illness; February 11, 1752 - opened in
Philadelphia through indefatigable efforts of Benjamin
Franklin (involved in drafting petition for its
establishment, fund-raising); December 17, 1756
- Pine Street Hospital opened, accepted mentally ill,
general medical patients.
June 10, 1760
- New York passed first effective law regulating practice of
September 26, 1772
- Soon-to-be state of New Jersey passed first law in U.S. to
license medical practitioners who charged for their service
(except bleeding patients or pulling teeth); no federal medical
January 14, 1794
- Elizabeth Hog Bennett became first woman in U.S. to
successfully give birth to child by Cesarean section. Her
husband, Dr. Jesse Bennett of Edom, VA, performed operation
1785 - Benjamin Franklin announced invention of
bifocals; incorporated two part lens for each eye, each with different focusing power; limited acceptance
spectacles in colonies cost as much as $100 per pair.
1796 - Samuel Lee, Jr., of Connecticut, received
a patent for a "Composition of Bilious Pills"; first U.S. patent
for pill of any kind; marketed as "Lee's Windham Pills" and
"Lee's New London Bilious Pills".
25, 1811 - Massachusetts Legislature granted
charter to "Massachusetts General Hospital Corporation";
established division for "Asylum for the Insane";
October 1, 1818 -
Asylum opened (first in New England, fourth special institution
for treatment of mentally ill in America);
June 1826 - renamed "The McLean Asylum
for the Insane" (in honor of John McLean, Boston merchant who
bequeathed $25,000, left residuary legacy of more than $90,000
- Rhode Island Medical Society founded; 8th oldest organization
of its kind in nation.
August 12, 1812 - Dr. Joseph Lister introduced
phenol (carbolic acid) as form of disinfectant into surgery
(first surgeon to do so); higher standards of hygiene reduced
surgical death rate from 45% to 15%; first medical person raised
- Louis J. Dufilho, Jr. passed Louisiana state pharmacy
licensing examination (Governor William Charles Cole Claiborne
had established board of reputable pharmacists in 1804,
physicians to administer three-hour oral examination given at
Cabildo in Jackson Square); 1823
- opened for business at 514/516 Chartres Street, New Orleans,
LA; first pharmacy in United States conducted on basis of proven
Louis J. Dufilho,
Jr. - first licensed pharmacist
1820 - The New York Eye Infirmary, first U.S.
eye hospital, opened in New York City;
March 22, 1822 - incorporated;
1864 - name
changed to The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary.
March 9, 1822 -
Charles M. Graham, of New York City, received a patent for
"Artificial Teeth"; (not the first false teeth in use); George
Washington had at least four sets of false teeth (none wooden);
Washington's first dentures were made using human teeth inserted
into carved ivory; dentist John Greenwood, of New York, had made
Washington another set from gold in 1789, hippo teeth, and hippo
and elephant ivory; one natural remaining tooth was a molar
(hole was left for that).
1832 - Local
physicians, including obstetrician Walter Channing (Harvard's
first professor of obstetrics in 1815) founded Boston Lying-In
Hospital, one of nation’s first maternity hospitals; opened
doors to women unable to afford in-home medical care; 1847
- anesthesia administered in childbirth for first time;
1875 - Free Hospital for Women founded "for poor women
affected with diseases peculiar to their sex or in need of
surgical aid"; each of five beds sponsored by different
charitable group; 1911 - Peter Bent Brigham
Hospital established "for the care of sick persons in indigent
circumstances" with bequest from restaurateur and real estate
baron Peter Bent Brigham; 1914 - Robert Breck
Brigham Hospital, founded with bequest from Peter Bent Brigham’s
nephew, opened to serve patients with arthritis, other
debilitating joint diseases; 1966 - Boston Hospital for Women
established through merger of Boston Lying-In Hospital and Free
Hospital for Women; 1974 - Boston Hospital for
Women, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Robert Breck Brigham
Hospital affiliated; 1980 - Brigham and Women’s
Hospital opened; 1986 to 1990 - acknowledged as
having received more citations in scientific papers than any
other hospital in world; 1994 - joined
Massachusetts General Hospital, formed Partners HealthCare
1833 - John
McKesson, Charles Olcott founded Olcott & McKesson in New York
City; focused on import, wholesaling of therapeutic drugs and
chemicals; 1853 -
renamed McKesson & Robbins (Olcott died, Daniel Robbins made
partner); distributed products via covered wagons in 17 states
and territories, from Vermont to California;
early 1900s -
leading distributor of drug products in United States;
1926 - acquired by
Frank D. Coster of Adelphi Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company,
manufacturer of high alcohol-content products such as hair
tonic, cosmetics (real name Philip Musica, twice-convicted
criminal); 1938 -
true identity revealed; company treasurer became suspicious of
large payments to one customer; ordered Dun & Bradstreet credit
reports on customer - customer fictitious;
1938 - SEC opened investigation into
company's accounting, New York Stock Exchange suspended trading
of company's shares; investigation revealed Coster had embezzled
$3 million, inflated company's assets by more than 20%
fictitious (inventories, accounts receivable);
1940s - returned
to private ownership; 1967
- merged with Foremost Dairies (San Francisco) after hostile
takeover; formed Foremost-McKesson Inc.; became largest U.S.
distributor of drugs, alcoholic beverages and chemicals; largest
supplier of whey by-products; largest producer of processed
water; leader in fresh dairy products field; multiregional
distributor of hospital and laboratory supplies and equipment;
1976 - corporate
raider, Victor Posner, acquired 10% of company's stock in start
of takeover attempt; McKesson management initiated negative
public relations campaign to publicize Posner's overstating of
his company's 1975 earnings; April
1976 - bid dropped; McKesson stockholders
approved charter change, prohibited any "unsuitable" party (any
business that might jeopardize company's liquor, drug licenses)
from acquiring over 10% of company's common stock;
May 4, 1981 -
acquired Sharon Steel stock in Foremost-McKesson in targeted
repurchase ('greenmail') for $65.1 million;
1990s - focused on
healthcare, divested unrelated businesses;
2006 - 16th on FORTUNE 500 list, more
than $80 billion in annual revenue; nation's largest healthcare
McKesson, Charles Olcott
- Mckesson Corporation
March 30, 1842
- Dr. Crawford W. Long of Georgia
first to use ether as anesthetic during operation.
December 11, 1844
- Dr. John M. Riggs used nitrous oxide
("laughing gas") for tooth extraction on Dr. Horace Wells, at Wells's request, to test potential of nitrous oxide as
1845 - William H. Shecut,
H. Day, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Improvement
in Adhesive Plasters" ("new and improved method of preparing
adhesive and strengthening plasters of india-rubber and other
materials for medicinal purposes"); rubber dissolved in solvent
then spread on fabric.
1845 - J. Marion Sims began experiments to use
fine silver wire drawn by jeweler for sutures for vaginal tears;
June 21, 1849 -
successfully performed vesico-vaginal fistula operation in
Montgomery, AL; suture removed on eight day after operation;
known as "Father of Modern American Gynecology" for development
of techniques and instruments.
1846 - Theron T. Pond, pharmacist from
Utica, NY, introduced 'Pond's Golden Treasure', a witch-hazel
based 'wonder product' for use as topical salve for wounds,
purported remedy for numerous other ailments;
1849 - Pond,
several partners formed T. T. Pond Company;
1886 - re-launched
as 'Pond's Extract'; 1905
- introduced as Pond's Cold Cream;
1914 - incorporated as Pond's Extract
Company; 1955 -
merged with Chesebrough Manufacturing Company.
October 16, 1846
- Dr. William Thomas Green Morton,
dentist, publicly administered ether anesthetic during operation
performed by Dr. John Collins Warren at Massachusetts
General Hospital in Boston; Gilbert Abbott, printer who had
come to MGH for treatment of vascular tumor on his jaw,
inhaled from blown glass flask containingether-soaked
sponge; unconscious after few minutes; Warren removed tumor; Abbott experienced no
November 4, 1846 -
Benjamin F. Palmer, of Meredith, NH, received a patent for an
"Artificial Leg" (pliable joint that worked noiselessly,
preserved its contour in all positions);
1837 - Howland & Co of Brookfield, MA
exhibited an artificial leg at the Massachusetts Charitable
- James Smith, of Poughkeepsie, NY, received formula for
effective cough candy from journeyman in exchange for a meal;
quick success, demand for "cough candy" grew throughout Hudson
River valley; 1852
- advertised James Smith & Sons Compound of Wild Cherry Cough
Candy for Cure of Coughs, Colds, Hoarseness, Sore Throats,
Whooping Cough, Asthma, etc., etc."; cooked by hand in
five-pound batches in furnace in basement of Smith
"Confectionery and Dining Saloon" in Poughkeepsie, NY;
1866 - William,
Andrew Smith (sons) took over; shifted emphasis to medicated
candy; 1872 -
began selling Smith Brothers Cough Drops in prepackaged boxes
("factory-filled" packages vs. loose in glass jars);
April 3, 1906
- William W. Smith registered "Smith Brothers" trademark first
used on January 1, 1877 (cough-drops);
1919 - incorporated as Smith Brothers,
Inc.; February 1964 - acquired from fourth Smith generation by
- acquired by F&F Foods, Inc.
Dr. Nathan Davis
(30) founded The American Medical Association at Academy of
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia for scientific advancement,
standards for medical education, medical ethics, improved public health.
Davis - founded AMA
November 12, 1847
- Sir James Young Simpson, father of modern anesthetics,
employed chloroform ("perchloride of formyle") for first
time as anesthetic in operation; persistent advocacy of its use
led to acceptance.
August 15, 1848
- M. Waldo Hanchett, of Syracuse, NY, received a patent for a
"Surgical Chair" ("a more simple, durable and convenient mode
than has heretofore been used adjusting the positions of chairs
for convenience in dental and surgical operations"; dental
December 6, 1850
- Hermann von Helmholtz invented ophthalmoscope (could look
through one side of glass plate while light
reflected into subject's eye from other); revolutionized
ophthalmology, enabled view inside person’s eye to see details
of living retina, diagnose eye diseases, prevent blindness;
November 3, 1853
- John Jacob Bausch, German immigrant, set up optical goods shop
in Rochester, NY; sold spectacles,
thermometers, field glasses, telescopes, magnifiers, opera
glasses, microscopes, hours glasses, products imported from
Germany; 1854 - borrowed $60 from good friend,
Henry Lomb, cabinet maker; promised that if business grew big
enough that he needed a partner, Lomb would be made full
partner; 1855 - Lomb became active partner;
June 1, 1866 - Bausch & Lomb dissolved, renamed
"Vulcanite Optical Instrument Company"; granted exclusive
contract by The India Rubber Comb Company to
manufacture optical instruments using Vulcanite; August
11, 1876 - renamed Bausch & Lomb Optical Company;
May 15, 1888 - Edward Bausch received a patent for a
"Diaphragm and shutter for Photographic and other Lenses";
March 20, 1908 - incorporated in state of New York;
1966 - Sales topped $100 million for first time;
March 18, 1971 - FDA granted approval to market
soft contact lenses.
Jacob Bausch, Henry Lomb
- Bausch & Lomb
1855 - Robert
von Bunsen, German
chemist, physicist, invented Bunsen burner;
Peter Desaga, University of Heidelberg mechanic, designed, built burner according to Bunsen's specifications; Carl Desaga (son) founded C. Desaga, Factory for Scientific
Apparatus, to manufacture burner; gave colorless flame by mixing
air with gas at bottom of chimney; almost colorless flame
allowed Bunsen, others to measure frequencies of spectral lines,
useful in identifying elements from light they emit or absorb.
November 17, 1857
- H. Nichols Wadsworth, of Washington, DC, received a patent for
a "Tooth-Brush" ("...separating the bunches of bristles more
than the common brush, so as to give more elasticity and enable
them to enter between the interstices of the teeth-having the
brush wide that it may be imperative on the part of the patient
to brush the gums thoroughly..."); first toothbrush patent in
1859 - Robert
Augustus Chesebrough (22) English-born chemist from New York, observed rod wax, pasty residue stuck to
oil drillers' rods, clogged their pumps in oil fields of
Titusville, PA; healed workers' burns, cuts; 1870
- branded product as Vaseline Petroleum Jelly (supposedly combination of German Wasser "water" + Greek elaion
"oil" + scientific-sounded ending -ine); began
manufacturing in Brooklyn, NY after years of experimenting to
extract, purify "petroleum jelly"; June 4, 1872
- received patent for "Improvement in Products from
Petroleum"; 1875 - organized Chesebrough
Manufacturing Company; 1880 -
incorporated; 1881 - focused solely on
manufacturing of Vaseline;
1905 - registered "Vaseline' trademark first
used in 1870 (emollient and medicinal preparation for external
and internal use); 1955 - merged with Pond's
Extract Co.; 1987 - acquired by Unilever.
Chesebrough - Vaseline
February 10, 1863
- Du Bois D. Parmelee, of New York, NY, received a patent for an
"Improvement in Artificial Legs"; used custom-moulded suction
cup to receive the stump.
April 13, 1863
- Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled in New York is first
- Dr. William Worrall Mayo (44) bought property in Rochester,
MN; 1883 - Dr. William J. Mayo returned to
Rochester to join his father, Dr. William Worrall Mayo, in
successful practice; 1888 - Dr. Charles H. Mayo
returned home to join his father and older brother in the
growing Mayo family practice; September 30, 1889 -
Saint Mary's Hospital opened in Rochester, MN; 1892
- partnership era of the Mayo practice began as Dr. Augustus
Stinchfield, a prominent area physician, became the first of a
series of partners to join the Doctors Mayo group; 1914
- partnership name remained until establishment of Mayo's
educational program and foundation made the name "Mayo Clinic"
correct; 1919 - Dr. Charles H. Mayo and Dr.
William J. Mayo dissolved their partnership, turned over
clinic's name and assets, including the bulk of their life
savings, to a private, not-for-profit, charitable foundation;
transformed the private medical practice they had created into
an independent, not-for-profit organization.
September 28, 1865
- Elizabeth Anderson became first female licensed physician in
Britain; had studied medicine privately after being refused
admission to medical schools; 1888
- became general medical attendant to St. Mary's Dispensary,
London, later known as New Hospital, where she instituted
medical courses for women; 1918
- New Hospital renamed Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital.
May 12, 1868
- Dr. Samuel Pitcher, family doctor from Barnstable, MA,
received a patent for "Improved Medicine" ("...to be employed as
a cathartic, or substitute for castor-oil, in the treatment of
disease...ingredients of the composition are senna-leaves,
bicarbonate of soda, extract of teraxicum, essence of
wintergreen, and sugar"); named Pitcher's Castoria; 1869
- rights acquired by Charles H. Fletcher; 1871 -
partnered with Joseph B. Rose (J. B. Rose & Co., maker of
Centaur Liniment for people and for animals); 1872
- backed by Demas Barnes; Rose, Charles H. Fletcher as
principals to manufacture Pitcher's Castoria; 1877
- Rose left, company renamed The Centaur Company; Charles H.
Fletcher, Demas S. Barnes as principals; 1888 -
Fletcher assumed control; November 14, 1905 - The
Centaur Company registered "Chas. H. Fletcher" trademark first
used June 16, 1890 (medicinal preparation for assimilating the
food and regulating the stomachs and bowels of infants and
children); 1923 - 25% interest in Centaur acquired
by Sterling Drug for $3.5 million; eventually acquired in full
by household Products Inc. division; 1984 -
Fletcher's Castoria acquired by Mentholatum Co., Inc.;
April 7, 1987 - The Mentholatum Company registered
"Castoria" trademark first used December 31, 1878 (natural
vegetable laxative specially made for children); 1988
- Mentholatum acquired by Rohto Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd of Osaka
Charles H. Fletcher
1869 - Dr. Charles
Browne Fleet opened small, family owned pharmacy in Lynchburg,
VA to provide people with easy-to-use, innovative personal
health, beauty care products; developed medicines, balms,
salves; January 1, 1890
- invented non-medicated, petroleum-based lip balm to combat
dry, cracked lips, called ChapStick;
1893 - invented first laxative to
improve bowel health; 1912
- sold rights to lip balm to John Morton for $5 (established
Morton Manufacturing Corporation to market ChapStick; sold
rights to A. H. Robbins Company in 1963);
July 17, 1934 - C. B. Fleet Company,
Incorporated registered "Fleet" trademark first used in 1893
(concentrated solution of sodium phosphate used as a laxative,
purgative, [and hepatic stimulant] and for the treatment of
constipation, gastro-intestinal disturbances);
1953 - introduced
disposable, small-volume enema for greater convenience, ease of
use; 1972 -
introduced disposable douche for women's health needs;
1983 - acquired
Norforms feminine deodorant suppositories;
1990 - acquired E.C. DeWitt to continue
growth in European market; 1992
- acquired Witch skin care products, further increased reach in
European market; 1994
- acquired Bergamon, European maker of feminine hygiene, skin
care lines; 1996 -
acquired Casen, distributor of health, beauty products
throughout Spain; August 17, 2004
- Wyeth Corporation registered "Chap Stick" trademark first used
January 1, 1890 (non-medicated skin protectant and moisturizer,
namely lip balm); 2005
- acquired Swedish pharmaceutical company, CCS, leading supplier
of pharmaceutical, personal care products in Swedish market;
2006 - sold
Bergamon; 2009 -
leads personal healthcare industry, ranks among top
non-prescription drug companies in United States.
Dr. Charles Browne
Fleet - Fleet Enema
November 8, 1895 -
German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen observed X-rays in his
Wurzburg, Germany, lab; was testing whether cathode rays could
pass through glass, noticed glow coming from nearby chemically
coated screen; named rays that caused this glow X-rays because
of their unknown nature = electromagnetic energy waves that act
similarly to light rays, but at wavelengths approximately 1,000
times shorter than those of light; became important diagnostic
tool in medicine, allowed doctors to see inside the human body
for the first time without surgery;
1897 - X-rays first used on a military
battlefield, during the Balkan War, to find bullets and broken
bones inside patients; 1901
- received first Nobel Prize in physics.
February 16, 1866
- New York Legislature formed New York City Metropolitan Board
March 28, 1866
- First hospital ambulance went into service.
April 1, 1867 - Using antiseptic
methods he introduced, Scottish physician Dr. Joseph Lister
completed series of 11 compound fractures; forever changed
17, 1867 - became first surgeon to perform surgery under
May 9, 1869 -
New York State Legislature granted charter to found voluntary,
non-profit Eye and Ear; October 15, 1869 -
Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital opened; 2000
- merged with Lenox Hill Hospital.
June 4, 1872
- Robert A. Chesebrough. of New York, NY, received a patent for
"Improvement in Products from Petroleum"; process for making
vaseline; made from residue of petroleum distillation left in
still after oil has vaporized; patent claimed its uses include
currying, stuffing, oiling all kinds of leather; also adapted to
use as pomade for hair, substance for glycerine cream for
November 4, 1873 -
Dr. John B. Beers, of San Francisco, CA, received first U.S.
patent for "Artificial Crowns for Teeth"; replaced old method of
restoring decayed or broken teeth by condensing gold on it with
a hammer until it had taken the desired shape; hollow metal
crown slipped over projecting portion of old tooth, secured so
that it would continue to function for chewing, while preventing
further decay; gold screw mounted in old tooth, hollow crown
slipped over it, cemented with oxychloride of zinc.
February 24, 1874
- Asahel M. Shurtleff, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an
"Improvement in Thread-Holders" ("Improved Pocket Thread Carrier
and Cutter...for removing foreign matters lodged between the
teeth"); dental floss.
22, 1874 - Dr. Andrew Taylor Still (Macon, MO)
began first practice of osteopathy.
November 24, 1874
- Stephen S. Southworth, of Niagra Falls, NY, received a patent
for "Improvement in Dental Amalgams".
January 26, 1875 -
George F. Green, dentist from Kalamazoo, MI, received a patent
for an "Electro-Magnetic Dental Tool"; electric dental drill for
sawing, filing, dressing and polishing teeth.
November 16, 1875
- William G.A. Bonwill, of Philadelphia, PA received first U.S.
patent for an "Electro-Magnetic Dental-Plugger"; dental mallet
(tooth-filling device); used to drive gold into tooth cavity.
1879 - William H.
Luden began making moshie, clear, hard candy, in his widowed
mother's kitchen, behind jewelry shop in Reading, PA; persuaded
shopkeepers to display, sell his products;
1881 - made menthol cough drops, gave
samples of cough drops to railroad workers to spread
word-of-mouth; January 3, 1922
- William H. Luden registered "Luden's" trademark first used in
1905 (menthol cough drops); 1928
- acquired by Food Industries of Philadelphia (Dietrich family)
for $6.5 million; 1986
- acquired by Hershey Foods Corporation;
2001 - Luden's throat drops business
acquired by Pharmacia; 2006
- consumer products division, including Luden's, acquired by
Johnson & Johnson.
September 23, 1879 - Richard S. Rhodes invented
Audiphone, first practical hearing aid; bone conduction device,
for people who could not pick up sound waves in air; used
vulcanite fan to pick up air vibrations, transmitted them to
teeth; January 4, 1881
- received a patent for "Audiphone" ("...for increasing sound
and communicating it by the teeth").
April 27, 1880 - Francis D. Clarke and Macomb G.
Foster, of New York, NY, received a patent for "Device for
Aiding the Deaf To Hear"; electrical hearing aid.
1881 - In Washington, DC, humanitarians Clara Barton,
Adolphus Solomons founded American Association of the Red Cross.
May 9, 1882 -
William F. Ford, of New York, NY, received a patent for the
February 17, 1883
- A. Ashwell, of West Dulwich, UK, received patent for the
"vacant/engaged" toilet door bolt for lavatory doors;
manufactured by C. Cross & Co. of Herne Hill.
- Dr. Aletta
Jacobs opened first birth-control clinic in world in
February 21, 1887
- Dr. Cornelius N. Hoagland incorporated first U.S.
institutional bacteriology laboratory, Hoagland Laboratory of
Brooklyn, NY, for original medical research; cost exceeded
$100,000 and $50,000 more in an endowment fund; financed with
profits from his ownership interest in the Royal Baking Powder
Company (founded 1866); February 1889 - laboratory
opened with special departments in physiology and bacteriology.
1888 - Isaac
E. Emerson, Baltimore pharmacist, created a headache remedy,
granular effervescent salt, named "Bromo-Seltzer"; became so
successful that he abandoned his retail business to devote his
time to the manufacture of his product; 1891 -
incorporated Emerson Drug Company in Maryland; September
19, 1905 - registered
"Bromo-Seltzer" trademark first used January 15, 1889 (granular
effervescent salt for the cure of headache, nervousness, nervous
headache, neuralgia, brain fatigue, sleeplessness,
over-brain-work, depression, and mental exhaustion); 1956
- merged with Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical Company.
- Albert Alexander Hyde established partnership in Wichita, KS
to manufacture soap from yucca plant; named Yucca Company;
1890 - Hyde bought
out partners; December 1894
- introduced Mentholatum Ointment (combination of menthol,
petrolatum); November 21, 1905
- Yucca Company registered "Mentholatum" trademark first used
December 1894 (a salve for external application in the treatment
of inflammations and eruptions of the skin and mucous membrane
and in the treatment of croup, asthma, sore throat, pneumonia,
catarrh, and like afflictions involving or the resulting from
- name changed to The Mentholatum Company; grew into
international manufacturer, marketer of non-prescription drugs
with reputation for quality, value;
1988 - acquired by ROHTO Pharmaceutical
Albert Alexander Hyde
Reverend Jenkins Jones secured commitment from Armour Meat
Packing Company for down payment on three-story brick house at
29th and Dearborn (12 beds); became first Provident Hospital;
first hospital in U.S. organized by African-Americans;
1891 - Provident Hospital and Training School
Association opened; first annual budget totaled $5,429; Dr.
Daniel Hale Williams, respected black surgeon, chief of staff;
1892 - seven women enrolled in first nursing
class; 1897 - 189 inpatients, outpatient clinic,
Armour Dispensary, treated approximately 6,000 patients;
1898 - moved to new 36th Street location (65 beds);
1933 - educational affiliation with University of
Chicago; July 1987 - declared bankruptcy;
September 1987 -closed; 1991 - acquired by
Cook County Board of Commissioners; 1994 -
traditional medical education role reestablished through
educational affiliation with Loyola University's Stritch School
Dr. Daniel Hale Williams -
Provident Hospital (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/aframsurgeons/images/williams.jpg)
January 1, 1880
- Dr. Charles Browne Fleet (Lynchburg, VA) invented
petroleum-based lip balm to combat dry, cracked lips; called it
ChapStick; 1912 - sold rights for $5.00 to John T.
Morton, fellow Lynchburg resident; June 4, 1912 -
Morton (doing business as The Chap Stick Co.,
registered "Chap Stick" trademark first
used January 1, 1890 (medicinal preparation for chapped skin,
sunvurn and [hangnails]).
- acquired by A. H.
Robbins; 1989 - acquired by American Home Products.
September 9, 1892
- The New York City health department established first
diagnostic public heath laboratory in U.S. as its Division of
Pathology, Bacteriology and Disinfection; spurred by the scare
of Asiatic cholera.
January 5, 1896
- The Austrian newspaper Wiener Presse reported discovery by
German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen of type of radiation
that came to be known as an X-ray.
January 12, 1896
- Dr. Henry Louis Smith, professor of physics and astronomy at
Davidson College (Davidson, NC), took first x-ray photograph;
showed location of bullet in hand of corpse.
January 18, 1896
- First x-ray machine exhibited in U.S. at Casino Chambers,
New York City; January 20, 1896 - X-rays first
used in clinical setting, both in America, Germany;
January 23, 1896 - Wilhelm Roentgen first made public
lecture-demonstration of his X-ray device, in WŘrzburg, Germany.
February 7, 1896
- Radiology began in England when X-rays first used to
discover location of a bullet in wrist of 12-year-old boy who
had shot himself the previous month; boy brought to laboratory
of Oliver Lodge, head of physics department at Liverpool
University, for X-rays; pellet identified, embedded in
third carpo-metacarpal joint.
1898 - Maurice
Berger, pharmacist, discovered beneficial effect of catalytic
combustion of ozoalcohol; created Lampe Berger lamp (oil lamp
with wick) to purify air in hospital wards, mortuaries;
June 1898 -
received a patent for a "new lamp system for purifying the air"
(stone catalyst process, called cold evaporation, used to
convert alcohol to ozone and phenol; device for disinfection);
1910 - opened shop
in Paris, L'Ozosenteur, at 18 rue Duphot, to commercialize
Berger lamp; 1927
- shop acquired by Jean-Jacques Failliot, former paper
manufacturer; name changed to SociÚtÚ des Produits Berger; used
ethyl alcohol (instead of methyl alcohol), expanded selection of
lamps from about one dozen to more than 100 styles;
1930 - added
fragrance; became collector's item;
1930-1938 - annual sales of about 20,000
lamps; October 1940
- Gilbert Failliot (son) took over;
1973 - acquired by Marcel Auvray (annual
production of approximately 80,000 lamps); introduced colorful
contemporary styles, electrified Lampe Berger;
1989 - Phillipe
Auvray (son) ran business; hired Pierre Casenove to design for
company (attracted other major artists);
1992 - set up first Lampe Berger
subsidiary in New York; 1993
- introduced new collection called Signatures;
1996 - formed
Research and Development department to continue to improve
product performance; Alain Le Bourg as Managing Director;
developed exports, especially to Asia, gave new impetus to
Company’s marketing; 1998
- acquired Point Ó la Ligne, specialized in decorative candles;
1999 - formed
Lampe Berger Group; acquired Bougies Epistrof brand;
2000 - Group
included six companies, six brands;
2003 - acquired Parfums Indigo
(specialized in olfactive marketing); became Toulouse Parfum
Industry; 2009 -
only hygienic lamp that has stood test of time.
- nt FACE="Verdana" SIZE="2">
Lampe Berger (http://www.dchl.com.sg/Thailand/images/MauriceBergerPic.gif)
November 3, 1903
- Lambert Pharmacal Company registered "Listerine" trademark
first used May 1, 1881 (liquid chemical or medical preparation
manufactured by US under a private formula and more especially
known as an antiseptic).
1904 - Dr. LeRoy Francis Herrick opened 20-bed
Roosevelt Hospital in Berkeley, CA; named for President Theodore
Roosevelt; 1934 -
re-named Herrick Memorial Hospital.
May 6, 1904 -
American Lung Association held first meeting.
Alta Alice Miner Bates founded Alta Bates Sanitarium in
Berkeley, CA as eight-bed hospital for women and their infants;
assisted by nurse with one year's training, by four young women,
first students in her nursing school;
January 2000 - Summit
Medical Center, Alta Bates Medical Center, Sutter Health
completed their affiliation process.
Alta Alice Miner Bates
- Alta Bates Medical Center
- Five prominent San Francisco physicians founded Saint Francis
March 9, 1908
- Friedrich Merz (24), pharmacist and chemist, established
Chemische Fabrik Merz & Co., pharmaceuticals production plant in
former cigarette factory on Eckenheimer Landstrasse in
Frankfurt, Germany, with 10,000 Reichsmark (received from Emile
Losson, master pharmacist in Metz) and patent and utility model
protection as starting capital; developed Patentex, first
topical contraceptive (topical skin cream with water-soluble
base that permitted cream's ingredients to be more readily
absorbed by skin); 1920
- joined with Georg Merz (brother), Justus Krell, machine lathe
operator, founded Merz & Krell; began producing penholders,
celluloid-based fountain pens, and pencils (made from artificial
horn) under Melbi brand name; later used Senator brand name;
1964 - launched
Merz Spezial Dagrees vitamin formulation, cosmetic supplement;
1985 - acquired
E.E. Dickinson, manufacturer of witch hazel-based products;
late 1980s -
launched Contratubex, scar treatment compound (launched in U.S.
in 1997 under Mederma brand name);
1990s - clinically proved product's
effectiveness, identified active ingredients contributing to its
effect; March 23, 1999
- patent for "Composition and Method for Improvement of the
Appearance of Scars" assigned to Merz, Incorporated;
2002 - launched
Memantine (received approval as treatment for Alzheimer's
disease in Europe); 2005
- sales above EUR 417 million (pharmaceuticals group more than
half of total, Germany less than 40% of group's sales).
- Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH
April 5, 1909
- The Neurological Institute of New York, first U.S. institute
for research in nervous diseases, incorporated; October 1,
1909 - its hospital opened; established as the first
specialty hospital in the nation devoted entirely to the study
and treatment of the nervous system.
February 6, 1910 - West field State Sanatorium
opened as treatment sanitorium for tuberculosis patients (one of
half dozen "sanitoria" built by state of Massachusetts to
protect public from spread of tuberculosis);
1962 - name
changed to Western Massachusetts Hospital;
2010 - focus on specialty care for
patients with chronic diseases, terminal illness, neurological
disorders, Alzheimer's disease, related disorders involving
behavioral problems; provides education, workshops to community
groups, professional organizations in variety of health issues;
annual budget of $16.5 million, capable of serving as many as
100 patients, 215 employees.
Baltimore pharmacist George Bunting invented skin cream
consisting of camphor, menthol, eucalyptus; called it "Dr.
Bunting's Sunburn Remedy"; name changed to Noxema after customer
swore that the cream had "knocked out his eczema";
September 19, 1916 - registered "Noxzema Skin Cream"
trademark first used November 1, 1914 (medicine for the skin).
1915 - LA
Jackson founded London Rubber Company Ltd; sold imported
condoms, barber supplies; July 17,
1929 - LRC Products Limited registered 'DUREX'
trademark in Britain (Baby soothers, feeding bottle teats and
enemas, sprays, syringes and pessaries, all being goods not
medicated for surgical or curative purposes); name chosen to
represent DUrability, Reliability & EXcellence;
July 8, 1930 -
Durex Products, Inc. registered 'DUREX Products, Inc." trademark
in U.S., first used in March 1928 (pessaries);
manufactured first condoms using latest liquid latex dipping
technology; 1950 -
went public; 1953
- introduced electronic testing as part of production process;
1962 - acquired
Julius Schmid Inc., U.S. manufacturer of Ramses, Sheik brand
condoms; 1969 -
manufactured world’s first anatomically shaped condom;
1974 - produced
first spermicidally lubricated condom;
1986 - name changed to London
International Group plc; 1998
- all medical devices, including condoms, had to carry CE
markings when sold in EU (Durex was first condom brand to be CE
marked); 1999 -
acquired by Seton Scholl Healthcare for $984.7 million
(combination of Seton Healthcare Group and Scholl plc); formed
new company, named SSL International plc; best-selling condom in
UK for 81 years; July 20, 2010
- agreed to be acquired by Reckitt Benckiser (consumer brands
Vanish, Lysol, Clearasil) for $3.9 billion.
October 16, 1916
- Margaret Sanger opened first birth-control clinic, in New
York City at 46 Amboy Street in Brooklyn; clinic was closed by
the police, she received a 30-day jail sentence. 1917
- Sanger helped to organize the National Birth Control League
(later became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America);
1923 - opened a permanent birth control clinic in New
October 31, 1916
- Dr. William David Coolidge, of Schenectady, NY, received
patent for a "Vacuum-Tube" ("tube operated for the purpose of
producing Rontgen of X-Rays"); X-ray tube called Coolidge Tube;
assigned to General Electric Company.
American chemist Irvine W. Grote (head of Department of
Chemistry at University of Tennessee at Chattanooga), invented
Rolaids antacid (name derived from original packaging that came
in foil roll); June 22, 1954 - American Chicle
Company registered "Rolaids: trademark first used August 25,
1953 (antacid mints).
- Johnson & Johnson introduced Band-Aid (brand adhesive
bandages) invented by Earle Dickson, J&J cotton buyer; his wife,
Josephine, was always cutting her fingers in kitchen while
preparing food; took piece of gauze, attached it to center of
piece of tape, covered product with crinoline to keep it
sterile; made by hand, too unwieldy (3" wide, 18" long; sales of
$3,000 in first year); 1924 - J&J introduced first
machine-made, sterilized Band-Aid; January 13, 1925
- registered "Band-Aid" trademark first used November 1920
(protective surgical dressing in the form of a bandage);
1940 - red string to open packages introduced;
1961 - J & J sold over $30,000,000 worth of Band-Aids«
Gerstenzang founded Leo Gerstenzang Infant Novelty Company to
market baby care accessories; figured out how to clean infants'
ears with ready-made, one-piece cotton sticks (rather than by
applying wad of cotton to toothpick); first product called "Baby
Gays"; 1926 - label changed to Q-tips Baby Gays
(cotton swab Q-tips, "Q" stood for quality); January 9,
1934 - Q-Tips Inc. registered "Q-Tips" trademark first
used January 1, 1926 (swabs consisting of sanitary absorbent
cotton, attached to the end of a small piece of wood);
1962 - acquired by Chesebrough-Ponds.
1924 - H. A. Metz Laboratories, Inc. (New York,
NY) registered "Novocain" trademark first used September 8, 1917
1927 - Norwich Pharmacal Company registered
"Pepto-Bismol" trademark first used in April 1919 (liquid
demulcent preparation, administered [given] as an intestinal,
antiseptic, digestant, and for the treatment of gastrointestinal
April 25, 1928
- First seeing eye dog, Buddy, presented to Morris S. Frank.
October 12, 1928
- Artificial respirator, called an iron lung, first demonstrated
in Boston Children's Hospital.
October 19, 1931
- Physicians Donald Baxter, Ralph Falk started Don Baxter
Intravenous Products Corp.; made supplies for IV systems in
hospitals, distributed products manufactured by another company
in Los Angeles owned by Baxter; 1933 - opened
first manufacturing facility in renovated automobile showroom in
Glenview, IL (six employees turned out complete line of five
solutions in glass containers); 1935 - Falk
acquired Baxter's interest in company; 1939 -
named Baxter Laboratories; introduced Transfuso-Vac container,
first sterile, vacuum-type blood collection and storage unit
(allowed storage for up to 21 days vs. a few hours); 1952
- acquired Hyland Laboratories, first US company to make human
plasma commercially available; May 15, 1961 - went
public; 1967 - sales over $100 million; 1976 -
changed name to Baxter Travenol ('TRAVENous sOLutions')
Laboratories; 1978 - introduced continuous
ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as practical alternative
to hemodialysis; 1985 - sales of about $2 billion,
acquired American Hospital Supply Corp.; became broad-based
health-care products distributor and developer of medical
technologies; 1988 - renamed Baxter International
- renewed focus on core technologies of renal technology,
biotechnology, cardiovascular medicine, medication delivery,
increased its emphasis on global expansion; 2002 -
sales exceeded $8 billion.
February 21, 1931
- Miles Laboratories introduced Alka Seltzer in the U.S.; Hub
Beardsley, president of Miles Laboratories asked chief chemist,
Maurice Treneer, to develop an effervescent tablet, with aspirin
(acetylsalicylic acid) and sodium bicarbonate as the main
ingredients, to ward off illness (had worked for staff members
of the local newspaper); June 9, 1931 - Dr.
Miles Medical Company (Elkhart, IN) registered "Alka-Seltzer"
trademark first used December 20, 1930 (anti-acid effervescent
April 4, 1932 - Professor C. Glen King
(University of Pittsburgh) isolated vitamin C, after five years
of effort; isolated a crystalline substance, identified, and
later synthesized vitamin C; discovery meant prevention of
disease of scurvy, long source of human suffering, during WW II.
- Sidney Garfield, MD, provided prepaid, preventive health care
to thousands of workers building Los Angeles Aqueduct;
1938 - Henry Kaiser persuaded Dr. Garfield to set up
group-practice prepayment plan for construction workers on Grand
Coulee Dam in Washington state; later opened membership
to workers and families; 1942 - Dr. Garfield
established group-practice prepayment plans for workers, their
families at Kaiser-managed shipyards in San Francisco Bay area,
Vancouver, WA, Kaiser steel mill in Fontana in Southern
California (served about 200,000 members); October 1, 1945
- Permanente Health Plan officially opened to public, took name
from Permanente Creek that flowed through Henry Kaiser's first
plant in California's Santa Cruz Mountains; 1955 -
300,000 Northern California members were enrolled in the Health
Plan; 1952 - name of Health Plan, hospitals
changed to Kaiser (recognized nationwide);
November 5, 1968 - Kaiser
Foundation Hospitals Non-Profit Corporation registered
"Kaiser" trademark first used November 1, 1958 (hospital
services); July 7, 1981 -
Kaiser Foundation Health
Plan, Inc. registered "Kaiser" trademark first used December 31,
1953 (arranging for and financing of
prepaid health care services).;
1, 1986 - registered "Kaiser Permanente" trademark first
used August 10, 1984 (arranging for and financing of prepaid
health care services).
Henry J. Kaiser and Sidney
R, Garfield -
June 12, 1933
- Dr R. Plato Schwartz (1894-1965) of The Myodynamics Laboratory
of University of Rochester, NY, exhibited electrobasograph for
first time in U.S. to American Medical Association convention in
Milwaukee, WI; could make record on film of "the walking
gait of individuals, to distinguish between actual and spurious
limps in damage claims for injuries."
July 4,1933 -
William D. Coolidge, of Schenectady, NY, received a patent
for an "X-ray Tube" ("adapted to therapeutic use in body
cavities"); for inside the body; January 2, 1917 -
received first patent for an "X-ray Tube".
1934 - G. D.
Searle & Co. introduced Metamucil Powder; October 2, 1934
- registered "Metamucil" trademark first used may 5, 1934
(preparation in powder form for the treatment of
gastro-enterological conditions); December 1985 -
acquired by Procter & Gamble.
July 1, 1934
- Arthur W. Fuchs of Eastman Kodak Company made first X-ray
photograph (one-piece radiograph) of whole body taken in
one-second exposure, using ordinary clinical conditions such as
would exist at an average hospital; selective filter was used
for the first time, film size was 32"x72".
1935 - Arnold
O. Beckman invented acidimeter to measure acidity levels in
lemon juice; later called a pH meter, quickly became
indispensable tool in analytical chemistry; founded Beckman
Instruments, Inc.; 1940 - released DU«
Spectrophotometer - simplified tedious laboratory procedures, it
also increased analytical precision and revolutionized chemical
analysis; October 1997 - acquired Coulter
Corporation (Miami, FL), manufacturer of cellular analysis
systems; April 1998 - renamed Beckman Coulter,
January 28, 1935
- Iceland became first country to introduce legalized abortion.
Alcoholics Anonymous founded in Akron, OH.
February 24, 1937
- First U.S. group hospital-medical cooperative authorized,
March 15, 1937
County Hospital established
1938 - Dr. Benjamin Grushkin, of Philadelphia,
PA, received a patent for a "Therapeutic Agent for Use in the
Treatment of Infection"; chlorophyll (green pigment responsible
for photosynthesis in plants) for use in treatment of infection
of blood stream, infected parts, open cuts and wounds; proposed
that chlorophyll could be prepared in a water-soluble form
(cholorphyllins) to be applied directly to infected parts, or
applied intravenously to the blood stream; stated he had
discovered that in this way there would be a gradual attenuation
of infectious bacteria; formation of granulation tissue is
enhanced, promoting healing; patent assigned to the Lakeland
Foundation of Chicago, IL.
July 8, 1938
- Dr. West's Miracle-Tuft toothbrushes first to offer plastic,
non-animal, bristles (used Du Pont Exton bristle-like filaments,
would not soften in water or saliva; Western Bottle
Manufacturing Company [later the Western Company] had registered
"Dr. West's" trademark, first used February 1, 1920 for
toothbrushes, on November 8, 1921);
October 7, 1952 - Weco Products Company
registered "Dr. West's Miracle-Tuft" trademark first used July
8, 1938 (toothbrushes and denture brushes).
December 31, 1938
- Dr Rolla N. Harger, of Indiana University School of Medicine,
introduced the "drunkometer," first breath test for car drivers,
in Indianapolis; first successful machine for testing human
blood alcohol content by breath analysis (required
re-calibration when moved from place to place); 1937
- gave first "short course" on chemical tests for intoxication;
1948 - Harger and other IU faculty began one-week
courses on breath alcohol testing sponsored by the National
Safety Council's Committee on Tests for Intoxication; 1954
- Robert F. Borkenstein, an instructor on those courses,
invented the Breathalyzer, a more practical, highly portable
instrument for testing breath alcohol.
July 19, 1939
- Dr. Roy P Scholz (St. Louis, MO) first surgeon to use
November 22, 1941
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in Federal Register,
specified first minimum daily requirements for dietary
supplements - for vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, thiamine,
riboflavin, calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus.
Benjamin Green, Florida pharmacist, invented suntan cream in his
of cocoa butter, jasmine), became "Coppertone Suntan
first consumer sunscreen product; January 25, 1955
- Douglas Laboratories Corporation (Miami, FL) registered
"Coppertone" trademark first used March 29, 1945 (suntan creams
and lotions); 1980 - Coppertone developed first
December 15, 1944
- Dr. R. Townley Paton of Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital
and a small group of doctors and laymen from surrounding
institutions formed an organization laid the groundwork for The
Eye-Bank for Sight Restoration, first ''eye bank'' in New York
1945 - Charles
Kettering, Alfred Sloan established Sloan-Kettering Institute
for Cancer Research in New York City.
January 25, 1945
- Grand Rapids, MI became first U.S. city to fluoridate
drinking water (one part per million of fluoride added to water
supply) to reduce tooth decay; fluorine is 13th most abundant
element on earth, found in nature in its ionic form - fluoride,
normal constituent of all diets, highest concentrations found in
the bones and teeth; based on work done by Frederick S. McKay, a
Colorado dentist, who related brown stains (mottling) on his
patients’ teeth to low dental caries due to the source of their
drinking water containing high levels of naturally occurring
fluoride); early 1940s - H. Trendley Dean, dental
surgeon and epidemiologist at the National Institute of Health
determined the ideal level of fluoride in drinking water to
reduce decay without mottling.
April 7, 1948
- World Health Organization founded.
May 25, 1948
- Andrew J. Moyer, of Peoria, IL, expert on nutrition of
molds at USDA's Northern Laboratory (now part of Agricultural
Research Service), received a patent for a "Method for
Production of Penicillin"; mass production of penicillin.
July 5, 1948
- Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect;
provided government-financed medical and dental care.
November 18, 1950
-Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp. (Jamaica, NY) announced
first fluoro-record reflector camera; could make x-ray pictures
in one-sixth of the time previously required; used for
August 28, 1951
- Oral B Company (Robert W. Hutson, Paul E. Bahr, and John
Murphy), Santa Clara, CA, registered "Oral B" trademark first
used May 19. 1949 (toothbrushes).
December 29, 1952
-Sonotone Corporation (Elmsford, NY) introduced first transistor
hearing aid (model 1010); weighed 3.5-oz, measured 3"x1.5"x0.6",
cost $229.50 (about $1500.00 today); hybrid device consisted of
two sub miniature pre-amplifier tubes, single transistor as
final audio amplifier to benefit from low power
consumption of transistors; shortly discontinued as transistor
production techniques improved, largely eliminated noise.
July 26, 1955
- Becton, Dickinson and Company registered "Ace-Hesive"
trademark first used June 11, 1954 (elastic bandages).
January 30, 1957
- Team of scientists at University of Minnesota, led by Dr C.
Walton Lillehei, first used external artificial pacemaker with
internal heart electrode (sewn to wall of heart, connected
through chest to external desk-top pulse generator to maintain
patient's heartbeat rhythm); infection often occurred along
electrode wires, device required no interruption in house
electricity; ultimately led to development of billion-dollar
October 8, 1958
- Dr ┼ke Senning implanted first internal heart pacemaker at
Karolinska Institute of Stockholm (worked for three hours),
invented earlier same year by Rune Elmqvist; designed to be
implanted in subcutaneous pouch in patient suffering cardiac
disease, used only two transistors, size of hockey puck, sent
pulses to cardiac muscle to establish normal, regular
- Joyce B. Brand, commercial artist for Grant Advertising (New
York), created Little Miss Coppertone«, symbol of summer and
poster-girl for the long-running Coppertone sunscreen ad
campaign; showed dog pulling at bathing suit of little girl (her
3-year-old daughter, in pig-tails, named Cheri Brand ) to reveal
her bottom and a tan line; paid $ 2,500 for the artwork; initial
billboard slogan: "Don't be a paleface."
- Smith Kline and French Laboratories launched Contac, cold
remedy; used Spansule to release initial major therapeutic dose,
followed by numerous smaller doses, over 10-12 hours;
November 21, 1961 - registered "Contac" trademark first
used February 7, 1961 (oral nasal decongestant).
May 9, 1960
- US Food and Drug Administration approved birth-control pill.
1961 - David A. Jones, Sr., Wendell
Cherry founded Extendicare as nursing home company; became
largest nursing home company in United States;
1972 - divested
nursing home chain, purchased hospitals; became world's largest
hospital company; 1974
- name changed to Humana Inc.;
1978 - acquired American Medicorp Inc. (doubled
company's size); November 6, 1984
- Humana, Inc. registered "Humana" trademark first used May 5,
1973 (hospital and healthcare services);
1985 - created Humana Heart Institute;
1998 - failed
acquisition attempt by United Healthcare.
July 1, 1966
- Medicare federal insurance program went into effect.
January 1, 1967
- First fluoridation law in U.S. went into effect in
Connecticut; required fluoridation of public water supplies
serving 20,000 or more population to prevent dental caries.
January 10, 1967
- Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, IN, registered "One A Day
Brand Multiple Vitamins" trademark first used in July 1961
May 18, 1967
- Oklahoma enacted first legalization of human artificial
insemination in the U.S., signed by governor (century after the
first trials); 1866 - Dr. James Marion Sims,
gynecologist and chief of the Woman's Hospital, New York made
first recorded human impregnation by means of artificial
insemination in the U.S. (gave over 54 injections in 1866-67).
- Dr. Thomas Frist, Sr., Jack C. Massey and Dr. Thomas
Frist, Jr. formed hospital management company - Hospital
Corporation of America (HCA); 1969 - hospitals,
3,000 beds under management; 1987 - operated 463
hospitals (255 owned and 208 managed); spun off HealthTrust
(privately owned, 104-hospital company); 1988 -
went private in a $5.1 billion leveraged buyout; 1992
- went public again; 1996 - $20 billion company,
approximately 285,000 employees, more than 350 hospitals, 145
outpatient surgery centers, 550 home care agencies, several
other ancillary businesses.
February 11, 1969
- Albert D. Herman, of Encino, CA, and Zeppo Marx, of Palm
Springs, CA, received a patent for a "Method and Watch Mechanism
for Actuation by a Cardiac Pulse";
heart wristwatch monitor;
October 21,1969 -
received a patent for a "Cardiac Pulse-Rate Monitor".
February 15, 1972
- William Kolff, of Salt Lake City, UT, received a patent for a
"Soft Shell Mushroom Shaped Heart"; artificial heart.
February 5, 1974
- Raymond V. Damadian, of Forest Hill, NY, received a patent for
an "Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue"
("tissue sample is positioned in a nuclear induction apparatus
whereby selected nuclei are energized from their equilibrium
states to higher energy states through nuclear magnetic
resonance...an indication of the presence and degree of
malignancy of cancerous tissue can be obtained"); MRI; built
first MR scanner (to take advantage of relaxation differences
among body's tissues); July 3, 1977 - produced
first human image (Larry Minkoff's chest); 1978 -
first scans of patients with cancer; incorporated FONAR, first,
oldest, most experienced MR manufacturer in industry; 1980
- introduced world's first commercial MRI (whole-body MRI
scanner); 1981 - went public; 1982 -
introduced patented iron-core technology, basis for all Open MRI
scanners; 1984 - invented Oblique Imaging, means
to produce multiple images "at any angle"; 1996 -
introduced Stand-Up™ MRI, world’s only whole-body MRI scanner
with ability to perform Position Imaging ™ (pMRI™), patients can
be scanned standing, sitting, bending, lying down.
February 12, 1974
- Stephen G. Kovacs, of Clearwater Beach, FL, received a patent
for a "Magnetic Heart Pump" ("simulates the pulsatile pumping
action of a natural heart").
April 9, 1974
- African American Phil Brooks, of Washington, DC, received a
U.S. patent for a "Disposable Syringe".
November 25, 1975
- Robert S. Ledley, of Silver Spring, MD,
received first U.S. patent
for "Diagnostic X-Ray Systems"; whole-body X-ray scanner; ACTA
(Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial) diagnostic X-ray
scanner revolutionized medical diagnosis: three-dimensional
analysis of all organs and parts of the body in a series of
cross-section images using thin X-ray beams and high power
computer processing of the collected data; diagnosis of tumors,
infection or bleeding possible even deep within large organs,
improved radiation therapy for cancer.
September 27, 1977
- Anacleto Montero Sanchez, of Salamanca, ES, received a patent
for a "Hypodermic Syringe" ("for administering a plurality of
measured doses, particularly to animals").
April 4, 1978
- Francisco G. Garcia, of Rio Piedras, PR, received a patent for
"Orthodontic Pliers" ("especially useful for bending the
alignment wire end during all phases of the Begg orthodontic
February 28, 1984
- Donald M. Mauldin and Richard E. Jones III, of Dallas, TX,
received a patent for a "Knee and Elbow Brace".
June 5, 1984
- Ronald D. Kay, of Fort Worth, TX, received patent for a
"Safety Closure Device for Medicine Container"; child-proof
Safety Cap for Medicine Bottle.
July 11, 1985
- Dr. H. Harlan Stone announced zippers for stitches; had used
zippers on 28 patients whom he thought he might have to
re-operate, because of internal bleeding following initial
operations; zippers lasted between five and 14 days, then
replaced with permanent stitches.
November 27, 1995
- AmHS/Premier, SunHealth Alliance announced plans to
merge; formed nation's biggest health care network, over 650
hospitals and 1,000 affiliates in fifty states.
- James A. Thomson, Professor, Department of Anatomy, Genome
Center of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madsion, plucked
stem cells from human embryos for first time, destroyed embryos,
set off divisive national debate about stem cell research;
November 6, 1998, Science published the results of his research,
"Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Blastocysts".
January 30, 1998
- Medical advisory panel for Food and Drug Administration voted
unanimously to approve Dermabond, a new medical-grade glue using
proprietary cyanoacrylate technology (manufactured by Closure
Medical), to replace painful stitches; August 1998
- approved for marketing in U.S.; can seal off certain wounds
quickly, without need for painful shots, can hold wound
closed, sterile, flexible while healing; March 23, 1999
- Johnson & Johnson Corporation registered "Dermabond" trademark
first used September 2, 1998 (body tissue sealant preparation
for medical use).
- Journal of the American Medical Association reported results
of study of annual household survey data from Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality, collected from about 23,000
people/year from 1997 to 2005 (included pharmacy, medical record
data, used to estimate national spending, treatment practices);
1) spending on spine treatments in United States totaled
nearly $86 billion in 2005, rise of 65% from 1997, after
adjusting for inflation; 2) people with spine problems
spent about $6,096 each on medical care in 2005, vs. $3,516 in
medical spending by those without spine problems; 3)
biggest surge in spending - for drugs: estimated $20 billion on
drug treatments for back and neck problems in 2005, increase of
171% from 1997; biggest jump for narcotic pain relievers
(OxyContin, other drugs, increased more than 400%); 4)
outpatient treatment for back, neck problems increased 74% to
about $31 billion during period, spending related to emergency
room visits grew by 46%to $2.6 billion; spending for surgical
procedures, other inpatient costs grew by 25% to about $24
billion; 5) about 26% of adult population suffered from
back, neck problems that limited their function in 2005, after
adjusting numbers for aging population vs. about 21% in 1997;
6) percentage of people with serious spine problems has not
declined; appears to have increased.
July 24, 2006
- HCA (Hospital Corporation of America) agreed to sell itself to
three private-equity firms and the family of Senator Bill Frist
(R-TN, Senate majority leader) whose father and brother founded
the company; largest leveraged buyout ever; totaled $31.6
billion (including debt); RJR Nabisco = $30.6 billion.
September 23, 2007
- Bausch & Lomb shareholders accepted $3.7billion bid by
investment group controlled by Warburg Pincus (private equity
May 4, 2008
- 158 million people covered by employer health insurance;
since recession of 2001 - employee’s average cost of
annual health care premium for family coverage has nearly
doubled (to $3,300, up from $1,800), incomes have not kept up;
portion of average American household’s income that goes toward
health care has risen about 12%, approaching 20% of
average household’s spending (source: Deloitte).
June 29, 2008
- Medical spending in U. S. reached estimated $2.25
trillion in 2007; U.S. spends 50% more on healthcare per
capita than next closest industrialized country (often
with no better patient outcomes). One culprit - overuse
of medical technology:
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Department of Health and Human Services; Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development;
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The Serpent on the Staff: The Unhealthy Politics of the American
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American Medical Association.
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Growth Through Service; The Story of American Hospital Supply
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The Baptist Health Care Journey to Excellence: Creating a
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Range and Vision: The First 100 Years of Barr & Stroud.
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(Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital Center), Dana
Beth Weinberg; foreword by Suzanne Gordon (2003).
Code Green: Money-Driven Hospitals and the Dismantling of
Nursing. (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 213 p.). Senior
Research Associate at the Schneider Institute for Health Policy
at the Heller School of Social Policy and Management (Brandeis
University). Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital Center--Finance;
Hospitals--Massachusetts--Boston--Finance. Effects of hospital restructuring
on nurses’ ability to plan, evaluate, deliver excellent care.
(Boston Scientific Corporation), Jeffrey L.
The Ship in the Balloon: The Story of Boston Scientific and the
Development of Less-Invasive Medicine. (Fort Lauderdale,
FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 224 p.). Boston Scientific
Corporation; Medical instruments and apparatus industry--United
(Charlotte Memorial Hospital), Jerry Shinn
A Great, Public Compassion: The Story of Charlotte Memorial
Hospital and Carolinas Medical Center. (Charlotte, NC:
University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 357 p.). Charlotte
Memorial Hospital (Charlotte, N.C.)--History; Carolinas Medical
Center--History; Hospitals--North Carolina--Charlotte--History;
(Children’s Hospital Boston), Archives Program
of Children’s Hospital Boston (2005).
Children’s Hospital Boston. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia,
128 p.). Children’s Hospital (Boston, Mass.)--History;
Children’s Hospital (Boston, Mass.)--History--Pictorial works.
From modest beginning in
1869, in single Boston brick house, to major pediatric affiliate
of Harvard Medical School; history of pediatrics in America.
(Children's Hospital Denver), Rickey Hendricks
and Mark S. Foster (1994).
For a Child's Sake: History of the Children's Hospital, Denver,
Colorado, 1910-1990. (Niwot, CO: University Press of
Colorado, 209 p.). Children's Hospital (Denver, Colo.) --
History; Children -- Hospitals -- Colorado -- Denver -- History.
(Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles), Margaret
Leslie Davis (2002).
Childrens Hospital and the Leaders of Los Angeles: The First 100
Years. (Los Angeles, CA: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles,
243 p.). Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles--History; Children
(Childrens Memorial Hospital of Omaha), Hollis
J. Limprecht (1973). A Chance To Live; The Story of Childrens
Memorial Hospital of Omaha. (Omaha, NE: Childrens Memorial
Hospital, 175 p.). Childrens Memorial Hospital of Omaha.
(Church Homes Inc.), Ellsworth S. Grant
(1987). Church Homes, Inc.: Pioneer in Retirement Villages,
1957-1987. (Hartford, CT: Church Homes, 104 p.). Church
Homes, Inc.--History; Life care
communities--Connecticut--History; Church work with the
(Clara Maass Health System), Robert D.B.
Carlisle (1993). Building Bridges for 125 Years
(Belleville, NJ: Clara Maass Health System, Inc., 109 p.). Clara
Maass Medical Center (Belleville (N.J.)--History; Hospitals--New
(Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center), Albert
R. Lamb (1955). The
Presbyterian Hospital and the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical
Center, 1868-1943; A History of a Great Medical Adventure. (New
York, NY, Columbia University Press, 495 p.).Presbyterian
Hospital (New York, N.Y.); Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.
(Comfort Keepers), Jerry L. Clum (2005).
Zero to $100 Million in Five Years! (New York, NY:
Hudson Books, 324 p.). President, Co-Founder of Comfort Keepers;
2004 Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award Winner
(Southern Ohio). Healthcare; assisted living; entrepreneurship.
(Cookeville Regional Medical Center), Laura
Clemons (2010). The People's Hospital: A
History of Cookeville Regional Medical Center.
(Cookeville, TN: The Foundation at CRMC, 128 p.). Cookeville
Regional Medical Center; healthcare -- Tennessee -- history.
1920s - Howard Hospital first opened in
brick, two-story bungalow-style building (5 physicians, 30
employees); 1940s - survived two referendums (residents decided
whether to build Cookeville General on west side of town); 1990s
- survived three referendums (residenst decided whether city
should own, sell or lease facility; 2010 - 247-bed facility on
18 acres; 140 physicians, 1,800 employees.
(Decatur Memorial), Dan J. Forrestal (1985).
The Vigil Never Ceases Two Miles North. (Gerald, MO: The
Patrice Press, 223 p.). Decatur Memorial Hospital--History.
(Endius Inc.), Tim Taylor (2003).
Launch Fever: An Entrepreneur s Journey into the Secrets of
Launching Rockets, a New Business and Living a Happier Life.
(Omaha, NE: iUniverse, 230 p.). Co-Founder - Endius, Inc.
Taylor, Tim; Entrepreneurship.
(Fromms), G÷tz Aly, Michael
Sontheimer; Translated by Shelley Frisch (2009).
Fromms: How Julius Fromm's Condom Empire Fell to the Nazis.
(New York, NY: Other Press, 240
p.). Freelance journalist and
historian; Correspondent for Der Spiegel. Fromm,
Julius, 1883-1945; Fromms Act (Firm) --History; Condom
industry --Germany --Berlin --History --20th century; Jewish
businesspeople --Germany --Berlin --Biography; Aryanization
--Germany --Berlin. Hitler's economic war against Jews;
how Nazis Aryanized Jewish businesses; history of first
branded condoms in Germany, sexual culture that allowed them
to thrive; how Nazis robbed German-Jewish families of their
businesses, tragedy of man whose great love for adopted
country that first allowed him to succeed was betrayed by
government, fellow citizens.
(Gillette Children's Hospital), Steven E. Koop
We Hold This Treasure: The Story of Gillette Children's Hospital
(Afton, MN: Afton Historical Society Press). Gillette
Children's Hospital -- History; Children -- Hospitals --
Minnesota -- St. Paul -- History; Handicapped children --
Hospital care -- Minnesota -- St. Paul; Alt title Story of
Gillette Children's Hospital.
(Greenwich Hospital), Jim H. Smith (2003).
A Century of Caring: The Story of Greenwich Hospital.
(Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 128 p.).
(Group Health Association), Edward D.
Berkowitz and Wendy Wolff (1988).
Group Health Association: A Portrait of a Health Maintenance
Organization. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University
Press, 236 p.). Group Health Association (Washington,
(Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound),
Walt Crowley (1996).
To Serve the Greatest Number: A History of Group Health
Cooperative of Puget Sound. (Seattle, WA: University of
Washington Press, 293 p.). Group Health Cooperative of Puget
Sound--History; Group medical practice--Washington--Puget
(HCA), Bob Vraciu (2003).
Leadership To Win: A Biography of R. Clayton McWhorter.
(Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press, 163 p.). McWhorter, R. Clayton;
HealthTrust; Hospital Corporation of America.
(HealthSouth), Jeffrey L. Rodengen (2002).
The Story of HealthSouth. (Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write
Stuff Enterprises, 152 p.). HealthSouth (Firm)--History;
Hospital management companies--United States--History;
Hospitals--Rehabilitation services--United States--History.
(Hill-Rom Company), Garven Dalglish (1982).
Of This Man: The Biography of William A. Hillenbrand.
(Canaan, NH: Phoenix Pub., 250 p.). Hillenbrand, William A.;
Hill-Rom Company--History; Businesspeople--United
(Institute of Medicine), Edward D. Berkowitz
To Improve Human Health: A History of the Institute of Medicine.
(Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 294 p.). Institute of
Medicine (U.S)--History; Medicine--Research--United
(Invacare Corporation), Jeffrey L. Rodengen &
Anthony L. Wall (2001).
The Yes, You Can of Invacare Corporation. (Fort
Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Enterprises, 192 p.). INVACARE
Corporation (Elyria, Ohio)--History; Wheelchair
industry--History; Medical supplies industry--History.
(Kaiser Permanente), John G. Smillie; foreword
by Bruce J. Sams, Jr. (1991).
Can Physicians Manage the Quality and Costs of Health Care?: The
Story of the Permanente Medical Group. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 283 p.). Permanente Medical Group (Oakland,
Calif.)--History; Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care
Program--History; Health Maintenance
(Kaiser Permanente), Rickey Hendricks (1993).
A Model for National Health Care: The History of Kaiser
Permanente (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,
265 p.). Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program -- History.
(Kalamazoo State Hospital), William A.
Asylum for the Insane: A History of the Kalamazoo State
Hospital. (Traverse City, MI: Arbutus Press, 400
p.). Former Medical Superintendent. Kalamazoo State
Hospital; mental illness--Michigan.
Opened in Kalamazoo
in 1859 as Michigan's first state institution created
solely for care, treatment of mentally ill; emphasis on
treatments (hydrotherapy, electro-convulsive therapy,
psychoanalysis), various instruments used, growth and
development of hospital's campus, buildings.
(Longworth Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd.),
Sir Anthony Jephcott (1988).
A History of Longworth Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd.
(London, UK: Regency Press, 202 p.). Longworth Scientific
Instrument Co. Ltd.; Great Britain Medical equipment industries
(Maimonides Medical Center), Julie Salamon
Hospital: Man Woman Birth Death Infinity, Plus Red Tape, Bad
Behavior, Money, God, and Diversity on Steroids. (New
York, NY: Penguin Press, 384 p.). Former culture writer for The
New York Times, critic and reporter for The Wall Street Journal.
Maimonides Medical Center--History; Maimonides Medical Center;
Hospitals--New York (State)--New York--History; Hospitals,
Urban--New York City--Personal Narratives; Cultural
Diversity--New York City--Personal Narratives.
One year tracking progress of
cancer center, characters (doctors, patients, administrators,
nurses, ambulance drivers, cooks, cleaning staff) who make
hospital run; case study of concerns that arise in institutions
that serve an increasingly multicultural American demographic;
science and emotion of medical drama grounded in financial
realities of operating a huge, private institution.
(Marquette Electronics), Michael J. Cudahy
Joyworks: The Story of Marquette Electronics and Two Lucky
Entrepreneurs. (Milwaukee, WI: Milwaukee County
Historical Society, 236 p.). Co-founder, Chairman & CEO
Marquette Electronics, Inc. Cudahy, Michael J.; Cozzens, Warren
B.; Marquette Electronics; Medical electronics equipment
industry--Wisconsin--Milwaukee; Milwaukee (Wis.)--Biography.
(Mayo Clinic), Leonard L. Berry, Kent D Seltman
Management Lessons from Mayo Clinic: Inside One of the World's
Most Admired Service Organizations. (New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, 276 p.). Service Business Authority; Mayo Clinic
Marketing Administrator. Mayo Clinic -- History; Hospitals --
United States -- Administration; Management; Success in
business; Hospitals, General -- history -- Minnesota; History,
20th Century -- Minnesota; History, 21st Century -- Minnesota;
Hospital Administration -- history -- Minnesota; Leadership --
Minnesota. Sustainable service
how Clinic's business concept produces stellar clinical results,
organizational efficiency, interpersonal service.
(McKesson), The Company (1958).
The Road to Market: 125 Years of Distribution Service.
(New York, NY: The Company, 62 p.). McKesson and Robbins, Inc.;
Pharmaceutical industry -- United States. "Published to
commemorate the one hundred twenty-fifth anniversary of McKesson
& Robbins, incorporated, 1958."
(McLean Hospital), S. B. Sutton (1986).
Crossroads in Psychiatry: A History of the McLean Hospital.
(Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 372 p.). McLean
Hospital--History; McLean Hospital; Psychiatric hospital
care--Massachusetts--History; Psychiatry--History; Hospitals,
(McLean Hospital), Alex Beam (2001).
Gracefully Insane: The Rise and Fall of America's Premier Mental
Hospital. (New York, NY: Public Affairs, 273 p.). McLean
Hospital--History. Belmont, MA hospital was shelter for well-born.
(M. D. Anderson), James Stuart Olson (2009).
Making Cancer History: Disease and Discovery at the University
of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. (Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 392 p.). Texas State University
System Regents Professor of History (Sam Houston State
University). University of Texas. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
--History; University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center;
Oncology --Texas --Houston --History; Academic medical centers
--Texas --Houston --History; Cancer Care Facilities --history;
Medical Oncology --history; Neoplasms --history; Neoplasms
--therapy. History of M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
founding, surgeons, radiologists, radiotherapists, nurses,
medical oncologists, scientists, administrators, patients who
built M. D. Anderson into world-class institution;; how cancer
treatment in America, attitudes toward disease, have changed
since middle of 20th century; struggle to understand, treat
Monroe Dunaway Anderson - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
(MDS ordion), Paul Litt (2000).
Isotopes and Innovation: M D S Nordion's First Fifty Years,
1946-1996. (Montreal, QU: McGill-Queen's University
Press, 249 p.). MDS Nordion; radioisotopes; radioisotope
(Mentholatum Company), Alex Taylor (2006).
Amazing Mentholatum: And the Commerce of Curing the Common Cold,
1889-1955. (La Canada, CA: Angeles Crest, 242 p.).
Great-Grandson of the Founder of Mentholatum Company (A.A.
Hyde). Hyde, Albert Alexander; Mentholatum Company;
half century of Mentholatum Company; development of patent
medicine, pharmaceutical industry from quackery of early years
to post-WWII scientific era.
(Methodist Hospital), Bill Beck (1992).
A Tradition of Caring: Methodist Hospital.
(Minneapolis, MN: Methodist Hospital, 342 p.). Corporate
historian. Methodist Hospital -- history; Hospitals --
Minneapolis -- history. 1892 - founded as
Asbury Hospital; February 16, 1959 - first baby born, first
patients admitted to new Methodist Hospital (initial capacity
was 246 beds and 60 bassinets).
(Metroplex Health System), Patricia K. Benoit
(2003). Trusting in Miracles: Metroplex Health System’s 25
Years of Healing. (Killeen, TX: Metroplex Health System, 100
p.). Metroplex Health System (Killeen, Tex.); Seventh-Day
Adventist Hospital Association; Seventh-Day Adventist health
facilities--Texas--Killeen; Public hospitals--Texas--Killeen.
(Miami Valley Hospital), Mark Bernstein
Miami Valley Hospital: A Centennial History (Dayton, OH:
Miami Valley Hospital Society, 203 p.). Miami Valley
(Michael Reese Hospital), ed. Sarah Gordon
(1981). All Our Lives: A Centennial History of Michael Reese
Hospital and Medical Center, 1881-1981. (Chicago, IL: The
Hospital and Medical Center, 210 p.). Michael Reese Hospital and
Medical Center--History; History of medicine, 19th
century--United States; History of medicine, 20th
century--United States; Hospitals, General--History--United
States; Hospitals--History--United States.
(Mississippi Baptist Medical Center), Carroll
Brinson (1991). A Tradition of Caring: Mississippi Baptist
Medical Center's First Eighty Years. (Jackson, MI: Oakdale
Press, 240 p.). Mississippi Baptist Medical Center--History.
(Mountainside Hospital), Robert D.B. Carlisle
(1991). Heritage of Caring: A Centennial History of the
Mountainside Hospital (Glen Ridge/Montclair, N.J.: The
Hospital, 102 p.). Mountainside Hospital (Montclair,
N.J.)--History; Hospitals--New Jersey--Montclair--History.
(Mt. Sinai), Joseph Hirsh and Beka Doherty
The First Hundred Years of the Mount Sinai Hospital of New York,
1852-1952. (New York, NY: Random House, 364 p.). Mount
Sinai Hospital (New York, N.Y.)--History.
(National Medical Care), Tim McFeeley (2001).
The Price of Access: The Story of Life and Death and Money and
the First National Health Care Program and the Three Doctors Who
Changed Medicine in America Forever. (Nashua, NH: MDL
Press, 401 p.). Corporate Counsel (National Medical Care).
Hampers, Constantine L.; Schupak, Eugene; Hager, Edward B.;
National Medical Care (Firm); United States. Medicare Bureau.
End-Stage Renal Disease Program; Hemodialysis facilities--United
(Nebraska Methodist Hospital), Hollis J.
A Century of Medical Miracles: Nebraska Methodist Hospital,
1891-1991. ([Omaha, NE: H.J. Limprecht, 456 p.).
Nebraska Methodist Hospital--History.
(Ochsner Medical), John Wilds (1985).
Ochsner's: An Informal History of the South's Largest Private
Medical Center. (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State
University Press, 256 p.). Ochsner Medical
Institutions--History; Medical centers--Louisiana--New
(Oxford Instruments), Audrey Wood (2001).
Magnetic Venture: The Story of Oxford Instruments. (New
York, NY: Oxford University Press, 387 p.). Scientific apparatus
and instruments industry--Great Britain--History; Medical
instruments and apparatus industry--Great Britain--History;
Nuclear magnetic resonance--Industrial applications--History.
(Pennsylvania Hospital), Thomas G. Morton, assisted
by Frank Woodbury (1973). The History of the
Pennsylvania Hospital, 1751-1895. (New York, Arno
Press: New York, Arno Press, 575 p. [orig. pub. 1895)).
Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, Pa.).
(Pennsylvania Hospital), Kristen A. Graham
A History of Pennsylvania Hospital. (Charleston, SC:
History Press, 128 p.). Staff Reporter at the Philadelphia
Inquirer. Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, Pa.) --History;
Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia, Pa.); State hospitals
--Pennsylvania --History; Hospitals, State --history
--Philadelphia; History, Modern 1601- --Philadelphia.
Opened on eve of American Revolution as provincial charity for physically,
mentally ill; became America's first voluntary hospital, home of
first apothecary, medical library, surgical amphitheatre;
evolved into world-renowned facility that treats over 225,000
patients a year.
(Perkin-Elmer), Thomas P. Fahy (1987).
Richard Scott Perkin and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation.
(United States: Perkin-Elmer Print Shop, 271 p.). Perkin,
Richard Scott, 1906-1969; Elmer, Charles Wesley, 1872-1954;
Perkin-Elmer Corporation--History; Industrialists--United
States--Biography; Optical industry--United States--History.
(Physio-Control Corporation), Harriet and
Terry King (1980). The
Team 1955-1980. (Redmond, WA: Physio-control
Corporation, 103 p.). Physio-control Corporation.
(Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company), Sarah
Female Complaints: Lydia Pinkham and the Business of Women's
Medicine. (New York, NY: Norton, 304 p.). Pinkham, Lydia
Estes, 1819-1883; Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company--History;
Gynecology--United States--History--19th century;
Advertising--Drugs--United States--History--19th century;
Women--United States--Social conditions.
(Presbyterian Hospital), Mo Palmer and Bill
Beck (2008). 1908-2008:
The First 100 Years Presbyterian. (Virginia Beach, VA
Donning Co., p.). Corporate historian. Presbyterian Hospital
(Albuquerque, N.M.) --History; Southwestern Presbyterian
Sanatorium; Presbyterian Hospital Center; Presbyterian Hospital
(Albuquerque, N.M.); Hospitals --New Mexico --Albuquerque
--History; Hospitals, Community --history --New Mexico;
Community Health Services --history --New Mexico; History, 20th
Century --New Mexico; History, 21st Century --New Mexico;
Tuberculosis --history --New Mexico.
(Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital), Laurie
Levin (2008). Presbyterian Intercommunity
Hospital: The First 50 Years: By the Community, for the
Community. (Whittier, CA, The Hospital, 93
p.). Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital; Hospitals; Hospital
care; Medical care --California --Whittier; Whittier, Calif.
(Presbyterian Medical Center), David John Seel
Whom No Labor of Love Is Ever Lost: The History of Presbyterian
Medical Center, Chonju, Korea, 1898-1998. (Franklin,
TN, Providence House Publishers, 210 p.). Presbyterian Medical
Center (ChoĆnju-si, Korea) --History.
(Reading Hospital), The Hospital (1942).
History of the Reading Hospital 1867-1942. (Reading, PA:
Reading Hospital, 287 p). Reading Hospital; Reading, PA --
history; Healthcare - Pennsylvania.
(Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus), Thomas Faltin
(2002). Homoopathie in der Klinik: Die Geschichte der
Homoopathie am Stuttgarter Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus von 1940 bis
1973. (Stuttgart. Germany: Karl F. Haug, 453 p.).
Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus (Stuttgart, Germany) --History --20th
century; Homeopathy --Hospitals and dispensaries --Germany
--Stuttgart --History --20th century; Specialty hospitals
--Germany --Stuttgart --History --20th century.
(Rochester General Hospital), Virginia Jeffrey
A Century of Service: Rochester General Hospital, 1847-1947.
Chapters on the Medical Staff by Charles R. Witherspoon [and
others]. (Rochester, NY: The Hospital, 227 p.). Rochester
General Hospital; Rochester (N.Y.)--Hospitals.
(Rochester General Hospital), Teresa K. Lehr &
Philip G. Maples (1997).
To Serve the Community: A Celebration of Rochester General
Hospital, 1847-1997. (Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co.,
207 p.). Rochester General Hospital (Rochester N. Y.)--History;
Hospitals--New York (State)--Rochester--History.
(Royal Berkshire Hospital), Margaret Railton,
Marshall Barr (1989). The Royal Berkshire Hospital 1839-1989.
(Reading, UK: Royal Berkshire Hospital, 355 p.). Royal Berkshire
Hospital. -- History; Hospitals -- England -- Reading --
(Rush-Presbyterian), Jim Bowman (1987).
Good Medicine: The First 150 Years of Rush-Presbyterian-St.
Luke's Medical Center. (Chicago, IL: Chicago Review
Press, 214 p.). Medical Care, Hospitals, Rush-Presbyterian.
(Sacred Heart Hospital), Robert F. Karolevitz
(1997). A Commitment to Care: The First 100 Years of Sacred
Heart Hospital, 1897-1997. (Mission Hill, SD: Dakota
Homestead Publishers, 128 p.). Sacred Heart Hospital (Yankton,
S.D.)--History; Catholic hospitals--South
(Salem Hospital), John McMillan (1996).
A Century of Service, 1896-1996. (Salem, OR: Salem
Hospital, 124 p.). Salem Hospital (Salem, Or.)--History;
(Scott and White Memorial Hospital), Patricia
K. Benoit (1992). For the Good of Humanity: A Century of
Surgery at Scott & White, 1892-1992. (Temple, TX: Scott &
White Memorial Hospital, 107 p.). Scott and White Clinic
(Temple, Tex.)--History; Santa Fe Memorial Hospital--History;
Scott & White Santa Fe Center--History;
(Smith & Nephew), James Foreman-Peck (1995).
Smith & Nephew in the Health Care Industry. (Brookfield,
VT: Edward Elgar, 269 p.). Smith & Nephew Medical;
Pharmacy--Great Britain--History; Pharmacy--history--Great
(Staten Island University Hospital), Kathryn
Levy Feldman (2005). Staten Island University Hospital: A
History of Service. (Phoenix, AZ: Heritage Publishers,
p.). Staten Island University Hospital; Hospital care--Economic
(Sunrider International), Robert A. Henrie
Journey to the Sun: The Journey of Tei Fu Chen: The Legacy of
Sunrider International. (Salt Lake City, UT: R. A.
Henrie, 319 p.). Chen, Tei Fu; Sunrider International--History;
Herb industry--United States--History; Dermatologic agents
industry--United States--History; Weight loss preparations
industry--United States--History; Businessmen--United
States--Biography; Taiwanese Americans--Biography.
(Texas Medical Center), Frederick C. Elliott;
edited, with an introduction by William Henry Kellar; foreword
by Richard E. Wainerdi (2004).
The Birth of the Texas Medical Center: A Personal Account.
(College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 264 p.). One
of the Nine Signers of the original charter establishing the
Texas Medical Center in 1945, Executive Director from 1952-63.
Elliott, Frederick C.; Texas Medical Center--History; Medical
facilities--Texas--Houston--History. Eyewitness account of founding of
Texas Medical Center; political struggles of finding funding and
property for building of the center , conflicts regarding
innovative treatments, procedures for inter-institutional
(Traverse City State Hospital), Chris Miller
Traverse City State Hospital. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia
Pub., 128 p.). Traverse City State Hospital (Mich.)--History;
Northern Michigan Asylum at Traverse City--History; Traverse
City (Mich.)--History. Served mental health needs of large part of Michigan for
104 years until closure in 1989; housed population as large
(Vermont State Hospital), Marsha R. Kincheloe
and Herbert G. Hunt, Jr. (1989).
Empty Beds: A History of Vermont State Hospital. (Barre,
VT: M. Kincheloe, 245 p.). Vermont State Hospital; State
hospitals--Vermont--History; Hospitals, State--history--Vermont.
(Wellesley Hospital), Eds. edited by David
Goyette, Dennis William Magill, and Jeff Denis (2006).
Survival Strategies: The Life, Death and Renaissance of a
Canadian Teaching Hospital. (Toronto, ON: Canadian
Scholars’ Press, 501 p.). Wellesley Hospital--History; Wellesley
Central Hospital--History; Teaching
(Wesley Medical Research Institutes), Craig
Studying to Care: A History of Wesley Medical Research
Institutes, 1949-1999. (Wichita, KS: Wesley Medical
Research Institutes, 116 p.). Wesley Medical Research Institutes
(Wyoming Medical Center), Rebecca A. Hunt
(2011). Wyoming Medical Center: A
Centennial History. (Virginia Beach, VA Donning Co.
Publishers, 144 p.). Wyoming Medical Center --History; Wyoming
Medical Center --History --Pictorial works; Hospitals --Wyoming
--Casper --History; Hospital care --Wyoming --Casper --History;
Medical personnel --Wyoming --Casper --History; Casper (Wyo.)
--History; Casper (Wyo.) --Social conditions.
(Yale-New Haven Hospital), Wendy Murphy
A Leader of Substance: Yale-New Haven Hospital at 175 Years.
(Lyme, CT: Greenwich Pub. Group, 144 p.). Yale-New Haven
Hospital--History; Hospitals--Connecticut--New Haven--History.
(Yoga), Robert Love (2010).
The Great Oom: The Improbable Birth of Yoga in America.
(New York, NY: Viking, 416 p.). Former Managing Editor of
Rolling Stone, Former Executive Editor of Best Life. Yoga;
United States --Religion. American obsession, from moonlit
Tantric rituals in San Francisco to arrival in New York -
Wall Streeters, Gilded Age heiresses
adopted teachings of Pierre Bernard, trained with Indian
master and instructed wealthy followers in asanas, modern
yogic lifestyle; bankrolled luxurious ashram on
Hudson River-first in nation; his salesman's
persistence sustained interest in yoga despite generations of
naysayers; forgotten life, times of colorful, enigmatic
character who brought hatha yoga; murky intersection of
mysticism, money, celebrity gave rise to creation of one of
America's most popular practices, $5 billion-dollar industry.
Pierre Bernard -
(Yoga), Stefanie Syman
The Subtle Body: The Story of Yoga in America. (New
York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 400 p.). Yoga; Leisure
--Economic aspects --United States; Big business --United
States; United States --Religion. How
succession of charismatic yoga teachers, practitioners
transformed yoga from centuries-old spiritual discipline to
multibillion-dollar American industry; how seemingly arcane, foreign
practice is as deeply rooted in American society as baseball or
George Anders (1996).
Health against Wealth: HMOs and the Breakdown of Medical Trust.
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 299 p.). Health maintenance
organizations--United States; Health Maintenance
Organizations--United States; Insurance,
Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele (2004).
Critical Condition: How Health Care in America Became Big
Business-- and Bad Medicine. (New York, NY: Doubleday,
304 p.). Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative team, Editors at
Large (Time Magazine). Medical care, Cost of--United States;
Insurance, Health--United States; Medical policy--United States;
Medical economics--United States; Medical care--United States.
Daniel Benamouzig (2005). La Sante au
Miroir de l’Economie: Une Histoire de l’Economie de la Sante en
France. (Paris, FR: Presses Universitaires de France, 479
p.). Medical economics--France--History.
E. Richard Brown(1979).
Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America.
(Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 283 p.).
Rockefeller Foundation--History; Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching--History; Medicine--United
States--History--20th century; Medical policy--Business
community participation--United States--History--20th century;
Charities, Medical--United States--History--20th century;
Medical economics--United States--History--20th century; Medical
education--United States--History--20th century; United
Shannon Brownlee (2007).
Overtreated: Why Too Much Medicine Is Making Us Sicker and
Poorer. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 352 p.). Senior
Fellow at the New America Foundation. Medical care--United
States; Medical care--Utilization--United States.
Health care system delivers huge
amounts of unnecessary care, wasteful, can imperil
health of patients; specialists rewarded more for some
procedures than for appropriate ones; Veterans Health
Administration outperforms rest of American health care system
on multiple measures of quality; patients in hospitals that
spent most were 2%-6% more likely to die than patients in
hospitals that spent least.
Richard Carter (1958).
The Doctor Business. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 283
p.). Medical economics--United States. Critical view of American
Mary G. Clark (2001).
One in a Million: A Memoir. (Scranton, PA: University of
Scranton Press, 259 p.). Medical Pioneer. Clark, Mary G., 1932-
; Businesswomen -- Pennsylvania -- Biography; Alternative
medicine -- Pennsylvania -- Biography; Christian biography.
David Dranove (2000).
The Economic Evolution of American Health Care: From Marcus
Welby to Managed Care. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 211 p.). Managed care plans (Medical
care)--Economic aspects--United States; Medical care--Economic
aspects--United States; Public health--Economic aspects--United
Julie M. Fenster (2005).
Mavericks, Miracles, and Medicine: The Pioneers Who Risked Their
Lives To Bring Medicine into the Modern Age. (New York,
NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 304 p.). Medicine--History;
Medical innovations; Medicine--Biography; History of Medicine,
Eric A. Finkelstein, Laurie Zuckerman (2008).
The Fattening of America: How the Economy Makes Us Fat, If It
Matters, and What To Do About It. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley,
274 p.). Health Economist (RTI International); Journalist.
Obesity--Economic aspects--United States. Economic drivers behind obesity
epidemic, financial impact of obesity on society; companies that
encourage obesity, companies that provide weight loss products
profit handsomely from obesity; employers, government,
taxpayers, military lose; need to revise farm subsidies, create
incentives for healthy behaviors, discourage production of
Laura Fraser (1997).
Losing It: America's Obsession with Weight and the Industry That
Feeds On It. (New York, NY: Dutton, 328 p.). Weight
loss--Social aspects--United States; Weight loss preparations
Eds. Martin Gorsky and Sally Sheard (2006).
Financing Medicine: The British Experience Since 1750.
(New York, NY: Routledge, 258 p.). Medical care, Cost of--Great
Britain--History; Delivery of Health Care--economics--Great
Britain; Delivery of Health Care--history--Great Britain;
Financing, Organized--history--Great Britain; Health Care
Sector--history--Great Britain; History, 18th Century--Great
Britain; History, 19th Century--Great Britain; History, 20th
Bradford H. Gray (1991).
The Profit Motive and Patient Care: The Changing Accountability
of Doctors and Hospitals. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 440 p.). Medical economics--United States;
Hospitals--United States--Business management; Medical
care--United States; Delivery of Health Care--trends--United
States; Economics, Hospital--trends--United States; Economics,
Medical--trends--United States; Financial
Management--trends--United States; Hospitals--trends--United
Deborah Haas-Wilson (2003).
Managed Care and Monopoly Power: The Antitrust Challenge.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 238 p.). Professor of
Economics (Smith College). Medical care--United States; Medical
economics--United States; Managed care plans (Medical
care)--United States; Monopolies. Economic concepts necessary to
enforcement of antitrust laws in health care markets; argument
for principled, economics-based health care antitrust policy.
Regina E. Herzlinger (1997).
Market-Driven Health Care: Who Wins, Who Loses in the
Transformation of America's Largest Service Industry.
(Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub., 379 p.). Nancy R. McPherson
Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business
School. Medical care--United States--Cost control; Patient
satisfaction--United States; Health services
accessibility--United States; Medical economics--United States;
Medical care--United States.
Who Killed Health Care?: America’s $2 Trillion Medical Problem
-- and the Consumer-Driven Cure. (New York, NY: Mc-Graw
Hill, 304 p.). Nancy R. McPherson Professor of Business
Administration (Harvard Business School). Medical care--United
States--Cost control; Patient satisfaction--United States;
Health services accessibility--United States; Medical
economics--United States; Medical care--United States.
Current system organized around
payers, providers not needs of users; consumer-driven system:1)
insurance money in hands of patients, 2) remove middleman, 3)
give employers cost relief, 4) smaller, disease-focused medical
facilities, 5) national system of medical records, 6) mandatory
performance evaluations, 7) mandatory health insurance with
subsidies for those who cannot afford it.
Eds. Marl S. R. Jenner and Patrick Wallis
Medicine and the Market in England and Its Colonies,
c.1450-c.1850. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Senior
Lecturer in History (University of York); Lecturer in Economic
History (London School of Economics and Political Science).
Medical economics--Great Britain--History; Medical care--Great
Britain--History; Medicine--Great Britain--History; Medical
economics--Great Britain--Colonies--History; Medical care--Great
Medical--history--England; Economics, Medical--history--India;
Economics, Medical--history--New England; Delivery of Health
Care--history--England; Delivery of Health Care--history--India;
Delivery of Health Care--history--New England; History, Early
Modern 1451-1600--England; History, Early Modern
1451-1600--India; History, Early Modern 1451-1600--New England;
History, Modern 1601---England; History, Modern 1601---India;
History, Modern 1601---New England. Pre-modern 'medical marketplace';
medicine and market in England, North America, India between
15th and 19th centuries: magic, midwifery, professionalization;
how healthcare operated, changed over this period.
Jerome P. Kassirer (2005).
On the Take: How America's Complicity with Big Business Can
Endanger Your Health. (New York, NY: Oxford University
Press, 251 p.). Former Editor-in-Chief (The New England Journal
of Medicine). Physicians--Professional ethics--United States;
Pharmaceutical industry--Corrupt practices--United States;
Medical ethics--United States; Conflict of interests; Gifts;
Practice Management, Medical--ethics; Conflict of Interest;
Physician Incentive Plans--ethics; Physician's Practice
Patterns--ethics; Physician's Role; Physician-Patient
onslaught of industry money has deflected many physicians' moral
compasses, directly impacted the everyday care we receive from
doctors and institutions we trust most.
John A. Kastor (2001).
Mergers of Teaching Hospitals: in Boston, New York, and Northern
California. (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan
Press, 487 p.). Teaching hospitals--Administration--Case
studies; Hospital mergers--Case studies; Multihospital
systems--Case studies; Hospitals--Shared services--Case studies.
Mergers of hospitals can be risky.
Bettyann Holtzmann Kevles (1997).
Naked to the Bone: Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century.
(New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 378 p.). Science
Writer. Diagnostic imaging--History; Radiography,
Betty Leyerle (1984).
Moving and Shaking American Medicine: The Structure of a
Socioeconomic Transformation (Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 218 p.). Medical economics -- United States; Social
medicine -- United States. Series Contributions in economics and
The Private Regulation of American Health Care (Armonk,
NY: M.E. Sharpe, 229 p.). Medical care -- United States --
History; Medical economics -- United States; Medical care -- Law
and legislation -- United States.
Arthur J. Linenthal (1990).
First a Dream: The History of Boston’s Jewish Hospitals, 1896 to
1928. (Boston, MA: Beth Israel Hospital in association
with The Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 737 p.).
Mount Sinai Hospital (Boston, Mass.); Beth Israel Hospital
(Boston, Mass.); Jewish
Barbara Bridgman Perkins (2004).
The Medical Delivery Business: Health Reform, Childbirth, and
the Economic Order. (Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University
Press, 252 p.). Health services administration--Economic
aspects--United States; Health planning--Economic
aspects--United States; Medical economics--United States;
Medical policy--United States--History; Health care
reform--United States--History; Maternal health
services--Economic aspects--United States.
Elizabeth Pisani (2008).
The Wisdom of Whores: Bureaucrats, Brothels, and the Business of
AIDS. (New York, NY: Norton, 288 p.). Epidemiologist
Researching AIDS. AIDS (Disease)--Prevention; Epidemiologists
Biography; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome--prevention &
control; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome--economics; HIV
Infections; Health Policy; Sexual Behavior.
How profession works - waste,
fraud, arrogance of Aids industry; how easy to draw wrong
conclusions from "objective" data; how much money spent very
Allyson M. Pollock, with Colin Leys ... [et al
NHS Plc: The Privatisation of Our Health Care. (New
York, NY: Verso, 256 p.). Professor of Health Policy and Chair
of the Health Policy and Health Services Research Unit
(University College, London). Great Britain. National Health
Service; Great Britain. National Health Service; National health
services--Economic aspects--Great Britain; Health services
administration--Great Britain; Medical care--Great
Britain--Finance; Medical policy--Great Britain;
Privatization--Great Britain; State Medicine--economics--Great
Britain; Health Care Sector--trends--Great Britain; Marketing of
Health Services--economics--Great Britain;
Michael E. Porter, Elizabeth Olmstead Teisberg
Redefining Health Care: Creating Positive-Sum Competition To
Deliver Value. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School
Press, 432 p.). Bishop William Lawrence University Professor at
Harvard Business School; Associate Professor at the Darden
Graduate School of Business (University of Virginia). Medical
care--Quality control; Medical care--Cost control; Medical
care--Cost effectiveness; Value analysis (Cost control);
Competition; Delivery of Health Care--economics--United States;
Economic Competition--United States; Quality of Health
Care--economics--United States; Health Care Costs--United
States. Positive-sum competition in health
care to improve
quality and efficiency.
Darryl J. Roberts (1997).
Profits of Death: An Insider Exposes the Death Care Industries.
(Chandler, AZ: Five Star Publications, 238 p.). Undertakers and
undertaking--United States; Undertakers and undertaking--Social
aspects--United States; Funeral rites and ceremonies--United
States; Consumer education--United States.
Debora L. Spar (2005).
The Baby Business: Elite Eggs, Designer Genes, and the Thriving
Commerce of Conception. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business
School Press, 302 p.). Spangler Family Professor of Business
Administration at Harvard Business School. Human reproductive
technology--Economic aspects; Infertility--Treatment--Economic
aspects; Surrogate motherhood--Economic aspects;
Adoption--Economic aspects; Infertility--therapy; Adoption;
Commerce; Genetic Services--economics; Reproductive
Medicine--economics; Reproductive Techniques--economics;
Socioeconomic Factors; Surrogate Mothers. Commercial truth about
reproduction - a $3 billion unregulated industry.
Douglas Starr (1998).
Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. (New
York, NY: Knopf, 441 p.). Co-Director, Graduate Program in
Science Journalism (Boston University). Blood banks--History.
Rosemary Stevens (1989).
In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth
Century. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 432 p.).
Hospitals--United States--History--20th century;
Andrea Tone (2001).
Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America.
(New York, NY: Hill & Wang, 366 p.). Birth control--United
States--History; Contraceptives--United States--History.
Barbra Mann Wall (2005).
Unlikely Entrepreneurs: Catholic Sisters and the Hospital
Marketplace, 1865-1925. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State
University Press, 344 p.). Assistant Professor of Nursing
(Purdue University). Catholic hospitals--United
States--Administration--History--19th century; Catholic
hospitals--United States--Administration--History--20th century;
Monasticism and religious orders for women--United
States--History--19th century; Monasticism and religious orders
for women--United States--History--20th century; Pastoral
medicine--Catholic Church--History--19th century; Pastoral
medicine--Catholic Church--History--20th century; Hospitals,
Religious--history--United States; Catholicism--United States;
History, 19th Century--United States; History, 20th
Century--United States; Hospitals, Religious--economics--United
James Wynbrandt (1998).
The Excruciating History of Dentistry / Toothsome Tales & Oral
Oddities from Babylon to Braces. (New York, NY: St.
Martin's Press, 248 p.). Comedy Writer. Dentistry--History.
Business History Links
American College of Healthcare
International professional society of nearly 30,000 healthcare
American Hospital Association
Founded in 1898, the American Hospital Association (AHA) is the
national umbrella organization that represents a wide range of
hospitals and health care networks. While some of the site's
contents are designed for health care professionals and
executives, the general public and some scholars will find some
of the features, such as their quarterly reports on the latest
in hospital trends, quite valuable. A good place to start is the
Resource Center section of the site, which contains helpful
guides to locating the information on the site itself. There are
a number of free resources available here, such as a fact sheet
about America's hospitals and studies, including "The State of
America's Hospitals: Taking the Pulse" and "Costs of Caring:
Sources of Growth in Spending for Hospital Care".
American Institute of the History of
Non-profit national organization devoted to advancing knowledge
and understanding of the place of pharmacy in history. The
mission is to contribute to the understanding of the development
of civilization by fostering the creation, preservation, and
dissemination of knowledge concerning the history and related
humanistic aspects of the pharmaceutical field.
Medicine and Madison Avenue
This website explores the complex relationships between modern
medicine and modern advertising, or "Madison Avenue," as the
latter is colloquially termed. The Medicine and Madison Avenue
Project presents images and database information for
approximately 600 health-related advertisements printed in
newspapers and magazines. These ads illustrate the variety and
evolution of marketing images from the 1910s through the 1950s.
The collection represents a wide range of products such as cough
and cold remedies, laxatives and indigestion aids, and vitamins
and tonics, among others. In addition to the advertisements
themselves, the MMA website includes historical material --
non-graphical text-only documents -- that put health-related
advertising into a broader perspective.
History of Pepto-Bismol
Introduced in 1901 by a doctor in New York state.
"We Have Conquered Pain": A Celebration
of Ether 1846-1996
This site celebrates the 150th anniversary of "one of the
greatest moments in medicine ... [when] William T.G. Morton, a
Boston dentist, demonstrated the use of ether during surgery" at
Massachusetts General Hospital. Features brief background about
"the controversy surrounding four men who each claim to be the
first to discover the means to prevent pain during surgery."
Also includes a discussion of surgery before anesthesia and the
development of anesthesia. From Massachusetts General Hospital.
of Dentistry (U of Michigan)
One of only a handful of museums throughout the world devoted to
preserving the history of the dental profession; develops and
preserves a historical museum collection containing over 12,000
objects focused on the history of dentistry with particular
interest on dental practice and technology in the United States
and Michigan dating from the 18th century to today.