September 2, 490 B.C.E. - Phidippides of Athens
ran first marathon from Marathon to
Athens (about 25 miles) to announce defeat of Persian army after Battle of Marathon;
1896 - in his honor,
26-mile marathon became part of Olympic Games.
1754 - Society of
St Andrews Golfers founded.
1764 - Standard
round of golf established at 18 holes.
1823 - Rugby
Football 'invented' at Rugby School.
1829 - First
Oxford/Cambridge Boat Race.
June 14, 1834
- Leonard Norcross, of Dixfield, ME, received first U.S. patent
for a practical underwater diving suit; called it a "Diving
Armor," designed as an airtight leather outfit with a brass
helmet connected via a rubber hose to an air bellows pump on a
boat; feet were weighted with lead shot to reduce buoyancy;
1829 - Augustus Siebe designed first truly effective
diving suit with pump; equipped French Navy until 1857.
June 12, 1839
- According to legend, Abner Doubleday created baseball.
June 14, 1839 -
First Henley Regatta held.
November 16, 1841 -
Napoleon E. Guerin, of New York City, received a patent for a
"Life Preserver"; form of jacket or waistcoat of with 18 to 20
quarts of rasped or grated cork introduced.
July 30, 1844 - New
York Yacht Club formed; July 15, 1845 - members of New York
Yacht Club met in Hoboken, NJ clubhouse for first time;
1845 - New York Yacht Club held first regatta.
August 29, 1844 -
Indians won first white-Indian lacrosse game in Montreal.
June 3, 1851 -
New York Knickerbockers became first baseball team to wear
August 22, 1851
- America, U.S.-built schooner America (launched May 3, 1851)
beat 14 of Britain's finest ships in 11-hour, 50-mile Hundred
Guinea Cup regatta around England's Isle of Wight; won Royal
Yacht Squadron Cup, silver trophy, later donated to New York
Yacht Club on condition that it be forever placed in
international competition; August
1870 - first race for trophy when British ship
Cambria competed against 14 American yachts in Lower New York
Bay; renamed the America's Cup; schooner Magic won race;
1983 - United
States lost trophy for first time in 132 years (Australia II
defeated Liberty off Newport, RI).
August 3, 1852 - Harvard beat Yale in
eight-oared "Oneida" crew race on Lake Winnipesaukee, NH; first
formal intercollegiate athletic competition in America.
Brooklyn Sports Writer, Henry Chadwick, of "New York
Clipper" paper, devoted to theater sports, theater, grew
disgusted with method of scoring a baseball game; designed his
own system; assigned numbers to various positions, helped
develop easily understood box score; same box score used today
(with few minor differences).
March 7, 1857
- Baseball decided 9 innings constituted official game.
April 12, 1858 -
Michael J. Phelan won first U.S. billiards championship in
Don Refugio Bernal (son of Spaniard Don
organized Floral Fair, built original racetrack
on 52,000-acre ranch in Alisal, CA (part of Northern California
land grant, Rancho Valle de San Jose; now Pleasanton, CA);
Augustin and Antonio Bernal (sons) took over;
1872 - property
left to his Frederick Bernal (son of Augustin);
1876 - acquired by
Joseph F. Nevis (married Augustin Bernal's widow); improved
track to meet regulation specifications, operated it as
business; 1882 -
acquired by Monroe Salisbury (multi-millionaire Australian horse
breeder) for $25,000; operated as Pleasanton Stock Farm;
1911 - acquired by
businessman Rodney G. MacKenzie (son of Canadian railroad
tycoon); built grandstand, lavish quarters for guests, stables
to house 300 horses; June 29, 1912
- Alameda County Fair Association formed;
October 23-27, 1912 - first Alameda
County Fair in Pleasanton, CA (had approached group of county
businessmen and ranchers with proposal to hold county fair on
his property - to turn profit on newly acquired racetrack);
1933 - California
legalized pari-mutuel betting; 1939 - Alameda County Fair
Association established; racing fair boasts livestock and
- nine days of races for handle of $432,644 (national record);
2004 - second
highest racing handle in Fair history ($35,776,350, up 4% from
2003); July 3, 2004
- highest single day race handle in Northern California Fair
history ($4,586,825); oldest one-mile track in America
(thoroughbred, quarter horse racing); largest county fair in
Northern California, largest public event in Alameda County.
June 28, 1859
- First dog show held, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England.
July 1, 1859 -
Amherst beat Williams 73-32 in 25 innings; first intercollegiate
- San Francisco Olympic Club formed, first U.S.
June 19, 1867
- First running of Belmont Stakes at Jerome Park Racecourse;
four horses started: Ruthless, DeCourcey, Rivoli, Monday;
Ruthless, owned by Francis Morris, ridden by jockey
Gilpatrick, won mile and five furlong race in 3:05.
September 8, 1868
- Henry Buermeyer, John Babcock, William Curtis, 11 others,
gathered in Knickerbocker Cottage, Manhattan tavern, for first
meeting of what would become New York Athletic Club; formed to
bring structure to sporting environment
lacking in organization, uniformity of measurement; organized
first US championships in boxing, wrestling, outdoor
track and field.
- Peck & Snyder, first sporting goods store in Manhattan (formed
by 1866 merger of Andrew Peck & Co. with W. Irving Snyder),
published first true baseball card, Peck & Snyder Cincinnati Red
Stockings card (first openly all-professional baseball
club in world; Cincinnati Red Stockings had taken field on April
18, 1868 wearing knickers (radical new style of pants, departure
from traditional full-length pants); 3-1/4" by 4-1/2",
sepia-toned image of ten professional baseball players (signed
by Andrew Peck, founder of Peck & Snyder); finished 1869 season
undefeated (57 -0); 1892
- retail business acquired by A. G. Spalding & Brothers
(remained a sporting goods manufacturer).
1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings
Trading Card -
1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings
March 15, 1869
- Cincinnati Red Stockings became first pro baseball
November 6, 1869
- First intercollegiate football game took place, between
Rutgers University and Princeton University, in New Brunswick,
NJ (Rutgers won 6-4).
October 25, 1870
- Pimlico Race Course opened in Baltimore; second oldest race
track in U. S., behind Saratoga (1864); constructed by Maryland
Jockey Club on 70 acres west of Jones Falls, MD at suggestion of
Gov. Oden Bowie; "Pimlico" - name given by
English settlers in 1669.
July 20, 1871 -
Charles Alcock, Honorary Secretary of Football Association
(established 1863 with 11 member teams), proposed "that it is
desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in
connection with the Association, for which all clubs belonging
to the Association should be invited to compete";
October 1871 -
competition rules approved (50 member teams);
November 11, 1871 -
first FA Cup matches ever played (Upton Park 0-Clapham Rovers 3,
Crystal Palace 0-Hitchin 0, Maidenhead 2-Marlow 0, Barnes
2-Civil Service 0; first Cup goal scored by Clapham's Jarvis
- fifteen entries in first FA Challenge Cup competition final
(won 1-0 at Kennington Oval by Wanderers, team formed by
ex-public school and university players, against Royal
Engineers; crowd of 2,000 paid one shilling/each to attend);
first Cup, 'little tin idol', made by Messrs Martin, Hall & Co.
at cost £20, stolen on September 11, 1895 from Birmingham, UK
shoe shop window belonging to William Shillcock, while held by
Aston Villa; never seen again; FA fined Villa £25 to pay for
replacement (almost 60 years later, thief admitted that cup had
been melted to make counterfeit half-crowns); knockout
tournament with pairings for each round (14) drawn at random -
no seeds, clubs of all standards play against each other, draw
for each round not made until after scheduled dates for previous
round (also determines which teams will play at home); most
famous domestic cup competition in world; oldest association
football competition in world.
Secretary of Football Association
November 30, 1872
- First international football (soccer) match played, between
Scotland and England in Glasgow; ended with no score.
English army major Walter Clopton Wingfield first promoted lawn
tennis as sport; January 1888 - Lawn Tennis
Association founded at Freemasons’ Tavern in Great Queen Street,
London; William Renshaw, six times Wimbledon champion, became first president.
1873 - First
Preakness run; G Barbee aboard Survivor won in 2:43.
October 19, 1873
- Yale University, Princeton University, Columbia University,
Rutgers University drafted first code of football rules.
March 2, 1874
- Baseball batter's box officially adopted.
May 27, 1874 -
Louisville Courier-Journal reported establishment of track;
June 20, 1874 -
Col. Merriweather Lewis Clark (29), group of prominent
Louisville gentlemen, filed papers of incorporation for
Louisville Jockey Club and Driving Park Association; Clark
raised $32,000 (sold 320 membership subscriptions at $100 each);
leased 80 acres of land from Clark's uncles, John and Henry
Churchill, approximately three miles south of downtown;
constructed clubhouse, grandstand, porter's lodge, six stables;
designed three major stakes races for inaugural meet (Kentucky
Derby, Kentucky Oaks, Clark Handicap);
May 17, 1875 - track formally opened
(four races); Oliver Lewis, aboard Aristedes, 3-year-old
chestnut colt, won day's featured race, Kentucky Derby in
2:37:75 (owned by H.P. McGrath, trained, ridden by two
African-Americans, Ansel Williamson and Oliver Lewis,
- Louisville Commercial made first reference of name Churchill
Downs; November 24, 1894
- New Louisville Jockey Club incorporated (William F. Schulte
appointed president, Clark retained as presiding judge for
track); October 1, 1902
- taken over by group headed by former Louisville Mayor Charles
Grainger, Charlie Price, Matt J. Winn (amending track's articles
of incorporation with no transfer in form of deed);
1903 - reported
first profit in 28 years; 1907
- owners joined with nearby Douglas Park, formed Louisville
Racing Association to establish race dates, policies for racing
in City; February 1919
- Kentucky Jockey Club formed as holding company for Churchill,
three other tracks in State;
January 16, 1928 - American Turf Association
served as new holding company for Churchill Downs; January 28,
1937 - Churchill Downs, Latonia formed Churchill Downs-Latonia
Incorporated (separate operating corporation);
April 24, 1942 -
name was changed to Churchill Downs Incorporated;
April 3, 1950 -
stockholders voted to dissolve American Turf Association;
May 3, 1952 - first
national telecast of Kentucky Derby;
March 1969 - control acquired by group
of Churchill board members, headed by John Galbreath, Warner L.
Jones, Jr., Arthur "Bull" Hancock, formed "Derby Protection
Group"; (outbid National Industries, moved stock from $22 a
share to $35); 1974
- 100th running of Derby, record crowd of 163,628;
May 20, 1975 -
Churchill Downs Incorporated registered "Churchill Downs"
trademark first used 1886 (providing horse race exhibitions);
1984 - two separate
takeover attempts foiled; July 2002
- began Phase I of $121 million renovation.
Founder, Churchill Downs
February 2, 1876
- William Hulbert, part owner of Chicago's National Association
team, Albert Spalding founded National League of Professional
Base Ball Clubs; eight teams: Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, New
York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Louisville and Hartford. Hulbert
credited with establishing respectability, integrity and a sound
foundation for the new league with his relentless opposition to
betting, rowdiness and other prevalent abuses that threatened
William Hulbert -
co-founded National League
April 1, 1876 -
First official NL baseball game (Boston-6, Phila-5).
June 3, 1876 -
Lacrosse introduced in Britain and Canada.
1877 - Westminster
Kennel Club officially formed; first Annual New York Bench Show
of Dogs, hosted by WKC, staged at Gilmore's Garden (forerunner
of Madison Square Garden) in New York City; drew entry of 1,201
April 12, 1877
- Catcher's mask first used in baseball game.
July 9, 1877 -
All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club began its first lawn
tennis tournament (had been estasblished in 1868, on 4 acres of
meadow land at Wimbledon, to promote croquet); 21 amateur
players competed in Gentlemen Singles event; winner won
25-guinea trophy; 200 spectators paid shilling each to see
William Marshall, Cambridge tennis "Blue," battle W. Spencer
Gore (27), Old Harrovian racket player in 48-minute final; Gore
crushed Marshall, 6-1, 6-2, 6-4;
1968 - Wimbledon welcomed pros; quickly regained
status as world's top tennis tournament; only major tennis event
still played on grass.
1878 - Newton
Heath LYR (Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway) football (soccer)
team formed; 1900 -
John Henry Davies, brewer, invested in club, in return for some
interest in running it; April/May
1902 - name changed to Manchester United;
September 1903 -
Ernest Mangnall appointed secretary, widely acknowledged as
club's first manager; 1907-1908
- won Football League Championship for first time;
August 30, 1919 -
returned to League football after four-year gap caused by WW I;
December 1931 -
bankruptcy threat; James Gibson, manufacturer of army uniforms,
invested £30,000, paid players, got club back on track;
May 2005 - control
acquired by Malcolm Glazer, owner of Tampa Bay Buccaneers, for
February 12, 1878
- Frederick W. Thayer, of Waverly, MA, captain of Harvard
University Baseball Club, received a patent for an "Improvement
in Masks" ("to protect the face of a player from being hit or
injured by a base-ball while in flight toward him, and also at
the same time to not materially obstruct his sight. It is
usually to be worn by the catcher or person in rear of the
striker or bat-wielder"); baseball catcher's mask.
March 13, 1878 -
First collegiate golf match played; Oxford defeated Cambridge.
March 31, 1878
- Jack Johnson first black to hold heavyweight boxing title.
May 31, 1879 -
Madison Square Garden I opened;
1889 - torn down;
June 16, 1890 - Madison Square Garden II opened
(designed by Stanford White); capacity of 17,000;
December 15, 1925 -
Madison Square Garden III opened;
February 11, 1968 - Madison Square Garden IV
April 24, 1880
- Amateur Athletic Association, governing body for men's
athletics in England and Wales, founded in Oxford, England.
June 12, 1880 -
Lee Richmond, of Worcester Ruby Legs, pitched first perfect game
in major league history in a 1-0 victory over Cleveland Blues.
September 7, 1880 - George Ligowsky, of
Cincinnati, OH, received patent for a "Flying Target"; device to
throw clay pigeons for trapshooters.
May 21, 1881 -
United States Lawn Tennis Association formed in New York City.
10, 1881 - Roger Connor, of Troy City in upstate New
York, hit first grand slam of major leagues.
February 7, 1882 - John L. Sullivan won
last bare-knuckle heavyweight boxing championship; KOd Paddy
Ryan in MS.
- John Andrew ‘‘Bud’’ Hillerich (father
established J.F. Hillerich, Job Turning in downtown Louisville
in 1859) turned a wooden baseball bat for either Pete
Browning (the "Louisville Slugger" of Louisville Eclipse
baseball team of American Association) or Arlie Latham of St.
Louis Browns; believed to be company’s first baseball bat for
professional player); changed face of baseball;
1897 - name changed
to J.F. Hillerich & Son;
1905 - Honus Wagner (Pittsburgh Pirates) signed deal
with company to use his autograph on Louisville Slugger bats, first baseball player to officially endorse a bat;
1916 - Frank Bradsby, salesman for company since
1911, became partner,
name changed to Hillerich and Bradsby;
July 26, 1949
- registered "Louisville Slugger" trademark first used
November 1, 1893 (bats used in playing or practicing
baseball and softball, and for miniature bats); 2007
- contracts with 60%-70% of MLB players (35-40% of market for
John Andrew "Bud" Hillerich
- Louisville Slugger
May 5, 1884 -
Brooklyn Atlantics (owned by Charles Byrne, Joseph Doyle,
Ferdinand Abell) played first professional game in American
Association; 1885 - renamed Brooklyn Grays;
1888 - renamed
Brooklyn Bridegrooms; April 28, 1890 - played first National
League game in Brooklyn; 1900 - acquired by Charles Ebbets;
1908 - 50% of team acquired by Ed and Steve McKeever;
1913 - Dodgers dedicated 18,000-seat Ebbets Field in game
against Phillies; 1941 - Walter O'Malley appointed team's
attorney; October 1950 - O'Malley became president, chief
stockholder; May 28, 1957 - National League approved Dodgers's,
Giants's moves to California; April 18, 1958 - opening day at
L.A. Memorial Coliseum, 78,672 fans;
April 10, 1962 - opening
day at Dodger Stadium (56,000-seat capacity);
March 17, 1970 -
Peter O'Malley named club president;
March 19, 1998 - Major
League Baseball owners approved sale of Dodgers to The FOX
Group; April 20, 1999 - surpassed 100 million mark in home
attendance since Dodger Stadium opened in 1962 (drew at least 2
million fans for record 27 consecutive seasons);
1999 - Robert A. Daly, Chairman and Co-CEO of Warner Bros.,
Warner Music Group since 1980, minority owner of Dodgers, became
Chairman and CEO, club's managing partner;
January 29, 2004 -
Major League Baseball unanimously approved sale of Dodgers to
Frank and Jamie McCourt (from Fox Entertainment Group, Robert
- Brooklyn Dodgers
March 2, 1887 -
American Trotting Association organized in Detroit.
June 3, 1888 -
Ernest Lawrence Thayer published ''Casey at the Bat'' in San
Francisco Daily Examiner.
March 30, 1889 - John T. Reid opened first U.S.
golf course in Yonkers, NY.
August 29, 1889 - First American International
pro lawn tennis contest (Newport RI).
June 6, 1890 -
United States Polo Association formed in New York City.
August 6, 1890 -
Denton True 'Cy' Young, Hall-of-fame pitcher, made major
league debut with Cleveland Spiders of National League.
November 29, 1890
- First Army-Navy football game played at West Point, NY; Navy
December 1, 1891
- James Naismith, Canadian physical education teacher at YMCA in
Springfield, MA, created indoor sport of basketball;
December 21, 1891 -
introduced first game of Basket Ball to class of secretaries;
game was a hit.
- creator of basketball
January 15, 1892 -
Rules of basketball published in Springfield, MA;
January 21, 1892 -
James Naismith introduced game of basketball in Springfield,
Massachusetts meeting hall.
1892 - Canada's Governor General, Lord Stanley,
presented silver challenge cup for hockey (Stanley Cup);
March 22, 1894 - Hockey's first Stanley Cup championship
game played, Montreal Amateur Athletic Association defeated
Ottawa Capitals 3-1 in Montreal.
- NHL's Stanley Cup
1892 - Charlie Reilly baseball's first pinch
7, 1892 - First heavyweight-title boxing match
fought with gloves under Marquis of Queensbury rules ended when
James J. Corbett knocked out John L. Sullivan in the 21st round
at Olympic Club in New Orleans, LA.
1893 - First women's collegiate basketball game
played at Smith College in Massachusetts.
March 13, 1894 - J
L Johnstone of England invented horse racing starting gate.
December 22, 1894
- United States Golf Association (USGA) founded.
1895 - First college basketball game played as
Minnesota State School of Agriculture defeated Porkers of
Hamline College, 9-3.
February 9, 1895 - William G. Morgan, instructor
at Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in Holyoke, MA,
invented Volleyball (called mintonette); blended elements of
basketball, baseball, tennis, handball to create a game for his
classes of businessmen which would demand less physical contact
William G. Morgan
- invented Volleyball
- First U.S. Open golf tournament held, at Newport Country Club
in Rhode Island.
January 18, 1896 - First college
basketball game played, between University of Iowa and
University of Chicago.
February 8, 1896 -
Midwestern colleges formed Western
(football) Conference; later
renamed Big 10 Conference.
April 6, 1896 - Eight nations competed
modern Olympic games in Athens, Greece -- reinstated 1500 years
after being banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I.
1896 - Amos Alonzo Stagg, of University of Chicago, created football huddle.
1897 - Crawford,
MacGregor and Canby (Dayton, OH), manufacturer of lathe-turned
wood products (shoe lasts), began producing wooden golf clubs
under 'J. MacGregor' brand (first company to make golf clubs; Archibald and Ziba Crawford had begun with manufacture wooden
shoe pegs in 1829, established Dayton Shoe Last Company; Charles
Henry Crawford. nephew, became third owner in 1842; joined, in
about 1875, by investors, Edward Canby, owner of Dayton Coffee
Company, and John McGregor, Scotsman, formed The Crawford,
McGregor and Canby Co.; Canby bought out McGregor in 1895,
eventually, bought out Crawford brothers);
1902 - placed new mark on MacGregor
clubs (concentric circles with shamrock in center surrounded by
words "Guaranteed Hand Forged");
1920s - one of first to offer steel-shafted
clubs; 1927 - first
"Harmonized" club set (included both wood, steel shafts);
1933 - converted
fully to steel shaft production;
1930s - name changed to MacGregor Golf Co.;
1940s - dominant
maker of golf clubs; Charles H. Rickey;
1949 - introduced its first matching set
of four "woods" (for long shots), nine "irons" (for shorter
shots; sand wedge included with irons in set for first time);
increased eightfold; June 16, 1953
- MacGregor Sport Products, Inc. registered "MacGregor"
trademark first used March 1, 1897 (paraphernalia for all kinds
of athletic contests, etc.); 1967
- acquired by Brunswick Corporation;
1979 - acquired by Wickes Corporation;
1982 - acquired by
Jack Nicklaus-led group; 1986
- acquired by Amer Sport (Finnish conglomerate);
1997 - acquired by
consortium led by Masters International (UK);
1999 - acquired by
Parkside Group (Barry Schneider);
May 20, 2009 - full intellectual property rights
to MacGregor Golf brand throughout North and South America,
Europe, Australia/New Zealand, Africa acquired by Golfsmith
International Holdings, Inc. (Austin, TX).
March 20, 1897 - First intercollegiate
basketball game to use five players per team held; Yale beat
April 19, 1897 - First Boston Marathon
run; won by John McDermott of New York in 2:55:10.10).
1898 - George and Alfred Rawlings
established Rawlings Manufacturing Co. in St. Louis, MO, in
partnership with Charles W. Scudder (put up money);
1902 - introduced
first shoulder pads (fiber-and-felt) for football players;
1906 - outfitted
baseball's St. Louis Cardinals with team uniforms;
1919 - manufactured
Bill Doak's first modern baseball glove (separated thumb,
forefinger with few strands of rawhide to form deep pocket);
best-seller for more than 25 years;
1954 - fourth largest sporting goods
company in United States; 1955
- acquired by A.G. Spalding & Bros., Inc., second largest
sporting goods company in nation;
1957 - introduced Rawlings Golden Glove Award to
recognize fielding excellence for best major league baseball
players at each position; 1963
- Rawlings Sporting Goods Co. (renamed) acquired by group of
private investors for about $10.3 million; renamed Rawlings
Corp., only privately owned sporting goods manufacturer in
United States; 1967
- acquired by Automatic Sprinkler Corp. of America (name changed
to A-T-O Inc. in 1969, to Figgie International in 1981);
1977 - replaced
Spalding as supplier of baseballs to major leagues (30,000 dozen
Haitian-produced balls a year); took lead from Wilson Sporting
Goods Co. in baseball glove business (market share between 28-
30%, more than 50% of gloves sold to professional players);
1987 - selected as "Official Basketball and
Football for NCAA Championships";
1994 - went public;
1997 - signed five-year contract with
Host Communications Inc., nation's leading sports marketer.
1898 - A.E. Wickett built first Old Town
Canoe in Ild Town, ME, on Penobscot River (frst wood-and-canvas
canoe, more durable, lower maintenance improvement on Native
American birch bark canoe); 1903
- incorporated as Old Town Canoe Co.;
1906 - built about 400 boats per month;
1910 - Old Town, ME
labeled itself as Canoe Center of the World (built 3,500
canoes); 1940 -
rendering traditional seal-skin kayak design in more durable
- introduced lightweight fiberglass versions of kayaks, canoes;
November 22, 1955 -
Old Town Canoe Company registered "Old Town" trademark first
used January 26, 1906 (canoes, bats, skiffs, and the various
types of each, and structural parts thereof; paddles and/or
oars, backrests for the same; boat and canoe sails and
lee-boards); 1974 -
acquired by Sam Johnson of S. C. Johnson Wax (became subsidiary
of Johnson Wax Associates; later renamed Johnson Outdoors Inc.);
gave birth to plastic boat industry; global leader in kayaks,
- George F. Grant, dentist of Boston,
MA, received patent for a "Golf-Tee" ("a
simple, cheap, and effective tee for use in the game of golf,
obviating the use of the usual conical mounds of sand or similar
material formed by the fingers of the player on which the ball
is supported when driving off. While the tee must firmly, yet
lightly, support the ball until hit by the player's club, the
tee must be so constructed that it will not in any manner
interfere with the swing or 'carry through' of the club in
making the stroke"); wooden tee with a tapered base and a
flexible, tubular, concave shoulder to hold golf ball; didn't
market his tees, but gave some away.
- Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson, president of Western League
(faltering minor league) since 1893, changed league name, founded
The American League; consisted of eight baseball teams;
January 28, 1901 - claimed major league status; declared
American League would operate as major league; opposed by
National League owners; proved its competitiveness on field, at
gate. Johnson became most significant member of National
Commission, baseball's ruling body, until 1920.
Byron "Ban" Johnson
- founder MLB's American League
1900- American collegian Dwight Filley Davis
intercollegiate tennis singles championship in 1899) challenged
British tennis players to compete against his Harvard team; won
support of U.S. National Lawn Tennis Association, personally
spent $750 on construction of elegant silver trophy bowl
(International Lawn Tennis Challenge Trophy), 13 inches high, 18
inches in diameter; August 8, 1900 - three top
British players came to Longwood Cricket Club in Brookline, MA,
to compete against Davis and his all-Harvard team; three-day
format for event still exists; first Davis Cup ended with 3-0
1902 - Group
of fans in Madrid, Spain founded Madrid Foot Ball Club (later
known as Real Madrid) in Spanish League, known as La Liga; first
coach, Englishman Arthur Johnson; 29 La Liga championships
through 2006; 2000 - selected by FIFA,
international governing body, as best football team of 20th
century; still owned, operated by its members.
- Hoyt Buck, young Kansas blacksmith apprentice, produced first
Buck Knife as better way to temper steel to hold an edge longer;
made each knife by hand, used worn-out file blades as raw
material; 1947 -
set up shop as H.H. Buck & Son in San Diego;
revolutionized knife industry with Model 110 Folding Hunter
(folding "lockblade" knife); made Buck industry leader;
June 14, 1983 -
Buck Knives, Inc. registered Buck" trademark first used in 1945
January 1, 1902
- University of Michigan (10-0) crushed Stanford (3-1-2) by
score of 49-0 in first Tournament East-West football game (Rose
Bowl); game discontinued; 1916 - game resumed.
1903 - First
squash courts in US built, opened at New York Athletic Club.
Frank Farrell (pool hall, gambling impresario), Bill Devery
(former New York City police chief)
Baltimore's defunct American League baseball franchise for
$18,000, moved team to New York City; named team "Highlanders";
March 12, 1903 - New
York Highlanders (Yankees) approved as members of AL;
April 23, 1903 - first win in franchise history;
April 11, 1912 - pinstripes appeared on uniforms;
April 1913 - name changed to Yankees;
January 11, 1915 - team sold to Col. Jacob Ruppert and
Col. Tillinghast L´Hommedieu Huston for $460,000;
January 3, 1920 - bought Babe Ruth's contract from
Red Sox for $125,000, $350,000 loan against mortgage on
Fenway Park; September, 1921 - Yankees clinched
first of 37 pennants;
April 18, 1923 - played first game at Yankee
Stadium in the Bronx (4-1 win over Boston Red Sox, Babe Ruth
made an error, hit three-run homer).
- Arthur F. Knight, of Schenectady, NY, received patent for a
"Golf Club" (" the object being to provide a club in which the
chance of error on the part of the player in driving,
approaching, or putting is greatly reduced"); Schenectady
mallet-headed, center-shaft putter; 1905 - Walter
Travis used the club to win the British Amateur.; 1910
- USGA rule banned center-shafted putters; 1952 -
rule rescinded; November 22, 1910 - received
patent for a "Golf-Club" ("in which the line of flight of
the ball may more truly conform to the direction of the blow
delivered by the player"); seamed, tubular, steel golf shaft;
failed to gain mass appeal due to the USGA’s and R&A’s refusal
to legalize the use of steel shafts in play.
July 1, 1903
- First Tour de France Bicycle
Race with 60 participants - created by Henri Desgranges and
George Lefevre (editor and journalist, respectively, of
July 19, 1903 - Maurice Garin won race.
October 1, 1903 - Visiting Pittsburgh Pirates
defeated Boston Americans 7-3 in game 1 of first World
1903- Boston Americans defeated Pittsburgh Pirates 4 games to 3
in baseball's first World Series.
- First college sports letters given to Seniors who played on
University of Chicago's football team; awarded blankets with
letter "C" on them.
- "Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs"
Denton T. "Cy" Young, of Boston Americans, pitched
baseball's first perfect game since 1880, 3-0 victory over the Philadelphia
May 14, 1904 - Third Olympiad of modern era,
first Olympic Games held in United States, opened
in St. Louis, Missouri (initially awarded to Chicago, later
given to St. Louis to be staged in connection with St. Louis World Exposition); few entrants other than
Americans in various events; U.S. athletes
won majority of competitions, unofficial team
May 4, 1905 -
Belmont Park opened; estimated 40,000 horse racing
enthusiasts watched clock-wise races (opposite direction today);
top race - $10,000 Metropolitan Handicap = dead heat finish
between Sysonby and Race King; 1930 - Charles
Hatton, of Daily Racing Form, coined term "Triple
Gallant Fox won Kentucky Derby, Preakness, Belmont Stakes (feat
first achieved in 1919 by Sir Barton but not recognized at time). 2004 - 120,000 attended Belmont Stakes.
1906 - Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States,
forerunner of NCAA, founded in New York City.
1892 - Hugh
Locke King volunteered to build, at his own expense (£150,000), on his own land (Weybridge, Surrey, 20 miles south west of
London), world's first purpose-built motor-racing track (3¼
miles, two huge banked sections nearly 30 ft. high, 100 ft.
wide, hard-surfaced, two long straights); first ever oval style
race track built for cars; June 17, 1907 -
Brooklands Motor Course opened; July 6, 1907 -
first official race; birthplace of British motorsport;
[A.V.] Roe made first flight in a British-built aeroplane;
birthplace of British aviation; August 1914 -
taken over by war office, Military Flying School formed,
employed instructors and aeroplanes from many existing schools;
1915 - Vickers started aircraft manufacturing,
took over 'Itala Motor Works' (premises on edge of the Track);
1920 - track re-opened for new season of motor
racing; September 1939 - closed at outbreak of
war; February 2002 - English Heritage formally
scheduled whole of remaining original track at Brooklands as
Historic Monument (legal protection against damage).
Hugh Locke King -
1906 - New rule put umpire in sole charge of all game balls.
- Automobile Club of France staged first French Grand Prix
(first race of that type held anywhere) in Le Mans; won by
Hungarian driver Ferenc Szisz in a 90hp Renault; race covered
1,200 kilometers over two days, run under new set of rules that
would become a standard element of Grand Prix racing; all cars
were to weigh no more than 1,000 kg;
1908 - minimum weight of
2,425 pounds and a maximum engine displacement of 13 liters
(imposed a limit of around 105hp on the cars of that time).
1907- New York Giant Roger Bresnahan became first catcher to
wear shin guards.
Johns Hopkins University lacrosse club played first game on
Homewood Field under coach William C. "Father Bill" Schmeisser;
shared national championship with Harvard.
William C. "Father Bill"
- Johns Hopkins Lacrosse
Robert Winterhalder built first ski tow, powered by water wheel,
at Schollach in Black Forest of Germany;
1933 - Alec Foster built first ski tow
in North America at Shawbridge in Laurentian Mountains in
Quebec, Canada; 1934
- Engineer Ernst Constamm of Zurich built Bolgen lift at Davos
Switzerland (prototype of surface ski tows);
spring 1936 - James
Curran, Union Pacific engineer, designed small chair seat to be
suspended from overhead cable (raised anxieties of superiors
that hoisting paying customers six or more feet off ground would
be hazardous; Averill Harriman approved plan);
December 1936 -
Proctor Mountain chairlift at Sun Valley, one of first two in
world, opened; 1938
- first in east was opened at Belknap Recreation Area (now
Gunstock) in Gilford, NH; 1980s
- standard configuration - detachable quad chairlift.
- first ski tow
- Mills Committee declared baseball invented by Abner Doubleday.
1908 - Baseball Writers Association formed.
- Jack Johnson knocked out Tommy Burns in 14th round in
championship bout at Rushcutter's Bay, near Sydney, Australia;
first black heavyweight boxing champion; reviled by whites for
defiance of "Jim Crow" racial conventions of early 20th-century
1909 - Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation
incorporated with Carl G. Fisher as president; built on 328
acres of farmland five miles northwest of Indiana's capital
city; financed by four local businessmen: Carl Fisher, James
Allison, Frank Wheeler, Arthur Newby; August 19, 1909
- first race on original surface of crushed rock and tar;
1909 -the famous brick surface of Indianapolis Motor
Speedway (the "Brickyard") was finished; 3,200,000 paving bricks
imported by rail from the western part of state, laid on their
sides in bed of sand, fixed with mortar; inspired nickname "The
Brickyard"; December 17
- grand opening when brickwork was ceremoniously completed by
Governor Thomas R. Marshall of Indiana, cemented last "golden"
Carl G. Fisher
- Indianapolis Speedway first
May 13, 1909
- La Gazzetta dello Sport (in competition with rival Corriere
della Sera) organized first Giro d'Italia of cycling; 127
participants, (123 Italians, four French cyclists);
May 30, 1909 - race
ended (8 stages, 49 finished); won by Luigi Ganna.
August 31, 1909
- Benjamin F. Shibe, of Bala, PA (principal owner of the
Philadelphia Athletics, partner in A.J. Reach sporting goods
company,), received a patent
for a "Base-ball" ("in which the
center is formed of a resilient sphere, upon which the ball is
constructed to the desired diameter of yarn or other thread
tightly wound theron and secured by a binder of adhesive plastic
composition upon its surface adjacent to the outer cover of
horsehide or other material"); cork-centered baseball vs. solid
indian-rubber core surrounded by layers of yarn;
machinery that made possible the manufacture of standard
- J. Ambrose O'Brien, sportsman from Ottawa, owner of Renfrew
Creamery Kings, founded Club de Hockey Le Canadien, with
financial support from another magnate, T.C. Hare (provided
$1,000 required for league entry, $5,000 to guarantee players'
salaries); played; January 5, 1910
- played first game in newly formed National Hockey Association
(had been rejected for membership in Canadian Hockey
Association), beat Cobalt Silver Kings 7-6 in overtime before
3,000 spectators at Jubilee Rink (nullified when NHA absorbed
CHA teams, created new schedule);
February 7, 1910 - first official win against
Haileybury Hockey Club; finished season with 2-10 record;
November 2, 1910 -
acquired by George W. Kendall (Kennedy), owner of "Club
Athletique Canadien" (founded 1905); claimed rights to 'Canadien'
name, paid $7500 for team; sweaters changed from blue to red
during improved 8-8 season (finished 2nd in NHA);
1914 - first
winning season, finished 2nd (13-7 record);
1916 - defeated Portland Rosebuds
(PCHA) for first Stanley Cup victory (3-2); players received
$238 for winning cup; 1917
- jerseys changed (H, for Habitants, replaced A); became one of
most familiar insignias in world of sport;
1918 - owners of NHA teams formed new
league (National Hockey League);
1922 - acquired by Leo Dandurand, Jos
Cattarinich, Louis A Letourneau for $11,500;
1924 - first game
ever at Montreal Forum, Habs beat Toronto St. Patricks 7-1;
1945 - Maurice
Richard becames first player to score 50 goals in single 50-game
season; 1952 -
Jacques Plante made NHL debut; 1953
- Jean Beliveau played first full season;
1956 - first 100-point season;
1957 - acquired by
Tom, Hartland Molson (Molson Brreweries);
November 1, 1959 - Plante became first
goalie to wear facemask in NHL game;
1971 - Guy LaFleur became instant fan
favorite in rookie season; 1975
- won newly established Norris Division;
1977 - Steve Shutt scored 60 goals,
record for Left Wingers; Guy LaFleur won Hart Trophy (amassed
1936 points, new franchise record);
1981 - Canadiens shifted to Adams
Division; 1984 -
first losing season in 33 years;
1985 - Goalie Patrick Roy (20) played first full
season; 1986 - won
23rd Stanley Cup, professional team sports record for most
- 100th Anniversary of dedication of Stanley Cup;
June 2001 - 80.1%
interest acquired by George N. Gillett, Jr. for $275 million
(Canadian) plus right of first refusal upon team resale;
2004 - Season
Cancelled Due to Lock Out.
J. Ambrose O'Brien
- Montreal Canadiens
- Jacob (17) and Hannah Golomb established Everlast as swimsuit
manufacturer in Bronx, NY (guarantee that outfits would last
entire summer); 1916
- future heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey turned to Golomb for
boxing equipment; July 4, 1919
- Dempsey wore Everlast boxing gloves on day he became
heavyweight champion (defeated Jess Willard); freely endorsed
Everlast products for years;
mid-1920s - introduced trunks with elastic
waistband; 1950s -
David Golomb (son) took over; May
9, 1950 - Everlast World's Boxing Headquarters
Corp. registered "Everlast" tradermark first used in 1914 (ear
and eyebrow protectors for boxers, boxing masks, odontoguards,.
boxing gloves, striking bags, fighting gloves, training ummies,
striking-bag platforms, etc.); 1958
- half-interest acquired by Ben Nadorf;
1983 - first licensed Everlast name
(Gerson & Gerson, apparel maker, licensed label to market line
of novelty women's shorts and robes);
1995 - Nadorf (80) acquired remaining
half of business; October 24, 2000
- acquired by management, shareholders of Active Apparel Group
in $60 million cash and stock deal; name changed to Everlast
Worldwide (Georeg Horowitz as chairman, CEO);
September 20, 2007
- Everlast Worldwide Inc. acquired by UK based company Brands
- Boston Arena opened on campus of Northeastern University;
first indoor site for hockey in Boston; original home of Boston
Bruins (1923), NHL's first American franchise; first home of New
England Whalers (World Hockey Association; now Carolina
Hurricanes); oldest indoor hockey arena still in use.
- 82 athletes (from four local colleges, three high schools),
100 spectators attended first "Drake Relay Carnival" at Drake
University (Iowa's largest private university) in blizzard
on dirt track on outskirts of fledgling Des Moines (proposed by
John L. Griffith, Director of Athletics at Drake University);
1911 - hosted
dinner for visiting coaches, officials to build relationships,
exchange ideas; 500 spectators watched more than 250 athletes
compete in second Relay; 1915
- recognized as third-largest track and field event in world;
1922 - expanded to
2-day meet (700 athletes, 10,000 spectators);
first track and field meet to be broadcast live on radio;
1923 - moved to
last week in April to compete with Penn Relays;
1936 - attendance
reached 20,000; 1961
- women's competition introduced; 1976 - oval
converted to 400 meters (from 440 meters), all timing became
electronic; one of largest, most important track meets in
(more than 600,000 athletes have competed
over 99 years; every Saturday session sold out since 1966;
estimated 2.3 million spectators since 1910).
- President William Howard Taft began tradition of throwing out ball on opening
day of baseball season; threw pitch to Washington Senator's Opening Day pitcher, Walter
Johnson, from his seat in stands.
President William Howard Taft
1910 - Arthur F. Knight, of Schenectady, NY, received a patent for a
"Golf Club" ("in which the line of flight of the ball may more
truly conform to the direction of the blow delivered by the
player"); steel-shafted golf club formed from tempered
high-carbon steel tubing, in which the volume of metal decreases
toward the head.
- Hugh Chalmers, automaker, suggested idea of baseball MVP.
May 30, 1911
- First Indianapolis 500 auto race run; Ray Harroun won 200 lap
race in Marmon Wasp after 6 hours, 42 minutes, 8 seconds,
average speed of 74.59 miles per hour; $14,250 to winner;
1912 - total
prize money of $50,000, highest paying sporting event
- Ashland Manufacturing Company founded to develop innovative
ways of using slaughterhouse by-products of meat packing
firm Schwarzchild and Sulzberger (original product line include
surgical sutures, inexpensive tennis racquets, tennis racquet
string, two models of baseball shoes); 1914
- Thomas E. Wilson (former president of Chicago-based Morris &
Co. packinghouse) named president, company became separate
operating subsidiary to focus on sports oriented products;
1915 - added football jerseys, basketballs, indoor
baseballs to line, advertised Star tennis racquet at $.75; 1916 - Ashland Manufacturing
renamed as Thomas E. Wilson Co.; 1918 - $1
million in sales; 1925 - name changed to
Wilson-Western Sporting Goods Company; 1931 - name
changed to Wilson Sporting Goods Co.; 1941 - made
official manufacturer of NFL footballs (only major sports league
to use balls manufactured in U.S., in Ada, OH plant since 1955 -
4,000 balls/day, 700,000/year, every Super Bowl since 1969);
1967 - Wilson meat packing
acquired by Ling-Temco-Vought; Wilson Sporting Goods
restructured as subsidiary; 1970 - acquired by
Pepsico; 1975 -tennis sales volume surpassed golf
sales for first time; 1989 - acquired by Amer
Group Ltd. of Helsinki, Finland.
- Babe Ruth made major league debut with Boston Red Sox.
- New York Yankees wore pinstripes, hat-in-the-ring logo for
- Rodman Wanamaker (son of founder of Wanamaker’s department
stores) invited group of golf professionals, several leading
amateur golfers to Taplow Club in New York City, April 10,
1916 - The
Professional Golfers' Association of America (PGA) officially
established with 35 charter members; October 1916
- first annual PGA Championship took place at Siwanoy Country
Club in Bronxville, NY; James M. Barnes defeated Jock
Hutchinson, won trophy and purse of $2,580.
- Wrigley Field opened in Chicago.
- Seattle Metropolitans became first U.S. team to win Stanley
Cup, defeated Montreal Canadiens.
Canadiens, Montreal Maroons, Toronto Arenas, Ottawa Senators,
Quebec Bulldogs formed National Hockey League; National Hockey
- Sir Barton won Belmont Stakes, became horse racing's first
Triple Crown winner (though not officially recognized).
- Curly Lambeau (shipping clerk for $250/month at Indian Packing
Company), George Calhoun gathered husky young athletes in
editorial room of Green Bay (WI) Press-Gazette building on
Cherry Street; organized football team; talked Indian Packing
Company into putting up money for jerseys, permitting use of its
athletic field for practice; executives identified club in early
publicity as project of company, team named "Packers" (Indian
Packing Company practically faded from picture before first
season half over); August 27, 1921 - Lambeau,
J. E. Clair, of Acme Packing Company, obtained franchise in
new national pro football league (formed in 1920); forfeited at
year's end as cash customers didn't cover costs of team;
1922 - Lambeau attracted other backers, bought franchise
back for $250, including $50 of his own money; A.B. Turnbull,
Green Bay Press-Gazette general manager, advanced Lambeau,
lobbied town businessmen ("The Hungry Five") behind team, formed
Green Bay Football Corporation; 1923 -
publicly-owned nonprofit corporation, 4,750,934 shares
outstanding, 112,015 shareholders (no dividends; 200,000 shares
= maximum ownership limit); January 31, 1950 -
Lambeau resigned (ended 31-year run), became Chicago Cardinals
head coach; April 3, 1956 - voters approved referendum to fund
construction of new stadium; September 29, 1957 -
facility dedicated; 1965 - renamed Lambeau Field.
- Green Bay Packers
- Green Bay Packers
- Baseball league presidents called for abolishment of spitball.
- Baseball outlawed all pitches involving tampering with ball.
- Rube Foster organized Negro National Baseball League.
Andrew Rube Foster
- Negro National League
- First artificial rabbit used at dog race track in Emeryville,
- Station WWJ in Detroit broadcast first prizefight on radio;
Jack Dempsey knocked out Billy Miske in third round of bout in
Benton Harbor, MI.
- Ralph Hay, Jim Thorpe, George Halas, Leo Lyons, others
formed American Professional Football Association (NFL)
in Ralph E. Hay's Hupmobile showroom in Canton, OH;
Jim Thorpe first president; 1922 - name changed to
National Football League.
September 27, 1920
- Eight Chicago White Sox players charged with fixing 1919
November 12, 1920
- Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis elected baseball's first
February 5, 1921
- Yankees purchased 20 acres in Bronx for Yankee Stadium.
1921 - Harry Houdini, of Brooklyn, NY, received a patent
for a "Diver's Suit" ("arranged to permit the diver in case of
danger for any cause whatever, to quickly divest himself of the
suit while being submerged and to safely escape and reach the
surface of the water").
July 5, 1921
After Judge Hugo Friend denied motion to quash indictments
against major league baseball players accused of throwing 1919
World Series, trial began with jury selection; Chicago White Sox players,
including stars Shoeless Joe Jackson, Buck Weaver, Eddie
Cicotte, became known as "Black Sox" after
scandal revealed (White Sox, easily favored at start of
World Series, had been seriously underpaid, mistreated by owner
Charles Comiskey; conspiracy to fix games most likely initiated
by New York gambler Arnold
Rothstein, who used
discontent to his advantage - offered, through intermediaries, relatively small sums of money for players to lose some games
intentionally; scandal came to light when gamblers did
not pay players as promised, thought that they had no recourse; when players openly complained, story became public ,
authorities forced to prosecute);
August 2, 1921
- jury acquitted all accused former members of Chicago White
Sox, two others of conspiring to defraud public by throwing
then celebrated with them at nearby restaurant; height
of hypocrisy surrounding entire matter came when Shoeless Joe
sued Comiskey for unpaid salary;
Comiskey's lawyers suddenly produced confessions that had
disappeared during criminal trial, offered no explanation as to how
they had been obtained; other baseball owners hired Judge
Kennisaw Mountain Landis to be new commissioner of
baseball (hard-liner, virulent racist prevented blacks from playing in major leagues during his reign
into 1940s); August 3, 1921
- Baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis refused to
reinstate former Chicago White Sox players implicated in "Black
Sox" Scandal; permanently barred implicated Black Sox
players from baseball; Buck Weaver, by all accounts, had refused
to take any money offered by gamblers, purportedly banned
from baseball for refusing to turn his teammates in; Shoeless Joe Jackson probably accepted some money, his
statistics show that he never truly participated in throwing
games (had best batting average of either team in series).
Pittsburgh broadcast first baseball game on radio, Pirates beat
Phillies, 8-0; October 5, 1921 - World Series
broadcast on radio for first time.
1922 - John
Tate Riddell, former Head Football Coach, Athletic
Director of Evanston (IL) Township High School, created,
developed removable cleat (vs. leather cleats nailed to sole of
shoe); February 1929 - founded John T. Riddell,
Inc. to produce shoes; added baseball, track shoes; 1939
- invented, perfected first plastic suspension helmet; granted
U. S. government license to use suspension in production of
military helmets, liners; 1946 - launched RT-2
mode suspension helmet; 1979 - shoe line discontinued due to
competition of foreign-made athletic shoes; 1988 -
acquired Power Athletic Company, manufacturer of ultra-high
quality professional shoulder pads; 1989 -
negotiated agreement with National Football League, allowed
Riddell brand prominent display in televised NFL games in
exchange for Riddell helmets, Power shoulder pads for NFL
John Tate Riddell
- Colonel Jacob Ruppert, colonel in seventh regiment of
National Guard, bought Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston's interest
in Yankees for $1.2 million (both had acquired
Yankees for $450,000 in 1914).
1922 - U.S, Suprme Court ruled in Federal Baseball Club v.
National League ('Federal Baseball Ruling') that Major League
Baseball was exempt from provisions of Sherman Antitrust Act
(suit had been brought by owner of defunct Baltimore Terrapins
of Federal League, started in 1914; accused major leagues of
conspiring to crush MLB's one remaining competitor); exemption
meant that Supreme Court or Congress would have had to say
otherwise before it could be legally voided);
November 9, 1953 -
antitrust exemption upheld in George Earl Toolson v. New York
Yankees, Inc.; first challenge to reserve clause which prevented
June 24, 1922
- American Professional Football Association changed name to
National Football League.
July 2, 1922
- Ralph W. Samuelson (19) became first person to ride on water
skis (he had made), as they are used today, at Lake Pepin, MN;
had tried few days earlier with barrel staves and snow skis,
with no real success; used two boards, eight feet long and nine
inches wide, with curved tips; boiled tips in his mother's
copper kettle and, using clamps and braces, curved tips of boards,
let them set for two days; binders made from
scrap leather held skis to his feet; towed behind launch
(top speed 14 knots) with 100-foot sash cord and iron ring as
a tow line; July 31, 1922 - demonstrated first
August 28, 1922
- First Walker Cup: U.S. beat England 8-4.
April 13, 1923
- Army won first college three-weapon fencing championships.
April 18, 1923
- First game played at Yankee Stadium in New York City; Yankees
beat Boston Red Sox 4-1; 74,000 (62,281 paid) attendance.
- First Le Mans 24-Hour race (world's
longest-running 24-hour event) concluded; Winners Andre Lagache
and Renee Leonard covered 1,372.928 miles in a Chenard-Walker
- Anton Kästle produced first pair of full ash skis in his
coaches- workshop in Hohenems, Austria (heart of Austria’s
Arlberg region); 1929
- began batch production (full ash skis made in small batches);
developed top-quality Arlberg Ski;
1972 - renamed Kästle Ltd.;
1976 - introduced new logo ("double
arrows"); 1978 -
most successful ski brand at Alpine World Championship in
- acquired by Benetton Sportssystem, subsidiary of Benetton
Group; 1996 -
production at Hohenems, Austria shut down;
1999 - brand abandoned;
2007 - small group
of passionate Austrian skiers, designers, entrepreneurs
re-launched storied Kästle ski brand to manufacture a limited
line of high performance skis (with support from strategic
partners, investors Cross Industries Inc., owners of KTM
motorcycles; almost 10 years of dormancy).
January 25, 1924
- First Winter Olympics at Chamonix, in French Alps (16
events in six sports; 16 nations, 258 athletes - 11 women,
247 men); Norway won unofficial team competition with 17 medals
(all but one of nine skiing medals).
April 10, 1924
- Tubular steel golf club shafts approved for championship play.
- First men's college swimming championships began.
- Charles Francis Adams founded first U.S. NHL
franchise, Boston Bruins; first home game - victory at Boston
Arena against Montreal Maroons, 2-1; 11 straight losses, 6-24
season; finished last in six-team league; 1951 -
acquired by Walter A. Brown, owner of National Basketball
Association's Boston Celtics, Boston Garden; 1964
- reaqcuired by Weston Adams.
1925 - Tim
Mara, bookmaker (legal at time), successful businessman and
promoter, purchased New York Giants team for reported $500;
October 1925 - lost opener to Frankford Yellow
Jackets by score of 14-0; 1927 - won first title;
1930s - control of franchise transferred to his
two sons, Jack Mara (22), Wellington (14); 1970s -
finished in last place or next-to-last eight times; 1986
- first Super Bowl appearance, first world championship since
1956; February, 1991 - 50% interest in franchise
acquired by Preston Robert Tisch.
- New York Giants
- Fred Waller, of New York, NY, received patent for an
"Aquaplane" ("of the type designed to be ridden when drawn
through water"); water skis.
National Hockey League franchise to Detroit; acquired roster of
Victoria Cougars of Western Hockey League; team known as Detroit
Cougars, changed to Falcons; 1933 - Olympia
Stadium, Falcons franchise acquired by James E. Norris; changed
name to Red Wings (version of Montreal Athletic Association
cycling 'Winged Wheelers' logo); 1936 - won first
James E. Norris, Sr.
- Detroit Red Wings
1926- International Greyhound Racing Association formed (Miami,
- Major Frederic McLaughlin, coffee tycoon, acquired Chicago
hockey franchise from Lester and Frank Patrick of Pacific Coast
Hockey Association; led consortium of Chicago businessmen which
purchased Portland Rosebuds of Western Canada Hockey
League (folded previous season), served as team's first
president; renamed Black Hawks in honor of Black Hawk regiment
commanded by McLaughlin in WW I (also in honor of Illinois Chief
Black Hawk of Sauk Indians); McLaughlin's wife designed Indian
head featured on Chicago Black Hawk jerseys; November 17,
1926 - Chicago Black Hawks played first game at Chicago
Coliseum against Toronto St. Pats (won 4-1); March 1929
- Chicago Stadium opened; 1936 - stadium acquired
by Detroit Red Wings owner James E. Norris; 1944 -
McLaughlin estate sold team to syndicate headed by team
president Bill Tobin (puppet for Norris); 1952 -
James D. Norris (son) and Red Wings minority owner Arthur Wirtz
bought floundering club; 1954 - Wirtz family
(Arthur and two sons, Michael and William) gained control of
franchise; 1966 - William Wirtz named President of
Chicago Black Hawks (for next 41 years).
Major Frederic McLaughlin
- founder, Chicago Black Hawks
- First Ryder Cup: U.S. beat England, 9 -2 at Worcester (MA) CC.
- Jack Dempsey, "Manassa Mauler," missed opportunity to regain
heavyweight boxing title when he failed to return to neutral
corner after knocking down champ Gene Tunney in title match in
Chicago; Dempsey waited five seconds before heading to neutral
corner, at which point referee began 10-count as rules
dictated; as referee reached nine seconds, Tunney got back
up to his feet (had been down for what amounted to
14 seconds); Tunney won bout in decision after 10 rounds.
- Babe Ruth, of New York Yankees, hit his 60th home run of season,
broke his own major-league record.
- Michigan Wolverines opened Michigan Stadium against Ohio
Wesleyan Bishops, defending champion of Ohio Conference;
Michigan won 33-0; stadium built on 16 acres and 119 city lots
(acquired in 1925 for $239,000) at cost of $950,000; 44 sections
with 72 rows seating 72,000; official attendance of 17,483 on
opening day; October 22, 1927 - crowd of 84,401
packed stadium for dedication game against Ohio State, a 21-0
- George T. Bresnahan, of Iowa City, IA, University of Iowa
coach interested in sports science, received a patent for a
"Foot Support"; starting block for track and field; provided
adjustment of tilt to better match an individual's foot and a
cork or rubber surface to provide a firm foot-hold; intended to
be connected to track surface with suitable spikes or nails.
- New York Yankees became first team to wear uniform numbers.
Bobby Jones won golf's grand slam--victories in one year in
United States Open, British Open, United States Amateur, British
Amateur championships; Lloyds of London quoted odds of 50 to 1
against his winning.
Baseball attendance declined for 3 seasons then increased slowly,
steadily; 1932 -
10% federal amusement tax added to ticket prices; only Yankees,
Cubs made money; 1933
- bank holidays left many fans short of cash.; 23-man rosters
(vs. 25); pay cuts (including Babe Ruth); only NY Giants,
Phillies made money; 1934
- Blue Laws in Pennsylvania ended, allowed Phillies, Pirates to
schedule home games on Sunday; 1935
- Cincinnati Reds hosted first night game; no teams folded,
moved during Depression (2 sold, including Red Sox).
February 4, 1932
- First Winter Olympic Games in United States held at Lake
May 14, 1932
- First electrical timing device tested at track meet for three
events between Columbia, Syracuse at Baker Field, New York City.
- 13 members west, south of Appalachian Mountains
reorganized as Southeastern Conference. at annual Southern
Conference meeting in Knoxville, TN; November 30, 1933
- Alabama defeated Vanderbilt 7-0 to finish 5-0-1 in conference,
captured SEC's first football title; August 21, 1940
- Martin S. Conner, former governor of Mississippi, took office
in Jackson, MS as first commissioner of SEC; October 20,
1951 - Alabama-Tennessee football game, played at
Birmingham's Legion Field, first televised event in SEC history;
January 1, 1977 - began long-standing agreement
with Sugar Bowl to send its champion to New Orleans (Georgia
faced Pittsburgh); September 25, 1990 - South
Carolina accepted invitation to become 12th member of SEC;
June 1, 2007 - SEC announced it would distribute
league-record $122.0 million to 12 member institutions under the
2006-2007 revenue sharing plans.
- Commendatore Tullio Campagnolo founded Campagnolo S.r.l. in
Vicenza, Italy; products made from carbon fibre, titanium,
aluminium alloys; dominated aluminium to produce, distribute
Campagnolo-branded technical garments for cycling;
July 2004 - founded
Fulcrum Wheels S.r.l.; initially completed range of high-end
Campagnolo wheels in racing bike sector; expanded to Mountain
Bikesector with full range of high-performance wheels;
2009 - designed,
produced, distributed high-end components for racing bikes;
present in over 30 countries with five branches, nine agencies,
about 700 employees.
May 18, 1933
- First major league All-Star Game announced for July 6 at
Comiskey Park; played as part of Chicago World's Fair;
July 6, 1933 - baseball's first all-star game held,
American League beat National League 4-2.
July 8, 1933
- Arthur Joseph Rooney purchased NFL franchise for city of
Pittsburgh, named Pirates; member of Eastern Division of 10-team
NFL; fifth-oldest NFL franchise; 1938 - signed
Colorado All-American Byron "Whizzer" White for $15,800;
1940 - name changed to Pittsburgh Steelers; 1943
- merged with Philadelphia Eagles; January 27, 1969
- Chuck Noll hired as coach (23 year tenure) AFC Central
Division from NFL Century Division; moved into Three Rivers
Stadium (from Pitt Stadium); 1972 - won first
division title in franchise history; 1974 - won
first Super Bowl (IX); 1975 - third team in NFL
history to win consecutive Super Bowls; Dan Rooney (son) named
president; 1978 - first team to win three Super
Bowls; 1979 - first team in NFL history to win
four Super Bowls; considered "Team of the Decade" in 1970s;
1992 - Bill Cowher (32) hired as coach; October
7, 2001 - Steelers opened Heinz Field; 2005
- captured fifth Super Bowl (XL); logo belonged to American Iron
and Steel Institute (AISI), created by U.S. Steel Corp.,
contains three hypocycloids (diamond shapes); only NFL team that
sports logo on only one side of helmet (right).
- founder Pittsburgh Steelers
- O. G. Schmidt launched first electric gear-driven (trolling)
motor (added flexible shaft, propeller to starter motor from
Model A Ford); established Minn Kota Manufacturing Company (on
Minn-esota/North Da-kota border);
1935 - introduced first electric flexible cable
motor; 1965 -
introduced first electric motor with reverse switch;
1968 - launched
first remote control adaptable to other brand motors;
1970 - acquired by
Johnson Outdoors (founded in 1970 by Samuel C. Johnson);
1985 - sold first
electronic speed control (as an accessory);
1986 - launched first built-in
electronic/variable speed control;
May 10, 1988 - Johnson Fishing, Inc. registered
"Minn Kota" trademark first used in 1932 (electric fishing
motors and parts thereof); 1995
- sold first all-direction breakaway mounting system;
1999 - introduced
first fully automatic trolling motor;
2002 - launched first wireless remote
that allows trolling motor control from fishing rod, wrist or
belt; 2010 -
launched first wireless GPS trolling system; became $100 million
dollar global brand.
- First ski tow rope in U.S., built by Robert Royce, used
for first time in Woodstock, VT; about 2500 feet of 7/8-inch
manila rope spliced in loop, passed over pulleys, around wheel
attached to Model T ford engine, extended up hill 900 feet;
hauled skier holding it up slope in minute, could pull as
many as 5 skiers at time.
- First Golf Masters Championship: Horton Smith won, shot 284.
- First All-American Soap Box Derby held in Dayton, OH;
organized by newsman Myron Scott (had covered race of
boy-built cars, so impressed that he began similar program
on national scale); event moved to Akron, OH because of hilly
- Judge Landis, baseball commissioner, sold World Series
broadcast rights to Ford for $100,000.
- Babe Ruth played last game for New York Yankees.
Downtown Athletic Club (New York, NY) awarded first Heisman
trophy to University of Chicago's Jay Berwanger; named for John
William Heisman, football coach at number of leading colleges
for more than thirty-five years; 1888 -
member of Brown football team; 1889 - member of
Pennsylvania varsity football eleven; 1892 - began
coaching career at Oberlin College; 1893 - coached
all sports at University of Akron; 1895-1900 -
coached football, baseball at Alabama Polytechnic Institute;
1900-1904 - coach at Clemson College; 1908
- director of athletics at Atlanta Athletic Club;
1910 -1914 - president of Atlanta Baseball Association;
1920 - coached football at University of
Pennsylvania; 1923 - filled same position at
Washington and Jefferson College; 1924-1927 - head
football coach, director of athletics at Rice Institute,
Houston, TX; 1961 -
first Heisman Trophy awarded to black player (Ernie Davis,
John William Heisman
- Heisman Trophy
- National Football League adopted annual college draft; began
- First major league night baseball game played under lights in
Cincinnati OH between Cincinnati Reds, Philadelphia
- Babe Ruth hit 714th, final home run of his career, for
Boston Braves, in game against Pittsburgh Pirates.
1936 - George
Nissen, Larry Griswold (gymnastics and diving competitor,
tumbler on gymnastics team, respectively, both at University of
Iowa) built first trampoline; name came from Spanish 'trampolín'
(diving board); formed traveling acrobatics act called the Three
Leonardos, used Nissen’s bouncing machine to perform in Texas
and in Mexico; 1942
- created Griswold-Nissen Trampoline & Tumbling Company in Cedar
Rapids, IA, began making trampolines commercially;
1943 - Nissin
incorporated Nissen Trampoline Corporation;
March 6, 1945 - George P. Nissen, of
Cedar Rapids, IA, received a patent or a "Tumbling Device"
)"...related to gymnastic equipment and has particular relation
to 'Trampolins' or equiipment for use in tumbling");
1947 - national
"rebound tumbling" competitions began.
- Invented trampoline
- First photofinish camera installed at U.S. racetrack at
January 29, 1936
- First members of baseball's Hall of Fame named in Cooperstown,
NY, included Ty Cobb and Babe Ruth,
Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson,
1936 - W. Averell Harriman
(son of Edward H. Harriman), chairman of Union Pacific Railroad,
founded Sun Valley, ID, first western ski resort; featured
nation's first ski lift with chairs, invented by railroad Union
Pacific personnel in Omaha, NE.
1936 - First National Football
League draft held; Philadelphia Eagles selected Jay
- Japanese professional baseball began with one league of 8
teams (Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club formed in 1934; Japan
Occupational Baseball League had been established
on February 5, 1936);
1937-1938 - played fall,
spring seasons; 1939
- renamed Japanese Baseball League;
1950 - league reorganized, formed Nippon
Professional Baseball (NPB); expanded to 14 teams, divided into
two leagues (Central League, Pacific League), some teams from
original league went to each new league; usually play 130-140
games per season; game tied after 12 innings remains a tie;
average game has 7.81 runs scored by two teams (vs. average 8.81
runs in Major League Baseball);
2005 - interleague play began.
- Temple defeated Colorado to win first NIT.
- Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, NY.
- Joseph H. Pilates, of New York, NY, received a patent for an
"Exercising Apparatus" ("for use by individuals in correcting
physical faults and developing personal physique").
- Oregon won first NCAA men's basketball tournament with 46-33
victory over Ohio State in Evanston, IL.
New York Yankees first baseman Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130
consecutive games played ended.
- First sports telecast-Columbia vs. Princeton-college baseball.
- National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum dedicated in
- Baseball player Lou Gehrig, afflicted with fatal illness, bid
tearful farewell at Yankee Stadium in New York, told fans,
"Today, I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the
August 26, 1939
- Major league baseball televised for first time; experimental
station W2XBS broadcast doubleheader between Cincinnati Reds,
Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field.
- First organ played at Cubs game at Wrigley Field in Chicago.
- High-jumping standards using electric eye detectors first used
at Schenectady Patrolman's Association interscholastic track
meet; consisted of four parallel beams of light, one inch apart,
to record 'high' of each jump.
- Ted Williams ended baseball season with .406 batting average.
- Baseball approved official ball (with cork and balata).
- NFL adopted free substitution rule.
- Dan Topping, Del Webb, Larry MacPhail purchased New York
Yankees for $2.8 million from Colonel Jacob Ruppert estate.
- Albert "Happy" Chandler, baseball commissioner, sold World
Series radio rights for $150,000 to Gillette; Ford had been
World Series sponsor since 1934, paid $100,000 annually.
- Branch Rickey announced formation of U.S. Negro Baseball
- Branch Rickey signed Jackie Robinson to Montreal Royals.
- Tony Hulman purchased Indianapolis Motor Speedway from Edward
Rickenbacher for $750,000; in deplorable condition after four
years of disuse during World War II; May 1946 -
American Automobile Association ran first postwar 500-mile race,
won by George Robson, driving pre-war Adams-Sparks automobile,
with average speed of 114.82mph.
1946 - Francois
Salomon (saw blade manufacturer), Georges Salomon (son) opened
workshop at Côte-Saint-Maurice in Annecy;
1947 - started supplying ski edges to
fast expanding European Alpine ski market;
1955 - introduced the Skade, one of
first releasable toe-pieces; 1957
- perfected cable binding heel;
1962 - introduced Allais safety binding;
world's largest binding maker (sold more than million sold
annually); August 28, 1973
- Francois Salomon & Fils S.A. registered "Salomon" trademark
first used in 1947 (ski equipment-namely, edges, bindings,
antifriction sole plates and safety straps);
1997 - acquired by
Adidas in deal valued at $1.5 billion;
2005 - acquired by Finland-based Amer
- Los Angeles Rams (previously Cleveland) played first NFL game
1947 - Howard
Head (32), aircraft engineer, developed first laminated metal
ski, strong as wooden skis, half as heavy; 1950 -
founded Head Ski Company, Inc.; 1968 - one-third
of top 10 finishers in World Cup used Head skis; 1969
- acquired by AMF for $16 million (500 employees, world’s
largest ski manufacturer, sold more than 300,000 pairs a year);
September 1995 - control acquired by Swedish
businessman Johan Eliasch (grandson of G.A. Svensson, prominent
- Head Ski Co.
- La Spirotechnique Corporation formed to develop patent for
first Aqualung regulator invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau,
Emile Gagnan; CG45 - first regulator model; followed by
simplified, more reliable Mistral series (manufactured La
Spirotechnique Royal Mistral, single-stage twin hose regulator,
from early 1960s through 1980s); pioneered underwater equipment;
manufactured scuba diving equipment;
September 29, 1964 - registered
"Mistral" trademark (underwater breathing apparatus, pressure
regulators, demand valve regulators, for underwater breathing
1947 - Brooklyn Dodgers president Branch Rickey announced he had
purchased contract of Jackie Robinson (28-year-old infielder)
from Montreal Royals (of International League); baseball,
football, basketball, track star at University of California at
Los Angeles, entered armed service as private, emerged
lieutenant; October 1945 - signed to
Montreal contract; led International League in batting last
season with average of .349; last Negro to play in majors was
Moses Fleetwood Walker (caught for Toledo of major-league
American Association in 1884); April 15, 1947 -
Brooklyn Dodgers; became baseball's first black major-league
- Larry Doby signed with Cleveland Indians; first black player
- Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) formally
established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition for
first time (for cars of 1,500cc supercharged, 4,500cc
unsupercharged); minimum race distance reduced from 500km to
300km (allowed famous Monaco Grand Prix to be reintroduced into
official Grand Prix racing); 1950 - Giuseppe
"Nino" Farina, drivingAlfa Romeo 158, won first Formula One
World Championship at Silverstone British Grand Prix.
- National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR)
founded at Streamline Hotel in Daytona Beach, FL; first formal
organization for stock-car racing; season began with 160-mile
race at Daytona Beach;
1948 - NASCAR officially incorporated as National
Association for Stock Car Racing, race promoter Bill France as
president (had formed National Championship Stock-Car Circuit in
- NASCAR staged
first Grand National event on three-quarter-mile dirt track at
Charlotte Fairgrounds; only late-model, strictly stock cars
allowed in Grand National class; crowd of 13,000 watched as Jim
Roper won inaugural event; marked birth of NASCAR racing; Grand
Nationals later became Winston Cup Series events;
1953 - major automakers invested
heavily in racing teams, produced faster cars; good results on
stock-car circuit believed to mean better sales on showroom
floor; 1957 - rising costs, tightened NASCAR rules
forced factories out of sport, modern era of NASCAR
- Watkins Glen, in New York Finger Lakes region, hosted first
post-World War II road race in United States, under the guidance
of Cameron Argetsinger (law student), Sports Car Club of America
(SCCA); Frank Griswold, driving 2.9 liter prewar Alfa Romeo, won
both events offered, 26.4-mile Junior Prix, 52.8-mile
Frank J. Zamboni, inventor and mechanic, received patent for
"Model A Zamboni Ice Resurfacer"; 1939 - Zamboni
and brother, Lawrence, built 20,000-square-foot enclosed ice
skating rink in Paramount, CA; 1942 - transformed
tractor to scrape, smooth ice in single pass; May 4, 1965
- Frank J. Zamboni & Company, Inc. registered "Zamboni"
trademark first used in July 1962 (resurfacing machines machines
and dump attachments therefor).
1949 - Joe DiMaggio became first $100,000/year baseball player
(New York Yankees).
August 3, 1949 -
National Basketball Association formed.
November 24, 1949
(Thanksgiving Day) - Alexander C. Cushing, former Wall
Street lawyer, with $400,000 of his own money , investment from
few friends, opened Squaw Valley Development Company, "uphill
transportation business" (first visited in 1946); May 1,
1949 - John Buchman, former taxi-driver from Morristown,
NJ, became company's first employee "at the business end of a
shovel" (over period of 45 years became General Manager,
President, Director of the Company); 1960 - hosted
VIII Olympic Winter Games (beating internationally regarded
resorts such as Innsbruck, Austria, St. Moritz, Switzerland,
Alexander C. Cushing
- Squaw Valley
- Thirteen members formed The Ladies Professional Golf
Association of America (LPGA) in New York City, dedicated to
golf as game and career; Patty Berg elected first president.
August 22, 1950
- Officials of United States Lawn Tennis Association (USLTA)
accepted Althea Gibson into annual championship at Forest Hills,
NY; first African-American player to compete in U.S. national
- Earl Lloyd became first black to play in NBA when he
took floor for Washington Capitols.
April 17, 1951
- Baseball hall-of-famer Mickey Mantle made major league debut
with New York Yankees.
July 14, 1951
- Citation became first horse to win $1,000,000 in races.
October 3, 1951
- New York Giants third baseman Bobby Thomson hit three-run home
run in bottom of ninth inning to win deciding game of three-game
playoff series against Brooklyn Dodgers, sent Giants into
February 20, 1953
- U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Organized Baseball was a
sport, not a business, affirmed 25-year-old Supreme Court
March 18, 1953
- Major League Baseball announced first team relocation since
1903: Boston Braves to Milwaukee, WI.
May 29, 1953
- Edmund Hillary of New Zealand, sherpa Tenzing Norgay of
Nepal, conquered Mount Everest, first climbers to reach summit.
- AL approved St. Louis Browns move Baltimore, MD; became
November 9, 1953
- Supreme Court upheld 1922 ruling that major league baseball
did not come within scope of federal antitrust laws.
May 6, 1954
- Roger Bannister (25, medical student) broke four-minute mile
barrier, in 3 minutes and 59.4 seconds; ran for Amateur Athletic
Association against alma mater, Oxford University; world record
for mile had been 4 minutes and 1.3 seconds, set by Gunder Hagg
of Sweden in 1945.
August 5, 1954
- Boxing Hall of Fame's first election selected 24 modern, 15
September 29, 1954
- New York Giants centerfielder Willie Mays made running catch
with his back to home plate on 450-foot blast by Cleveland
Indians batter Vic Wertz in opening game of World Series; widely considered to be greatest catch ever made.
April 14, 1955
- Elston Howard became first black to wear Yankee uniform.
1955 - Elisa Elsener, dba Messerfabrik Carl
Elsener registered "Victorinox" trademark first used in 1930
(cutlery-name;y pocket knives, razors, carvers, table knives,
kitchen knives, slicing knives, paring knives, hunting knives,
putty knives, linoleum knives, wallscrapers, spatulas, baker
knives, gardener knives, pruning knives, and claw tongs and
knives, farriers' knives, tobacco knives, boning knives,
sticking knives, steak knives).
1956 - Heavyweight champ, Rocky Marciano, retired undefeated from
boxing (49 Wins...0 Losses...0 Ties).
July 6, 1956
- Ford Frick inaugurated Cy Young Award, to honor outstanding
October 8, 1956
- Don Larsen pitched only perfect game in World Series
history; threw 97 pitches (three balls on only one hitter, Pee
Wee Reese in first inning); New York Yankees beat Brooklyn
October 23, 1956
- John Zuercher, of Buffalo, NY, received a patent for a "Pin
Distributing and Spotting Mechanism for Bowling Pin Spotting
Machines"; automatic bowling pin spotter.
October 30, 1956
- Dodgers sold Ebbets Field to real estate group; agreed to stay
until 1959, with option to stay until 1961.
February 25, 1957
- Supreme Court decided 6-3, baseball was only antitrust exempt
May 28, 1957 -
National League approved move of Brooklyn Dodgers, New York
Giants baseball teams to Los Angeles, San Francisco,
July 6, 1957
- Althea Gibson became first black tennis player to win
Wimbledon singles title; defeated fellow American Darlene Hard
6-3, 6-2; won doubles championship paired with Hard, beat Mary
Hawton and Thelma Long of Australia, 6-2, 6-1.
- Olympic runner H. Browning Ross (1948 U.S. Olympic team)
proposed development of
organization for American distance runners in editorial of "Long
Distance Log" (evolved into Runner’s World magazine) which would
encourage run, meet regularly, raise money, coordinate
schedules, promote competition in long distance races (similar
to UK Road Racers Club founded in 1952); December 1957
- meetings held; February 22, 1958 - Ross, nine
others determined direction, structure of Road Runners Club of
America; first RRCA National Championship races awarded, Ross
("father of long distance running in America") named provisional
President; Middle Atlantic Road Runners Club established;
April 1958 - 29 members established New York Road
H. Browning Ross
- Road Runners Club of
August 19, 1957
- New York Giants voted 8-1 to move franchise to San
Francisco in 1958.
September 16, 1957
- LA City Council approved 300-acre site in Chavez Ravine for
Dodgers; September 24, 1957 - Brooklyn Dodgers played last
game at Ebbets Field, defeated Pittsburgh Pirates 2-0.
September 29, 1957
- New York Giants played last game at Polo Grounds, lost to
Pittsburgh Pirates 9-1.
October 8, 1957
- Walter O'Malley announced Dodgers were moving from Brooklyn,
NY to Los Angeles, CA; February 7, 1958 - Dodgers
officially became Los Angeles Dodgers, Inc.
April 6, 1958
- Arnold Palmer won first major golf tournament-Masters.
August 14, 1958
- Canadian Football League played first game (Winnipeg 29,
February 22, 1959
- Daytona International Speedway hosted first Daytona 500;
posted awards for "500-Mile International Sweepstakes" totaled
$67,760.; field of 59 cars started 200-lap race; crowd of
41,000; finish too close to call, 61 hours after finish clip of
newsreel footage proved that Lee Petty was winner by few feet;
averaged 135.521 miles per hour in Oldsmobile; won $19,050 (2007
winner - $1,510,469).
- William Shea announced plans to have baseball team in
New York City in 1961 (Mets).
August 14, 1959
- AFL organized with NY, Dallas, LA, Minneapolis, Denver and
November 2, 1959
- NHL goalkeeper Jacques Plante played with protective face mask
for first time in professional play, after struck in face with
February 23, 1960
- Demolition began on Brooklyn's Ebbets Field (opened in 1913).
April 19, 1960
- Baseball uniforms displayed player's names on backs.
September 16, 1960
- College football coach Amos Alonzo Stagg announced
retirement after 71 years of coaching (40 at University of
October 29, 1960
- Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) won first professional
fight in Louisville, KY.
1961 - Joe Lesik built Utica-Rome Speedway,
quarter mile short-track asphalt oval, on farmland just off
Route 5 in Vernon, NY (replaced Vernon Speedway, early stock car
track that was sold, converted into Vernon Downs horse racing
facility); Rene Charland - track's first champion; 1964
- acquired by Dick and Dorothy Waterman, partner Bernie
Ingersoll; February 1979
- acquired by Dick Waterman, converted from 1/3 mile paved
circuit to 5/8 mile dirt oval;
1981-1982 - run by Fonda Speedway promoter Ron
Compani under DIRT Motorsports Sanction for first time;
late 1984 -
acquired by Jack Johnson, Jim Beachy, Fred Burrows; renamed The
New Venture International Speedway;
1989 - leased by Millard "Bub" Benway
(Fulton Speedway), Gisele (niece) and Eric Kingsley; renamed
"New" Utica-Rome Speedway; 1992
- acquired by Kingsleys; late 1995
- acquired by group of partners, operated under NASCAR Winston
Racing Series; June 1998
- reacquired by former owner Eric Kingsley;
2002 - acquired by Gene and Gloria Cole
(Gates-Cole Insurance Company).
- Bill and Don Kirschner produced first pair of fiberglass skis
in Vashon Island, WA shop; convinced they would be lighter,
stronger, more lively than wood or metal skis; founded K2
Sports; 1970 - acquired by Cummins Engine;
1976 - acquired by Kirschner, group of Seattle
1961 - Don Hansen established Hansen Surfboards
on on Kawela Bay on North Shore of Oahu, HI;
mid-1960s - shipped
surfboards to many parts of world;
early 1970s - transitioned to retail business,
quickly became one of most popular, well-known surf shops in
Southern California; April 29, 2003
- Don Hansen registered "Hansen Surfboards" trademark first used
in 1961 (surfboards); 2011
- single location in Encinitas, CA largest surf shop in San
April 27, 1961
- NFL officially recognized Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio.
October 1, 1961
- Roger Maris, of New York Yankees, hit 61st home run during
162-game season (Babe Ruth hit 60 home runs during 154-game
January 24, 1962
- Jackie Robinson first Black elected to Baseball Hall of Fame.
March 2, 1962
- Wilt Chamberlain, of Philadelphia Warriors, scored NBA record
100 points in game against New York Knicks.
July 3, 1962
- Jackie Robinson became first African American inducted into
National Baseball Hall of Fame.
December 15, 1962
- Earl Eaton, Pete Seibert opened Vail Resorts with two
chairlifts, one gondola, $5 lift ticket (March 1957
- first climbed future Vail Mountain, realized potential for
world-class ski area; January 1961 - US Forest
Service issued final approvals, permits to begin building ski
area; January 1962 - work began; Vail Associates,
Inc. established); mountain recorded 55,000 skiers in 1962-1963
season; January 1966 -Town of Vail established;
December 1968 - first snowmaking systems installed;
achieved one million cumulative skier days; 1969 -
most popular ski area in Colorado; 1972 - in
statewide referendum voters chose not to host 1976 Olympic Games
Games, though chosen by IOC; August 1985 - George
Gillett acquired Vail Associates; May, 1992 -
Apollo Partners acquired Vail Associates; January 1997
- Vail Associates renamed Vail Resorts, Inc.; merger with
Keystone and Breckenridge approved; Vail Resorts acquired ski
areas of Keystone, Breckenridge, Arapahoe Basin (formerly owned
by Ralcorp Holding); November 2001 - acquired
majority interest in RockResorts, luxury resort hotel company;
June 2002 - Vail most visited ski resort in U.S.,
more than 1.5 million visits (Breckenridge second with over 1.4
million visits); April 2003 - exceeded 1.6 million
skier visits for 4th time in 40 year history; 2006
- 5,000 acres of terrain, 33 lifts, largest single mountain in
- co-founder Vail Resorts
- co-founder Vail Resorts
- First members of Football Hall of Fame named in Canton,
February 26, 1963
- Hobart L. Alter (doing business as Hobie-Surfboard Shop in
Dana Point, CA) registered "Hobie" trademark first used February
1, 1954 (surfboards and the like).
Hobart L. Alter
November 7, 1963
- New York Yankee Elston Howard first black voted AL MVP.
December 7, 1963
- Videotaped instant replay used for first time in live sports
telecast; CBS re-played touchdown run during Army-Navy football
- H. William Kirschner, maker of animal cages, splints for
fractured animal bones, started K2 in shed on Vashon Island, WA;
developed ''wet-wrap'' process, wound fiberglass fabric around
wooden core, baked ski into shape; first to make mass-producible
fiberglass skis; 1970
- acquired by Cummins Engine Company;
February 19, 1974 - K-2 Corporation
registered "K2" trademark first used August 3, 1972 (ski boots
and hiking and climbing boots);
1976 - acquired by Kirschner, group of Seattle
investors; at peak
- employed 750 people on Vashon Island, skis were Vashon’s
February 25, 1964
- Cassius Clay dethroned world heavyweight boxing champ Sonny
Liston in seventh-round technical knockout.
April 10, 1964
- Demolition began on Polo Grounds to clear way for housing
September 11, 1964
- Gillette's 20 year contract with MSG, ABC to televise
fights for free ended as Dick Tiger defeated Don Fullmer at
November 2, 1964
- CBS purchased 80% of Yanks for $11,200,000, later bought
remaining 20%; January 3, 1973 - acquired by group
of investors led by George Steinbrenner, minority partner
Michael Burke, for $8.7 million.
- Joe Gold, son of junk dealer, created his first gym, Dugout
Athletic Club, in junior high school, in back room of auto
repair shop, opened Gold's Gym, modest fitness center, in
Venice, CA; became landmark for bodybuilders;
1968 - aspiring
Arnold Schwarzenegger made first visit; 1970 - acquired by two
investors; 1977 -
body-building cult classic documentary film "Pumping Iron"
filmed there; acquired by bodybuilder, fitness expert Ken
Sprague; Gold established World Gym chain (grew to 250 gyms by
2005); 1979 -
acquired by Pete Grymkowski, Tim Kimber, Ed Connors;
1980 - began
licensing clubs across country;
July 27, 1982 - Gold's Gym Enterprises, Inc.
registered "God's Gym" trademark fist used in February 1974
(Gymnasium Services); 1999
- acquired by Brockway Moran & Partners for $50 million ( 538
Gold's Gyms around world) ; 2001
- franchisees formed Gold's Gym Franchisee Association (GGFA);
2004 - acquired by
TRT Holdings, founded in 1989 by Texas oil explorers Reese and
Robert (son) Rowling (2.5 million members, 56% women);
2008 - 600
locations across the globe.
- Gold's Gym
January 2, 1965
- New York Jets signed University of Alabama quarterback Joe
Namath for reported $400,000.
February 7, 1965
- Cassius Clay became Muslim, changed name to Muhammad
Ali; May 25, 1965
- KO'd Sonny Liston in
first round for heavyweight boxing title.
February 11, 1966
- San Francisco Giant Willie Mays signed highest contract,
$130,000 per year.
February 14, 1966
- Rick Mount of Lebanon, IN became first high school male
athlete pictured on cover of "Sports Illustrated."
March 19, 1966
- Texas Western, with five black starters coached by Don
Haskins, defeated heavily favored, all-white Wildcats of
University of Kentucky, coached by basketball legend Adolph
Rupp, for NCAA Men's Basketball Championship at College Park, MD
April 11, 1966
- Emmett Ashford became first black major league umpire; reached
American League after 14 seasons in minor leagues.
- Bill Russell became first black coach in NBA history (Boston
November 8, 1966
- President Lyndon Johnson signed into law an antitrust
exemption, allowed National Football League to merge with
American Football League.
January 15 1967
- First Super Bowl played; Green Bay Packers of National
Football League defeated Kansas City Chiefs of American Football
February 2, 1967
- American Basketball Association formed.
April 28, 1967
- Muhammad Ali refused induction into US Army, stripped of his
August 5, 1967
- AFL team beat an NFL team for first time, Broncos beat
August 21, 1967
- Ken Harrelson became baseball's first free agent; August
28, 1967 - signed for $75,000 bonus.
September 26, 1947
- Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler announced Ford, Gillette
to sponsor World Series.
October 18, 1967
- AL voted to allow Athletics to move from Kansas City to
Oakland; 1971 - expanded league to 12 teams with Kansas City, Seattle teams.
August 25, 1968
- Arthur Ashe became first black to win U.S. singles
October 18, 1968
- U.S. Olympic Committee suspended two black athletes for giving
"black power" salute during victory ceremony at Mexico City
October 18, 1968
- Bob Beamon set world record of 8.90m in long jump at
Mexico City games; became longest unbroken track and field
record in history (23 years); later named by Sports Illustrated
magazine as one of five greatest sporting moments of 20th
November 17, 1968
- NBC outraged football fans, cut away from final minutes of
Oakland Raiders's come from behind victory over New York Jets
43-32 to air, as scheduled, TV special, ''Heidi.''
January 12, 1969
- New York Jets defeated Baltimore Colts 16-7 in Super Bowl III
at Orange Bowl in Miami; Joe Namath had predicted AFL's first
victory over NFL team.
April 14, 1969
- First major league baseball game played outside U.S.
June 3, 1969
- Madison Square Garden Corporation registered "New York
Rangers" trademark first used in 1964 (entertainment services).
1969 - Curt Flood, outfielder for St. Louis
Cardiinals, wrote to Baseball Commissioner, Bowie Kuhn;
challenged baseball's 'reserve clause': individual team owned
his contract for life, prevented from negotiating with another
team for year after his contract expired (had been traded on
October 7, 1969 to to Philadelphia Phillies; had refused to
report; cited team's poor record, dilapidated Connie Mack
Stadium, racist fans.); Kuhn denied request; cited propriety of
reserve clause, its inclusion in Flood's 1969 contract;
January 16, 1970 -
Flood filed $1 million lawsuit (automatically tripled under
Sherman Act) against Kuhn and Major League Baseball; alleged
that Major League Baseball had violated federal antitrust laws;
January 16, 1970
- seven-time Golden Glove-winning center fielder Curt Flood filed
$1 million suit in New York federal court against
Commissioner Bowie Kuhn, presidents of American and National
Leagues, all 24 teams in Major League Baseball (MLB); argued, in Flood v. Kuhn, that
reserve clause violated antitrust laws, violated 13th Amendment
(barred slavery, involuntary servitude);
August 12, 1970
- Flood lost $41 million antitrust suit against baseball;
U.S. district court judge rejected Flood’s claim; went to U.S.
Supreme Court; no active players agreed to testify on his
behalf; June 19, 1972 -
U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-3, in Flood vs. Kuhn, in favor of
baseball (professional baseball was interstate commerce under
Sherman Antitrust Act, responsibility to end or modify antitrust
exemption unique among professional sports belonged to
legislative branch of government); ; upheld antitrust exemption
first granted to Major League Baseball (MLB) in Federal Baseball
Club v. National League (decided May 29, 1922);
1973 - National
Labor Relations Board voted that baseball came under its
Major League Baseball agreed to federal arbitration of players’
salary demands; December 23, 1975
- Peter Seitz, labor relations arbitrator hired by baseball
owners to settle disputes with players, ruled that pitchers Andy
Messersmith and Dave McNally were free to sign with any team as
reserve clause did not bind them to their teams forever, just
one year; effectively nullified baseball's reserve clause; began
era of baseball free agency.
- Bob McClure invented Little Prince, first tennis ball machine
for home court use; founded Prince Manufacturing Co. (named
after town of Princeton, NJ); control acquired by Howard head;
1976 - Head invented first patented Prince
oversized racquet, Prince Classic (110 square inches, changed
the game, became most successful racquet of its time);
1977 - introduced Prince Graphite, established company
as material technology leader; 1982 - acquired by
Chesebrough- Ponds, Inc.; Head sold his shares in company for
$62 million, moved to Vail, CO; August of 1987 -
acquired by management, in conjunction with Brentwood
Associates, private investment firm; 1990 -
acquired by Italy-based Benetton Group SpA; April 30, 2003
- acquired by partnership consisting of senior management of
Prince business, Lincolnshire Equity Fund II, L.P.,
renamed named Prince Sports, Inc.
- Arthur Jones introduced "Blue Monster" at Los Angeles
weight-lifting convention; August 27, 1974 -
registered "Nautilus" trademark first used December 11, 1972
(manually activated exercise machines for physically exercising
parts of the human body); 1986 - sold interest in
company for $23 million; June 6, 1989 - received a
patent for an "Apparatus for Exercising Muscles of the Lower
Trunk of the Human Body"; February 20, 1990 -
received a patent for a "Machine for Exercising and/or Testing
Muscles of the Lower Trunk, and Method"; 1999 -
acquired by Direct Focus, Inc. (Vancouver, WA); 2002
- name changed to Nautilus, Inc.; variable resistance weight
machines, bridge between free weights and high-tech resistance
equipment; employed system of pulleys that ensured constant
resistance on muscles during entire range of exercise's motion.
January 6, 1970
- Hoyle Schweitzer, of Pacific Palisades, CA, and Jim Drake, of
Santa Monica, CA, received a patent for a "Wind-Propelled
Apparatus"; windsurfboard - the "windsurfer"; Schweitzer
incorporated Windsurfing International to promote the sport,
manage the patent; 1973 - bought rights to patent
from Drake; 1980's - S. Newman Darby filed "prior
art" patent suit (1965 - published his designs for "sail
boarding " in Popular Science Monthly magazine, never sought
patent protection); Windsurfer's original patent voided, lost
use of "windsurfer" as a trademark; 1987 -
reissued patent expired.
March 15, 1970
- Boston Bruin Bobby Orr became first defenseman in NHL history
to score 100 points in season; scored four goals in one game
against Detroit Red Wings; finished 1969-70 season with 120
points, record for defensive player that cemented his status as
best offensive defenseman in NHL history.
September 13, 1970
- Gary Muhrcke won first New York City Marathon in 2:31:38.
January 12, 1971
- Coast Catamaran Corp.
registered "Hobie Cat" trademark
first used July 30, 1968 (sailboat).
February 5, 1972
- Bob Douglas became first black man elected to Basketball Hall
of Fame; coached, owned New York Renaissance, all-black team
which won 88 consecutive games in 1933.
February 7, 1972
- Title IX passed, U.S. law guaranteed gender equality in
federally-funded school programs, including athletics.
September 1, 1972
- American Bobby Fischer won international chess crown in
Reykjavik, Iceland, defeated Boris Spassky of Soviet Union.
September 4, 1972
- Swimmer Mark Spitz became first person to win seven gold
medals at single Olympic Games.
September 5, 1972
- Palestinian terrorists attacked Israeli Olympic team at summer
games in Munich; killed 11 Israeli athletes, coaches, five
terrorists, police officer.
January 11, 1973
- Owners of American League baseball teams voted to adopt
designated-hitter rule on trial basis (remains in effect).
April 5, 1973
- NFL adopted jersey numbering system (ie QBs, 1-19).
April 6, 1973
- Yankee Ron Blomberg became first designated hitter (walked).
June 9, 1973
- Secretariat became horse racing's first Triple Crown winner
since Citation in 1948.
April 4, 1974
- Hank Aaron of Atlanta Braves tied Babe Ruth's career home
run record, hit his 714th n Cincinnati;
April 8, 1974
- hit 715th career home run.
October 3, 1974
- Frank Robinson named major league baseball's first black
manager, put in charge of Cleveland Indians.
July 5, 1975
- Arthur Ashe became first black man to win Wimbledon
singles title, defeated Jimmy Connors 6-1, 6-1, 5-7, 6-4, over
125 minutes; received $23,000, loser $13,800.
July 15, 1975
- John E. Fetzer, Inc., Detroit, MI, registered "Detroit
Tigers" trademark first used in 1963 ("entertainment services in
the nature of baseball games and exhibitions rendered live and
through the media of radio and television broadcasts").
July 20, 1976
- Hank Aaron hit 755th, last home run off Angels Jerry
June 11, 1977
- Seattle Slew won Belmont Stakes, captured Triple Crown.
August 23, 1977
- Cincinnati Bengals, Inc. registered "Cincinnati Bengals"
trademark first used September 27, 1967 ("Educational and
Entertainment Services in the Form of Professional Football
Games and Exhibitions").
- First Ironman held in Kona, HI (hatched as bet over whether
swimmers, cyclists or runners were most fit); 15 participants;
2011 - just under
1,900 competitors (nearly all of whom qualified by placing near
top of their age group in tuneup races over last year).
December 30, 1978
- Ohio State University fired Woody Hayes as football coach, one
day after Hayes punched Clemson University player during
January 26, 1980
- At the request of President Jimmy Carter, U.S. Olympic
Committee voted to ask International Olympic Committee to
cancel, move upcoming Moscow Olympics (response to Soviet
military invasion of Afghanistan in previous month); Soviets
ignored vote, ultimatum; U.S. Olympic Committee decided to
boycott games; first time in modern history of Olympics that
United States refused to participate; decade passed before
Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan.
February 22, 1980
- United States Olympic hockey team (youngest team of all
American squads, average age 22) defeated Soviets at Lake
Placid, NY, 4-to-3; Mike Eruzione (Winthrop, MA), team captain,
former player with Toledo Blades of the International League,
scored midway through final period to break 3-3 tie; went on to
win gold medal (originally seeded 7th).
April 18, 1981 -
AAA Pawtucket Red Sox, Rochester Red Wings (Baltimore Orioles)
played 8 hours, 25 minutes, longest game in history of
professional baseball: 33 innings, 882 pitches, 156 baseballs;
April 19 - tie game (2-2) halted at 4:09 AM on
Easter morning; June 23 - game concluded (Wings
back in Providence, RI). Pawtucket won, 3-2.
June 12, 1981
- Major League Baseball players began 49-day strike over issue
of free-agent compensation.
November 28, 1981
- Bear Bryant won 315th game, passed Alonzo Stagg as college
football's winningest coach.
April 5, 1984
- Kareem Abdul-Jabbar became highest-scoring player in NBA
history with 31,421 career points (31,421); Wilt Chamberlain
May 8, 1984
- Soviet government announced boycott of 1984 Summer Olympic
Games held in Los Angeles, CA; cited fears for safety of its
athletes in what it considered hostile, anti-communist
environment; 13 other communist nations issued similar
statements, refused to attend games;United States swept Olympic
record of 83 gold medals.
June 27, 1984
- Supreme Court ended NCAA monopoly on college football
September 11, 1985
- Pete Rose of Cincinnati Reds recorded his 4,192nd hit, broke
Ty Cobb's career record.
1986 - NCAA introduced 3-point shooting line in Division
I men's basketball, 19'9' from basket;
moved to 20'9" from basket.
July 27, 1986
- Greg Lemond became first American to win Tour de France.
November 14, 1986
- New York Mets acquired from Doubleday Publishing by Nelson
Doubleday, Fred Wilpon.
February 7, 1987
- Dennis Conner, Stars and Stripes won America's Cup.
April 6, 1987
- Al Campanis, Los Angeles Dodgers executive for 40 years, said
on ABC's ''Nightline'' that blacks ''may not have some of the
necessities'' to hold managerial jobs in major-league baseball;
April 7, 1987
February 23, 1988
- Chicago gave Cubs right to install lights, play up
to 18 night games.
August 24, 1989
- Baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti banned Pete Rose
from game for gambling.
October 3, 1989
- Art Shell became first African-American to coach professional
football team, Los Angeles Raiders.
October 21, 1989
- Betram Lee, Peter Bynoe acquired Denver Nuggets for $65
million; first black owners of major sports team.
February 5, 1990
- Notre Dame became first team to sell broadcast rights to
games to major network (NBC).
July 19, 1990
- Baseball's all-time hits leader Pete Rose sentenced in
Cincinnati to five months in prison for tax evasion.
February 23, 1991
- North Carolina first NCAA basketball team to win 1,500 games.
May 19, 1991
- Willy T. Ribbs became first African-American driver to qualify
for Indy 500.
July 11, 1991
- Calumet Farm, home to 8 Kentucky Derby winners, filed for
August 17, 1993
- Thomas Welsh, of San Diego, CA, received a patent for a
"Platform Steerable Skateboard".
June 30, 1994
- U.S. Figure Skating Association stripped Tonya Harding of
national championship, banned her from organization for
life for attack on rival Nancy Kerrigan.
September 14, 1994
- Acting commissioner Bud Selig announced cancellation of rest
of baseball season on 34th day of strike by players.
January 29, 1995
- San Francisco 49ers became first team in NFL history to win
five Super Bowl titles, beat San Diego Chargers 49-26 in Super
September 6, 1995
- Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Gehrig's record, played in 2,131
November 26, 1996
- Baseball owners approved interleague play, 26-4.
April 13, 1997
- Tiger Woods (21) became youngest person to win Masters
Tournament, first person of African heritage to claim major golf
April 15, 1997
- Jackie Robinson's No. 42 retired, 50 years after he became
first black player in major league baseball.
June 12, 1997
- Major league baseball began interleague play.
June 21, 1997
- Women's National Basketball Association made debut.
July 5, 1997
- Martina Hingis (16) became youngest Wimbledon singles champion
in 110 years, beat Jana Novotna in women's final.
September 20, 1998
- Cal Ripken Jr. of Baltimore Orioles sat out game against New
York Yankees, had played in record 2,632 consecutive games
over 16 seasons,
January 8, 1999
- Top two executives of Salt Lake City's Olympic Organizing
Committee resigned after disclosures that civic boosters had
given cash to members of International Olympic Committee;
March 17, 1999
- International Olympic Committee expelled six of its members in
wake of bribery scandal.
September 18, 1999
- Sammy Sosa of Chicago Cubs became first player in major league
baseball history to hit 60 home runs in season twice.
July 9, 2000
- Pete Sampras won seventh Wimbledon singles title; tied record
for men at All England Club.
July 23, 2000
- Tiger Woods (24) became youngest golfer to complete career
Grand Slam; won British Open.
December 11, 2000
- Shortstop Alex Rodriguez agreed to $252 million deal
with Texas Rangers, most lucrative sports contract in history.
April 14, 2002
- Tiger Woods became only third golfer in history to win
back-to-back Masters titles.
October 27, 2002
- Dallas Cowboys running back Emmitt Smith broke NFL career
rushing yardage record of 16,726 held by Walter Payton.
(finished career with 18,355 yards rushing.).
December 25, 2002
- Katie Hnida became first woman to play in Division I football
game, attempted extra point for New Mexico against UCLA in Las
July 29, 2003
- Boston Red Sox batter Bill Mueller became first player
in major league history to hit grand slams from both sides of
plate in single game in 14-7 win at Texas.
October 25, 2003
- Florida State's Bobby Bowden became winningest coach in
major college football history with his 339th victory; Seminoles
beat Wake Forest 48-24.
December 6, 2003
- Army became first team to finish 0-13 in major college
football history after a 34-6 loss to Navy.
January 5, 2004
- Pete Rose publicly admitted that he'd bet on baseball while
manager of Cincinnati Reds; had denied doing so for 14 years.
April 6, 2004
- University of Connecticut became first school to win NCAA
Division I men's, women's basketball titles in same season;
women's team beat Tennessee 70-61 for third consecutive
September 15, 2004
- National Hockey League owners agreed to lock out players.
October 1, 2004
- Seattle Mariners outfielder Ichiro Suzuki made his 258th hit
of season; broke George Sisler's 84-year-old single-season
July 24, 2005
- American cyclist Lance Armstrong won record-setting
seventh consecutive Tour de France, retired from sport;
October 22, 2012 -
International Cycling Union stripped Armstrong of seven Tour de
France titles from 1999-2005 (based on 202-page report, produced
by United States Anti-Dopimg Agency, made public two weeks
earlier, citing Armstrong for doping, playing instrumental role
in team-organized doping of his cycling squad);
January 18, 2013 -
Armstrong admitted, for first time, that he took EPO,
testosterone, cortisone, human growth hormone to help him to
seven Tour de France victories.
December 26, 2004
- Peyton Manning of Indianapolis Colts broke Dan Marino's
single-season touchdown pass record, threw 48th, 49th of
season in victory over San Diego.
February 16, 2005
- NHL canceled what was left of decimated schedule after
round of last-gasp negotiations failed to resolve differences
over salary cap.
November 15, 2005
- Baseball players, owners agreed on tougher
May 8, 2006
- Forbes Magazine's 2006 Survey of Major League Baseball's 30
franchises estimated that baseball team values increased average
of 15% for second consecutive year, to $376 million; overall
operating income increased to $360 million ($12.1 million per
team) from $132 million ($4.4 million per team) previous year,
revenue increased faster than player salaries. The Survey ranked
Yankees as most valuable team in professional baseball, worth an
estimated $1.026 billion; Red Sox were second most valuable
franchise at $617 million; New York Mets ($604 million); Los
Angeles Dodgers ($482 million); Chicago Cubs ($448 million);
Washington Nationals ($440 million); St. Louis Cardinals ($429
million); Seattle Mariners ($428 million); Philadelphia Phillies
($424 million); $Houston Astros ($416 million).
July 9, 2006
- Roger Federer, Rafael Nadal met in men's singles final at
Wimbledon; first time in 52 years that finalists in French Open
faced each other in Wimbledon's final.
March 25, 2007
- Son of a Final Four coach got his team into Final Four in
college basketball for the first time in NCAA history; John
Thomspon III's Georgetown University team defeated North
Carolina 96-84; John Thompson Jr.'s Georgetown teams made it
into Final Four in 1982 (lost 83-82 to North Carolina), 1984
(lost to Villanova) and 1985;1984 - won NCAA title, beat
University of Houston.
June 29, 2008 - MLB
pitching: complete games by pitchers; ERAs.
November 10, 2008 -
NCAA moved 3-point shooting line to 20'9", one foot further from
the basket; 3-point attempts more than doubled between 1986
(line's debut) and 2008; 2007
- Division I teams averaged 19.1 attempts/game, highest ever
with a 35.23% success rate (highest since 1993).
2009 - Most Valuable Sports Franchises:
Manchester United ($1.83 billion), Dallas Cowboys ($1.65
billion), New York Yankees ($1.6 billion) - below: George
Steinbrenner acquired Yankees from CBS for for $10 million in
of team based on current stadium deal (unless new stadium is
pending) without deduction for debt (other than stadium debt).
2Current team value compared with latest transaction
price. 3Includes stadium debt. 4Net of
stadium revenues used for debt payments. 5Earnings
before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. 6Includes
benefits and bonuses. 7Includes club seats. 8Compares
the number of wins per player payroll relative to the rest of
the MLB. Postseason wins count twice as much as regular season
wins. A score of 120 means that the team achieved 20% more
victories per dollar of payroll compared with the league
(Arizona (Alameda County Fair), Victoria Christian
Alameda County Fair. (Chaleston, SC Arcadia Pub., 128
p.). Editor-in-Chief (Sunolian newspaper). Alameda, CA --
history; County Fair -- Alameda, CA.
(Arizona Diamondbacks), Len Sherman
Big League, Big Time: The Birth of the Arizona
Diamondbacks, the Billion-Dollar Business of Sports, and
the Power of the Media in America. (New York,
NY: Pocket Books, 335 p.). Arizona Diamondbacks
(Baseball team), Bank One Ballpark (Phoenix,
Ariz.)--History, Baseball--Arizona--History, Baseball
- Arizona Diamondbacks and Phoenix Suns
(Arizona Diamondbacks), Jerry Colangelo with
Len Sherman (1999).
How You Play the Game: Lessons for Life from the Billion-Dollar
Business of Sports. (New York, NY: Amacom, 255 p.).
Colangelo, Jerry; Phoenix Suns (Basketball team; Arizona
Diamondbacks (Baseball team); Sports team owners--United
States--Biography; Professional sports--Economic aspects--United
(Atlanta Braves), John Schuerholz with Larry
Built To Win: Inside Stories and Leadership Strategies from
Baseball’s Winningest GM. (New York, NY: Warner Books,
288 p.). Schuerholz, John; Atlanta Braves (Baseball
straight National League East titles; anti-Moneyball philosophy
kept Braves among elite teams in baseball for over decade.
(Baltimore Orioles), James Edward
Miller (1990). The
Baseball Business: Pursuing Pennants and Profits in
Baltimore. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 382 p.).
(Baseball), Ralph Andreano. With a
foreword by Jim Brosnan (1965).
No Joy in Mudville; The Dilemma of Major League Baseball.
(Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co., 191 p.).
(Baseball), Gerald W. Scully (1989).
The Business of Major League Baseball. (Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press, 212 p.). Baseball teams -- Economic
aspects -- United States.
(Baseball), James Edward Miller (1990).
The Baseball Business: Pursuing Pennants and Profits in
Baltimore. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 382 p.).
Baseball--Economic aspects--Maryland--Baltimore--Case studies.
(Baseball), Marvin Miller (1991).
A Whole Different Ball Game: The Sport and Business of Baseball.
(Seacaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 430 p.). Baseball--United
States--Finance--History; Baseball players--Labor unions--United
(Baseball), Andrew Zimbalist (1992).
Baseball and Billions: A Probing Look Inside the Big Business of
Our National Pastime. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 270
p.). Baseball -- United States -- Finance; Baseball -- Economic
aspects -- United States; Baseball -- United States --
(Baseball), Robert F. Burk (1994).
Never Just a Game: Players, Owners, and American Baseball to
1920. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina
Press, 284 p.). Baseball--Economic aspects--United
States--History--19th century; Baseball players--United
States--Economic conditions; Industrial relations--United
(Baseball), John Helyar (1994).
Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball. (New
York, NY: Villard Books, 576 p.). Baseball--United
(Baseball), Robert F. Burk (2001).
Much More Than a Game: Players, Owners, & American Baseball
Since 1921. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 372 p.). Baseball--Economic aspects--United
States--History--20th century; Baseball players--United
States--Economic conditions--20th century; Baseball team
owners--United States--Economic conditions--20th century;
Industrial relations--United States--History--20th century.
Charles C. Alexander
Breaking the Slump: Baseball in the Depression Era.
(New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 337 p.).
Distinguished Professor of History (Ohio University).
Baseball --United States --History --20th century.
Professional baseball remained king of American sports
during Great Depression, in terms of both spectators,
persistence as truly "National Pastime"; what it meant
to millions of Americans who could no longer afford to
attend games on regular basis.
(Baseball), Michael Lewis (2003).
Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. (New York,
NY: Norton, 288 p.). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States;
Baseball--Scouting--United States; Baseball players--Salaries,
(Birdhouse Skateboards), Tony Hawk and Pat Hawk (2010).
How Did I Get Here?: The Ascent of an Unlikely CEO.
(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). Put Skateboarding on the Map
(first to land 900 - two and a half full rotations - on July 27,
1999). Hawk, Tony; Skateboarders --United States --Biography.
From skateboarder to CEO; action sports company, clothing line,
video game series bearing his name sold over $1 billion
worldwide (biggest selling action sports game franchise in game
history); secured endorsement deals with major brands
(McDonalds, Intel, T-Mobile, Kohl's); started Boom Boom HuckJam
action sports tour; achieved worldwide acclaim from ESPN X
Tony Hawk - Birdhouse Skateboards
(Brooklands), David Venables (2007).
Brooklands: The Official Centenary History. (Newbury
Park, CA: Haynes North America Inc., 256 p.). Former Solicitor
General. Brooklands; motor sport--history--Great Britain;
aviation--history--Great Britain. Surrey landmark celebrated as
British institution of great importance to history of car
racing and aviation.
(Calumet Farm Inc.), Ann Hagedorn Auerbach
Wild Ride: The Rise and Tragic Fall of Calumet Farm, Inc.,
America's Premier Racing Dynasty. (New York, NY: Holt,
438 p.). Calumet Farm--History; Thoroughbred
(Dallas Cowboys), Bob St. John (1988).
Tex! The Man Who Built the Dallas Cowboys. (Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 363 p.). Columnist (Dallas Morning
News). Schramm, Texas E., 1920- ; Dallas Cowboys (Football
team)--History; Football team owners--United States--Biography.
- Dallas Cowboys
(Dallas Cowboys), Jim Dent (1995).
King of the Cowboys: The Life and Times of Jerry Jones.
(Holbrook, MA: Adams Pub., 277 p.). Jones, Jerry, 1942- ; Dallas
Cowboys (Football team); Football team owners--Biography.
(Del Mar Racetrack), Hank Wesch (2011).
Del Mar: Where the Turf Meets the Surf. (Charleston,
SC History Press, 112 p.). Former Sports Reporter (San Diego
Union-Tribune). Del Mar Racetrack (Del Mar, Calif.) --History.
1937 - founded by by Bing Crosby,
Hollywood friends; hosted some of thoroughbred racing's finest
(dancing Zenyatta, scrappy Seabiscuit, Hall of Famers Best Pal
and Azeri); noted jockeys, infamous matchups.
(Golf), Robert H. Dedman, with Debbie DeLoach
King of Clubs. (Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub., 212 p.).
Dedman, Robert H.; Success; Businessmen--United
States--Biography. Largest operator of golf clubs in U.S.
(Great White Shark Enterprises), Greg Norman
with Donald T. Phillips (2006).
The Way of the Shark: Lessons on Golf, Business, and Life.
(New York, NY: Atria Books, 336 p.). Norman, Greg, 1955- ;
Golfers--Australia--Biography; Success in business.
Journey from Queensland,
Australia, to the World Golf Hall of Fame to chairman and CEO of
a global business.
(Hood Sailmakers), Ted Hood and Michael Levitt
Ted Hood: Through Hand and Eye. (Mystic, CT: Mystic
Seaport, 200 p.). Founder, Hood Sailmakers; Director of
Communications (New York Yacht Club). Hood, Ted; Hood
Sailmakers; Sails; Sailing; Sailboat racing; America’s
World's largest sailmaker in
1960's and 1970's.
(left) - Hood Sailmakers
(Horrow Sports Ventures), Rick Horrow, Lary
When the Game Is on the Line: From the Man Who Brought the Heat
to Miami and the Browns Back to Cleveland, An Inside Look at the
High-Stakes World of Sports Deal Making. (Cambridge, MA:
Perseus Pub., 224 p.). Founder, Horrow Sports Ventures (division
of Omnicom Group, Inc.). Horrow, Rick; sports -- Economic
aspects -- United States. Public-private infrastructure initiatives; deals that create new
stadiums, bring sports franchises to cities.
(Houston Oilers), Ed Fowler (1997).
Loser Takes All: Bud Adams, Bad Football & Big Business.
(Atlanta, GA: Lonstreet Press, 181 p.). Adams, Bud, 1923- ;
Houston Oilers (Football team)--History; Tennessee Oilers
(Football team)--History; Football team owners--United
(J/Boats, Inc.), Anthony Dalton (2005).
J/Boats: Sailing to Success. (St. Paul, MN: MBI, 160
p.). J/Boats, Inc.; Yacht building--United States--History--20th
century; Boatbuilding--United States--History--20th century;
Sailboats--United States; Yachts--United States.
1975 - Rod
Johnstone built boat in his garage based on design
correspondence school; 2005 - most popular
recreational offshore keelboat in the world.
(Karsten Manufacturing Corporation), Tracy
Karsten's Way: The Life-Changing Story of Karsten Solheim--
Pioneer in Golf Club Design and the Founder of Ping.
(Chicago, IL: Northfield, 239 p.). Solheim, Karsten, b. 1911;
Businessmen--United States--Biography; Golf equipment
industry--United States--History; Golf clubs (Sporting
goods)--Design and construction--History.
(LA Dodgers), Michael D'Antonio (2009).
Forever Blue: The True Story of Walter O'Malley, Baseball's Most
Controversial Owner, and the Dodgers of Brooklyn and Los Angeles.
(New York, NY: Riverhead, 368 p.). Pulitzer Prize-winner.
O’Malley, Walter F. (Walter Frank), 1903-1979; Brooklyn Dodgers
(Baseball team); Los Angeles Dodgers (Baseball team); Baseball
team owners --United States --Biography.
Biography of Walter O'Malley, most controversial owner in
history of American sports; changed baseball, Brooklyn forever
when he moved Dodgers to California (outmatched
in war of wills with famed power broker Robert Moses); helped
define Los Angeles; worked behind scenes to usher in age of
players union, free agency; pioneering business strategies,
relationship with Jackie Robinson.
Walter O'Malley - Los Angeles Dodgers
(NAIA), John R.M. Wilson (2005).
The History of the National Association of Intercollegiate
Athletics: Competition, Tradition, Character. (Monterey,
CA: Coaches Choice, 286 p.). National Association of
Intercollegiate Athletics--History; College sports--United
(NASCAR), Robert G. Hagstrom, Jr. (1998).
The Nascar Way: The Business That Drives the Sport. (New
York, NY: Wiley, 230 p.). NASCAR (Association); NASCAR
(Association)--Finance; Stock car racing--United States; Stock
car racing--Economic aspects--United States.
(NASCAR), Neal Thompson (2006).
Driving with the Devil: Southern Moonshine, Detroit Wheels, and
the Birth of NASCAR. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers,
411 p.). Teaches at the University of North Carolina-Asheville’s
Great Smokies Writing Program. Stock car racing--Southern
States--History; Automobile racing--United States--Biography;
Southern States--Social conditions. True story behind NASCAR’s
distant, moonshine-fueled origins; how moonshine, fast cars
merged to create new sport for the South; 1930s car of choice
was Ford V-8, mountain roads at 100 miles an hour.
(NASCAR), Mark Yost (2007).
The 200-mph Billboard: The Inside Story of How Big Money Changed
NASCAR. (St. Paul, MN: MBI Pub. Company LLC, 320 p.).
Contributor to the Wall Street Journal Leisure and Arts pages.
NASCAR (Association)--History; Stock car racing--United
States--History; Stock car racing--Economic aspects--United
States. How NASCAR grew
from provincial roots to big business of international
proportions; economics, politics behind NASCAR sponsorship;
corporate deals that altered way NASCAR does business.
(Nashville Predators), Craig Leipold & Richard
W. Oliver (2001).
Hockey-Tonk: The Amazing Story of the Nashville Predators.
(Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 238 p.). Nashville
Predators (Hockey team)--History; Nashville Predators (Hockey
team)--Finance; Hockey--Economic aspects--United States.
(NBA), Eldon Ham (2000).
The Playmasters: From Sellouts to Lockouts-an Unauthorized
History of the NBA. (Lincolnwood, IL: Contemporary
Books, 258 p.). National Basketball Association--History;
Basketball--Economic aspects--United States.
(NBA), J. Bruce Miller (2004).
Airball: The Complete and Unvarnished Account of Louisville’s
30-Year Odyssey To Acquire an NBA Franchise.
(Louisville, K: JBM Partners, 416 p.). Basketball--Economic
aspects--Kentucky--Louisville; National Basketball
Association--Management; Sports franchises--Location--United
(NBA), Connie Kirchberg; foreword by Jim
Hoop Lore: A History of the National Basketball Association.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 347 p.). Freelance Writer.
National Basketball Association--History. How, why NBA able to overcome
obstacles to become most successfully marketed league in
(NCAA), Jack Falla (1981).
NCAA, The Voice of College Sports: A Diamond Anniversary
History, 1906-1981. (Mission, KS: National Collegiate
Athletic Association, 300 p.). National Collegiate Athletic
Association--History--20th century; College sports--United
(NCAA), Paul R. Lawrence (1987).
Unsportsmanlike Conduct: The National Collegiate Athletic
Association and the Business of College Football. (New
York, NY: Praeger, 173 p.). Economist with Price Waterhouse.
National Collegiate Athletic Association; College
sports--Economic aspects--United States; College sports--Moral
and ethical aspects--United States; Football--Economic
aspects--United States; Football--Moral and ethical
(NCAA), Murray A. Sperber (1990).
College Sports Inc.: The Athletic Department vs [sic] the
University. (New York, NY: Holt, 416 p.). National
Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports--Economic
aspects--United States; College sports--Moral and ethical
aspects--United States; College sports--United
(NCAA), Arthur A. Fleisher, Brian L. Goff, and
Robert D. Tollison (1992).
The National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Study in
Cartel Behavior. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago
Press, 190 p.). Assistant Professor Economics (Metropolitan
State College of Denver); Associate Professor of Economics
(Western Kentucky University); Professor of Economics and
Director of the Center for the Study of Public Choice (George
Mason University). National Collegiate Athletic
Association--Finance; Cartels--United States--Case studies;
College sports--Economic aspects--United States--Case studies.
(NFL), Joe F. Carr, Chris Willis (2010).
The Man Who Built the National Football League.
(Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 496 p.). President of the NFL for
most of first two decades; head of NFL Films' Research
Library. Carr, Joe F., d. 1939; National Football League
--History --20th century; Football managers --United States
--History --20th century; Football. 1921 -
Guided American Professional
Football Association, created one of first traveling football
teams (Columbus Panhandles);
1922-1937 - laid solid foundation of
modern professional football,
established NFL as big-city sport: wrote league's first-ever Record and
Fact Book, developed standard player's contracts, established rules
for college recruitment, professional football regulations,
players' statistics, created of two NFL divisions,
(Newark Eagles), James Overmyer (1998).
Queen of the Negro Leagues: Effa Manley and the Newark Eagles.
(Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 297 p. [rev. ed.]). Manley, Effa,
1900- ; Newark Eagles (Baseball team) -- History; Baseball team
owners -- United States -- Biography; African American business
enterprises; Women-owned business enterprises -- United States;
(New York Giants), Tom Callahan (2007).
The GM: The Inside Story of a Dream Job and the Nightmares That
Go with It. (New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 288 p.).
Former Senior Writer (Time magazine), Sports Columnist
(Washington Post). Accorsi, Ernie; National Football League; New
York Giants (Football team)--Biography; Football--United States.
Role of general manager
(part seer, part accountant, balancing psyches, salary caps);
story of the job, what it means to be guy who makes the
(New York Yankees), Ray Robinson and
Christopher Jennison (1998).
Yankee Stadium: 75 Years of Drama, Glamor, and Glory.
(New York, NY: Penguin Studio, 182 p.). Yankee Stadium (New
York, N.Y.)--History; Sports--New York (State)--New
Frank Farrell (right, rear) - moved Yankees to NYC
Big Bill Devery
- moved Yankees to NYC (http://www.davidpietrusza.com/devery.JPG)
Jacob Ruppert - bought
Yankees on 1/11/1915
(New York Yankees), Henry D. Fetter (2003).
Taking on the Yankees: Winning and Losing in the Business of
Baseball, 1903-2003. (New York, NY: Norton, 461 p.).
Attorney. New York Yankees (Baseball team)--History;
Baseball--Economic aspects--United States--History;
(NFL), David Harris (1986).
The League: The Rise and Decline of the NFL.
(New York, NY: Bantam Books, 710 p.). National Football
League --History. Business history of the NFL from the
late 1960's and primarily the early 1970's to the early
to mid 1980's.
(NFL), Mark Yost (2006).
Tailgating, Sacks, and Salary Caps: How the NFL Became the Most
Successful Sports League in History. (Chicago, IL:
Kaplan Pub., 272 p.). WSJ contributor and St. Paul Pioneer Press
editorial writer. National Football League--History;
Football--Economic aspects--United States. History, business decisions that
have made NFL most successful organization in sports
(NFL), Michael Oriard (2007).
Brand NFL: Making and Selling America’s Favorite Sport.
(Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 336 p.).
Former Professional Football Player, Distinguished Professor of
American Literature and Culture and Associate Dean of the
College of Liberal Arts (Oregon State University). National
Football League; Football--United States--Marketing;
Football--United States--Management. $6 billion sports entertainment
industry since 1960; has extraordinary commercializing,
"branding" of NFL football weakened cultural power of sport
whose appeal for more than century was fundamentally
Allen St. John (2009).
The Billion Dollar Game: The Improbable Collision of Culture,
Commerce, and Competition on Super Bowl Sunday. (New
York, NY: Doubleday, 272 p.). Sports Columnist (Wall Street
Journal). Super Bowl; Super Bowl --Social aspects; Super Bowl
--Economic aspects. People, corporations
behind biggest cultural phenomenon in
- into FOX Sports broadcast booth, front-row seat in Madison Avenue conference rooms, behind-the-scenes with stadium architect Peter Eisenman;
political snafus, organizational nightmares, well-oiled hype
Frank P. Jozsa, Jr.; foreword by John Maxymuk
Football Fortunes: The Business, Organization, and Strategy of
the NFL. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.,242 p.).
National Football League; Football --Economic aspects --United
States. Growth of industry, intricacies of league’s expansions and mergers,
territories, relocations; operation and organization of
franchises; role of stadiums and markets; effect of the NFL on
domestic, foreign affairs.
(NHL), Marc Edge (2004).
Red Line, Blue Line, Bottom Line: How Push Came to Shove Between
the National Hockey League and Its Players. (Vancouver,
BC: New Star Books, 160 p.). National Hockey League--Finance;
Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States;
Professional sports--Economic aspects--Canada.
(NHL), John Chi-Kit Wong (2005).
Lords of the Rinks: The Emergence of the National Hockey League,
1875-1936. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press,
235 p.). Assistant Professor in the Sport Management Program
(Washington State University). National Hockey League--History;
Hockey--Canada--History; Hockey--United States--History.
History of league, business
of hockey; 1917 - NHL held its first games, 1936 - had become
dominant governing body; sport rarely, if ever, without some
(Oakland A's), Michael Lewis (2003).
Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. (New York,
NY: Norton, 288 p,). Baseball--Economic aspects--United States;
Baseball--Scouting--United States; Baseball players--Salaries,
(Oakland A's), G. Michael Green and Roger D. Launius (2010).
Charlie Finley: The Outrageous Story of Baseball’s Super Showman.
(New York, NY: Walker & Co., 368 p.). Senior Planner at the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration in Washington, DC;
Senior Curator in the Division of Space History at the
Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. Finley, Charles
Oscar, 1918-; Oakland Athletics (Baseball team) --History;
Baseball team owners --United States --Biography.
Athletics of early 1970s; owner, general manager, personally
assembled team, decided players' salaries, made player moves
during season (level of involvement no other owner engaged in);
"Baseball's Super Showman" (Time magazine's description of
Finley on cover of an August 1975 issue) in all his
contradictions: generous yet vengeful, inventive yet
Charles Oscar Finley
- Oakland A's
(Oakland Raiders), Mark Ribowsky (1991).
Slick: The Silver and Black Life of Al Davis. (New York,
NY: Macmillan Pub. Co., 358 p.). Davis, Al, 1929- ; Oakland
Raiders (Football team); Football coaches--United
States--Biography; Football team owners--United
(Old Town Canoe Company), Susan T. Audette,
David E. Baker (2003).
The Old Town Canoe Company: Our First Hundred Years.
(Gardiner, ME: Tilbury House Publishers, 162 p.). Old Town Canoe
Company --History; Boating industry --United States --History;
Canoes and canoeing --United States --Equipment and supplies
--History; Kayaks --United States --History; Kayaking --United
States --Equipment and supplies --History. From earliest
wood-and canvas canoes to sleek polymer models.
(Olympia Stadium), Robert Wimmer (2000).
Detroit’s Olympia Stadium. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia
Publishing, 128 p.). Photographer for the Red Wings. Olympia
entertainment venue in Detroit for over a half century; major
tenant was Detroit Red Wings.
(Olympics), Holger Preuss (2004).
The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the
Games, 1972-2008. (Northampton, MA: E. Elgar, 332 p.).
Olympics--Economic aspects; Olympics--Finance;
(Olympics), Michael Payne (2005).
Olympic Turnaround: How the Olympic Games Stepped Back from the
Brink of Extinction to Become the World's Best Known Brand - and
a Multi Billion Dollar Global Franchise. (London, UK:
London Business Press, 332 p.). Former Marketing Director, IOC.
Olympic Games; International Olympic Committee; Sports
(Peetz Manufacturing), Douglas F.W. Pollard;
foreword by Alan Haig-Brown (1997).
Peetz, A Reel for All Time. (Surrey, BC: Heritage House,
127 p.). B.C. Peetz Manufacturing Company -- History; Fishing
reels -- British Columbia -- History.
(Pompano Park), Frank J. Cavaioli (2005).
Pompano Park Harness Track. (Charleston, SC: Arcadia
Pub., 128 p.). Pompano Park (Pompano Beach, Fla.)--History;
Harness racing--Florida--Pompano Beach--History.
"Winter Capital of Harness
Racing;" only nighttime standard-bred harness
competition in Florida since 1964 inaugural season.
(Neil Pryde Limited), Neil Pryde (2010).
Will To Win: The
Remarkable Story of the NeilPryde Brand. (New
Territories, Hong Kong: Pryde Group, 250 p.). Founder Pryde
Group, Neil Pryde Limited; windsurfing.
Founded by New Zealander in Hong Kong in 1970 as sailmaker for
yachts in Europe; from largest
maker of yacht sails in world (until Oil Shocks dampened demand)
to watersports, beyond; how windsurfing developed into
global phenomenon; got into paragliding; 2001- exited that
business, entered kite-surfing market; one of world's top three
wetsuit manufacturers; changing times, changing sports. three
sets of business partners, speed records, near financial ruin,
decision to diversify, film shoots, Olympic triumph; one of
world’s biggest players in marine, adventure sports markets.
(Rawlings), Robert Liston Burnes (1948).
50 Golden Years of Sports. (St. Louis, MO: Rawlings
Manufacturing Co., 200 p.). Rawlings Manufacturing Company, St.
Louis; Sports--United States.
(San Diego Chargers), Gene Klein and David
First Down and a Billion: The Funny Business of Pro Football.
(New York, NY: Morrow, 300 p.). Owner from 1966-1984. Klein,
Gene; San Diego Chargers (Football team); Football team
(San Diego Chargers), Alex Spanos with Mark
Seal and Natalia Kasparian; with a foreword by Rush Limbaugh
Sharing the Wealth: My Story. (Washington, DC: Regnery
Pub., 254 p.). Spanos, Alex; San Diego Chargers (Football team);
Football team owners--United States--Biography;
(Skiing), Jacques Mouriquand (1988).
L'or Blanc: Le Système des Sports d'Hiver. (Paris, FR:
Lieu Commun, 239 p.). Ski resorts--Economic aspects--France; Ski
resorts--France--History; Ski resorts--France--Management.
(Skiing), Karen D. Lorentz (1990).
Killington: A Story of Mountains and Men. (Shrewsbury,
VT: Mountain Publsihing, 271 p.). Killington Ski Area
(Vt.)--History; Ski resorts--Vermont; Skis and skiing--Vermont;
Killington Peak (Vt.)--Recreational use.
(Skiing), George Weider (1990).
Blue Mountain. (Erin, ON: Boston Mills Press, 160 p.).
Weider, Jozo; Weider, Jozo; Blue Mountain Resorts
Limited--History;Blue Mountain Resorts Limited--Histoire; Ski
resorts--Ontario--History; Skis and
skiing--Ontario--History;Stations de ski--Ontario--Blue
Mountains--Histoire; Ski--Ontario--Blue Mountains--Histoire.
(Skiing), as told to Rick Richards (1992).
Ski Pioneers: Ernie Blake, His Friends, and the Making of Taos
Ski Valley. (Arroyo Seco, NM: Dry Gulch Publishing, 235
p.). Blake, Ernie, 1913-1989; Skiers--United States--Biography;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Ski resorts--New
(Skiing), S. Franklin Burford (1992).
The Snowshoe Story: Business, Politics, and the Judiciary in
West Virginia. (Elkins, WV: Kerens Hill Publications,
178 p.). Snowshoe Company--Trials, litigation, etc.;
Bankruptcy--United States; Judicial corruption--United States;
Ski resorts--West Virginia--Finance; West Virginia--Politics and
(Skiing), Peter W. Seibert with William Oscar
Johnson; [foreword by Jean-Claude Killy] (2000).
Vail: Triumph of a Dream. (Boulder, CO: Mountain Sports
Press in conjunction with Vail Resorts Management Co., 192 p.).
Founder, Vail Resorts. Ski resorts--Colorado--Vail--History;
Vail (Colo.)--History; Vail (Colo.)--History--Pictorial works;
Vail (Colo.)--Pictorial works.
(Skiing), Roland Huntford (2008).
Two Planks and a Passion : The Dramatic History of Skiing from
Paleolithic Times until Today. (New York, NY: Continuum,
436 p.). Skis and skiing --History; Skis and skiing --Social
aspects. From means of survival to leisure and sporting pursuit; use in polar
exploration, wartime changed history; origins of skiing bound
to emergence of modern man.
(Soccer), Stefan Szymanski and Tim Kuypers
Winners and Losers; The Business Strategy of Football.
(London, UK: Viking, 416 p.). Professor of Economics, MBA Dean
at the Cass Business School (City University London). Football
--United Kingdom--Finance; Football --United Kingdom--Economics.
Relationship between finance, football; how football (soccer)
works as business (estimated to be worth around £150bn
worldwide; 20 UK clubs quoted on stock market in 1998 had
combined value of over £1bn); why some clubs are winners, others
are not; historical description of football's finances; current
state of game financially; predictable relationship between
clubs' spending policies (transfers, wages), league performance,
(A. G. Spalding Brothers), Arthur C. Bartlett
Baseball and Mr. Spalding; The History and Romance of Baseball.
(New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Young, p.). Spalding, Albert
Goodwill, 1850-1915; Spalding (A. G.) and Brothers, inc.;
Al G. Spalding
(A. G. Spaulding Brothers), Peter Levine
Spalding and the Rise of Baseball: The Promise of American Sport.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 184 p.). Spalding, A. G.
(Albert Goodwill); Baseball players -- United States --
Biography; Businessmen -- Biography.
(A. G. Spaulding Brothers), Mark Lamster
Spalding’s World Tour: The Epic Adventure That Took Baseball
Around the Globe--and Made iIt America’s Game. (New
York, NY: Public Affairs, 341 p.). Senior Editor (Princeton
Architectural Press). Spalding, A. G. (Albert Goodwill);
Baseball--United States--History--19th century; Baseball--United
States--History--20th century. October 1888 - Albert Goodwill
Spalding departed Chicago on 57-game trip around globe
with twenty of baseball's greatest players to bring baseball and
American way to the four corners of the earth.
(Surfing), Phil Jarratt (2010).
Salts and Suits. (Victoria,
Australia: Hardie Grant Books 301 p.). Former Editor of Tracks
and The Australian Surfers Journal, contributing editor to The
Surfers Journal, Surfer, Surfing and Pacific Longboarder.
Surfing industry -- history. How group of
young beach bums turned passion for riding big waves into
world's fastest growing leisure industry; surfing's biggest
brands generate more than $1 billion in revenue; long, bloody
battle between ‘salts' and ‘suits' to control industry.
(Tampa Bay Rays), Jonah Keri (2011).
The Extra 2%: How Wall Street Strategies Took a Major League
Baseball Team from Worst to First. (New York, NY:
ESPN, 272 p.). Columnist for Investor’s Business Daily. Tampa
Bay Rays (Baseball team); Baseball --Economic aspects; Sports
franchises --Economic aspects --Florida --Tampa bay.
Stuart Sternberg and Matthew Silverman, former Goldman Sachs
partners, assumed control of Tampa Bay Devil Rays; innovative ideas about employee development,
marketing, public relations, personnel management; developed
metrics to take advantage of undervalued aspects of game
(defense), hired forward-thinking field manager dedicated to
unconventional strategy; quantified game’s intangibles (extra 2%
of winning organizations); 2008 - won
American League pennant; one of greatest turnarounds in baseball
history from divisional doormat to World Series contender.
(USFL), Jim Byrne (1987).
The $1 League: The Rise and Fall of the USFL. (New York,
NY: Prentice Hall Press, 352 p.). USFL (Organization) --
(Vail Resorts), Peter W. Seibert with William
Oscar Johnson; [foreword by Jean-Claude Killy] (2000).
Vail: Triumph of a Dream. (Boulder, CO: Mountain Sports
Press in conjunction with Vail Resorts Management Co., 192 p.).
Co-Founder, Vail Resorts. Ski resorts --Colorado --Vail
--History; Vail (Colo.) --History; Vail (Colo.) --History
--Pictorial works; Vail (Colo.) --Pictorial works.
(Washington Redskins), Adrian Havill (1992).
The Last Mogul: The Unauthorized Biography of Jack Kent Cooke.
(New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 302 p.). Cooke, Jack Kent;
Jack Kent Cooke
(Waterloo Diamonds), Jerry Klinkowitz ; with a
foreword by Mike Veeck (1999).
Owning a Piece of the Minors. (Carbondale, IL: Southern
Illinois University Press, 156 p.). Klinkowitz, Jerome; Waterloo
Diamonds (Baseball team); Baseball team owners--United
(Westminster Kennel Club), William F. Stifel
The Dog Show: 125 Years of Westminster. (ew York, NY:
Westminster Kennel Club, 240 p.). President of the American
Kennel Club (1977 to 1986). Westminster Kennel Club--History;
Dog shows--New York (State)--New York--History; Dog
(Weider Health and Fitness), Joe Weider, Ben
Weider, and Mike Steere (2006).
Brothers of Iron: How the Weider Brothers Created the Fitness
Movement and Built a Business Empire. (Champaign, IL:
Sports Publishing, 252 p.). Weider Joe; Weider, Ben; Weider
Health and Fitness; bodybuilding. From small muscle magazine
at family's dining room table to publishing empire;
built backyard barbell business into equipment, food supplement
companies; transformed bodybuilding into hugely successful
sport, organized under one of largest, best-run athletic
federations in world.
(World Championship Wrestling Inc.), Eric
Bischoff with Jeremy Roberts (2006).
World Wrestling Entertainment Presents Controversy Creates Cash.
(New York, NY: Pocket Books, 389 p.). Bischoff, Eric; World
Championship Wrestling, Inc.--History; World Wrestling
Entertainment, Inc.--History; Wrestling--History.
Rise, fall of organization in
head-to-head, no-holds-barred ratings war with WWE; how author
helped shape sports entertainment industry into billion dollar
(York Barbell), John D. Fair (1999).
Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the Manly Culture of York
Barbell. (University Park, PA: Penn State University
Press, 420 p.). Bob Hoffman, York Barbell Company, Weight
Brett L. Abrams (2008).
Capital Sporting Grounds: A History of Stadium and Ballpark
Construction in Washington, D.C. (Jefferson, NC:
McFarland, 290 p.). Nationals Park (Washington, D.C.) --History;
Washington Nationals (Baseball team) --History; Stadiums
--Washington (D.C.) --Design and construction --History.
District's past stadiums, tracks, Olympics facilities with their
political backdrops; stadium for expansion Washington Nationals
baseball team cost more than $600 million; supporters said
stadium would generate economic development; opponents decried
waste of taxpayer money.
Dean V. Baim (1994).
The Sports Stadium as a Municipal Investment. (Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press, 240 p.). Stadiums -- Economic aspects --
United States -- Case studies; Urban economics -- United States
-- Case studies; Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States --
Hugh Barty-King (1979).
Quilt Winders and Pod Shavers: The History of Cricket Bat and
Ball Manufacture. (London, UK: Macdonald and Jane's, 208
p.). Cricket equipment industry--Great Britain--History.
David J. Berri, Martin B. Schmidt, and Stacey
L. Brook (2006).
The Wages of Wins: Taking Measure of the Many Myths in Modern
Sport. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 304
p.). Associate Professor of Economics (California State
University, Bakersfield); Associate Professor of Economics
(College of William and Mary); Associate Professor of Economics
(University of Sioux Falls). Professional sports--Economic
aspects--United States; Professional sports--Social
aspects--United States. Many of most commonly held beliefs about
David Browne (2004).
Amped: How Big Air, Big Dollars, and a New Generation Took
Sports to the Extreme. (New York, NY: Bloomsbury, 300
p.). Music Critic (Entertainment Weekly). Extreme
sports--Economic aspects--United States.
Jerry Crasnick (2005).
License To Deal: A Season on the Run with a Maverick Baseball
(Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 312 p.). Baseball reporter (ESPN.com's lead
Insider). Sosnick, Matt; Major League Baseball (Organization);
Sports agents--United States--Biography; Baseball
Timothy Jon Curry, Kent Schwirian, and Rachael
A. Woldoff (2004).
High Stakes: Big Time Sports and Downtown Redevelopment.
(Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 184 p.). Associate
Professor of Sociology (Ohio State University); Professor
Emeritus of Sociology (Ohio State University); Assistant
Professor of Sociology and Anthropology (West Virginia
University). Sports--Social aspects--Ohio--Columbus;
Professional sports--Social aspects--Ohio--Columbus;
Sports--Economic aspects--Ohio--Columbus; Professional
sports--Economic aspects--Ohio--Columbus; Community
development--Ohio--Columbus; Urban renewal--Ohio--Columbus.
Michael N. Danielson (1997).
Home Team: Professional Sports and the American Metropolis.
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 397 p.). Sports and
state -- United States; Sports -- United States -- Sociological
aspects; Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States.
Francis X. Dealy, Jr. (1990).
Win at Any Cost: The Sell Out of College Athletics. (New
York, NY: Carol Pub. Group, 240 p.). National Collegiate
Athletic Association; College sports -- Moral and ethical
aspects -- United States; College sports -- Economic aspects --
United States; Doping in sports -- United States.
William C. Dowling (2007).
Confessions of a Spoilsport: My Life and Hard Times Fighting
Sports Corruption at an Old Eastern University.
(University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 208
p.). University Distinguished Professor of English and American
Literature (Rutgers University). Rutgers University; National
Collegiate Athletic Association; College sports--Moral and
ethical aspects--United States; College sports--Economic
aspects--United States. When Rutgers joined Big East; Rutgers 1000 (students, alumni)
set out to resist decline of their university.
Joseph Durso (1971).
The All-American Dollar; The Big Business of Sports.
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 294 p.). Sports--Economic
Dworkin and Faye Linda Wachs (2009).
Body Panic: Gender, Health, and the Selling of Fitness.
(New York, NY: New York University Press, 227 p.). Associate
Professor of Medical Sociology in the Department of Social and
Behavioral Sciences (University of California at San Francisco);
Associate Professor of Sociology in the Department of Psychology
and Sociology (California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
(Cal Poly Pomona). Body image --United States; Advertising,
Magazine --United States; Culture --United States; Gender
identity --United States; Physical fitness --United States
--Periodicals; Exercise --Psychological aspects; Body Image
--United States; Advertising as Topic --trends --United States;
Culture --United States; Gender Identity --United States;
Periodicals as Topic --United States; Physical Fitness
--psychology --United States. Ten years of
men’s, women's health and fitness magazines to determine ways in
which bodies are “made” in today’s culture; images, workouts,
ideology being sold, contemporary links among health, morality,
citizenship, identity; in-depth understanding of this pervasive
Charles C. Euchner (1993).
Playing the Field: Why Sports Teams Move and Cities Fight to
Keep Them. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 213 p.). Sports -- Political aspects -- United States --
Case studies; Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States --
Case studies; Sports franchises -- United States -- Location --
Case studies; Metropolitan areas -- United States -- Case
David Falk (2009).
The Bald Truth. (New York, NY: Pocket, 384 p.). Most
Successful Agent in the Game of Basketball (represented more NBA
first-round draft selections, lottery picks,
Rookies-of-the-Year, All-Stars than anyone else). Falk, David,
1950-; Success in business; Sports --Economic aspects --United
States. Inside look at business at its
highest level; lessons learned from its champions, on and off
court; business secrets that have fueled extraordinary success;
how he negotiated lucrative contracts, learned from his
mistakes, branded, marketed greatest basketball stars in
history, other elite athletes, coaches.
Arthur A. Fleisher III, Brian L. Goff, and
Robert D. Tollison (1992).
The National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Study in Cartel
Behavior. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 190
p.). National Collegiate Athletic Association -- Finance;
Cartels -- United States -- Case studies; College sports --
Economic aspects -- United States -- Case studies.
Kristine Fredriksson (1985).
American Rodeo: From Buffalo Bill to Big Business.
(College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 255 p.).
Rodeos--West (U.S.)--History; Rodeos--Economic aspects--West
Sheldon Gallner (1974).
Pro Sports: The Contract Game. (New York, NY: Scribner,
231 p.). Professional sports contracts--United States.
Vince Gennaro (2007).
Diamond Dollars: The Economics of Winning in Baseball.
(Hingham, MA: Maple Street Press, 250 p.). Former President
Pepsico subsidiary. Major League Baseball (Organization);
Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Baseball--United
States--History. Win-revenue relationship as foundation: 1) How does winning
affect revenues for each team? 2) What is a player's economic
value to his team? 3) Why does berth in the postseason have
great economic value? 4) What is the economic value of
productive farm system? 5) Does competitive balance exist in
Jerry Gorman, Kirk Calhoun ; with Skip Rozin
The Name of the Game: The Business of Sports. (New York,
NY: Wiley, 278 p.). Sports -- Economic aspects -- United States;
Professionalism in sports.
Kenneth M. Jennings (1990).
Balls and Strikes: The Money Game in Professional Baseball.
(New York, NY: Praeger, 273 p.). Collective
Frank P. Jozsa, Jr. (2004).
Sports Capitalism: The Foreign Business of American Professional
Leagues. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 316 p.). Associate
Professor of Economics and Business Administration (Pfeiffer
University in Charlotte, North Carolina). Professional
sports--United States--Marketing; Professional sports--Economic
aspects--United States. Contents: Major league baseball --
National Football League -- National Basketball Association --
National Hockey League -- Major league soccer.
Baseball, Inc.: The National Pastime as Big Business.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 284 p.). Associate Professor of
Economics and Business Administration (Pfeiffer University in
Charlotte, North Carolina). Baseball--Economic aspects--United
States; Baseball--Social aspects--United States.
Past and present commercial
elements of organized baseball; dual roles, as competitive sport
and profitable business.
Big Sports, Big Business: A Century of League Expansions,
Mergers, and Reorganizations. (Westport, CT: Praeger,
181 p.). Associate Professor of Economics and Business
Administration (Pfeiffer University). Professional
sports--Economic aspects--United States; Sports
franchises--United States. Expansions, mergers, relocations,
transfers from 1870s to present; successes, failures in
baseball, football, basketball, hockey, soccer, their effects on
team competitiveness, market share, prosperity, impact on
communities in which they operate.
Frank P. Jozsa, Jr.; foreword by John Maxymuk
Football Fortunes: The Business, Organization, and Strategy of
the NFL. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.,242 p.).
National Football League; Football --Economic aspects --United
States. Growth of industry generating billions of dollars in
revenue; intricacies of league’s expansions and mergers,
territories, relocations; operation and organization of
franchises; role of stadiums and markets; effect of the NFL on
domestic, foreign affairs.
Alan M. Klein (2006).
Growing the Game: The Globalization of Major League Baseball.
(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 280 p.). Professor of
Sociology and Anthropology (Northeastern University).
Baseball--Economic aspects; Globalization; Sports and
globalization. Study of
sport in process of globalizing; ways in which Major
League Baseball operates on world stage from Dominican Republic
to South Africa to Japan.
Don Kowet (1977).
The Rich Who Own Sports. (New York, NY: Random House,
271 p.). Sports team owners--United States--Biography.
Walter LaFeber (1999).
Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism. (New York,
NY: W.W. Norton, 191). Cultural Imperialism, Transnational
Paul R. Lawrence (1987).
Unsportsmanlike Conduct: The National Collegiate Athletic
Association and the Business of College Football. (New
York, NY: Praeger, 173 p.). National Collegiate Athletic
Association; College sports -- Economic aspects -- United
States; College sports -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United
Eric M. Leifer (1995).
Making the Majors: The Transformation of Team Sports in America.
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 378 p.). Professional
sports -- United States -- History; Sports teams -- United
States -- History.
Richard A. Lipsey; with a foreword by Thomas
B. Doyle (2006).
The Sporting Goods Industry: History, Practices and Products.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 177 p.). President and CEO
of the Sporting Goods Research Network Inc./dba SBRnet. Sporting
goods industry--United States; Sporting goods industry--United
has moved far beyond equipment manufacture. Author offers
insight into every major function of the sporting goods
Michael E. Lomax (2003).
Black Baseball Entrepreneurs, 1860-1901: Operating by Any Means
Necessary. (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 222
p.). Teacher of Physical Education, Sports Studies (University
of Georgia). African American baseball team
owners--History--19th century; Baseball--United
States--History--19th century; African American business
enterprises--History--19th century; Entrepreneurship--United
Marc S. Maltby (1997).
The Origins and Early Development of Professional Football.
(New York, NY: Garland, 238 p.). Football--United
States--History; Football--Social aspects--United
G. Richard McKelvey (2000).
The MacPhails: Baseball's First Family of the Front Office.
(Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 344 p.). MacPhail, Larry,
1890-1975; MacPhail, Lee; MacPhail, Andrew Bowen, 1953- ;
Baseball managers -- United States -- Biography; Baseball --
United States -- Management.
Eds. Roger G. Noll and Andrew Zimbalist
Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and
Stadiums. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press,
525 p.). Sports franchises -- Economic aspects -- United States;
Sports teams -- Economic aspects -- United States; Stadiums --
Economic aspects -- United States; Urban economics -- United
Sports and Their Fans: The History, Economics and Culture of the
Relationship Between Spectator and Sport. (Jefferson,
NC: McFarland, 259 p.). Associate Professor of Economics (St.
Norbert College, De Pere, WI). Sports --Social aspects --United
States; Sports spectators --United States; Sports --Moral and
ethical aspects --United States; Sports --Economic aspects
--United States. Role of
sports in creation of mass culture, cheating, abuse of
illegal drugs, strange and fascinating role that numbers
play in sporting events, future of spectator sport.
James Quirk and Rodney D. Fort (1992).
Pay Dirt: The Business of Professional Team Sports.
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 538 p.).
Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States.
Hard Ball: The Abuse of Power in Pro Team Sports.
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 233 p.).
Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States;
Professional sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States.
Irving Rein, Philip Kotler, and Ben Shields
The Elusive Fan: Reinventing Sports in a Crowded Marketplace.
(New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 300 p.). Professor of Communication
Studies (Northwestern University's School of Communication); S.
C. Johnson Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at
the Kellogg School of Management (Northwestern University);
Doctoral Student in Communication studies (Northwestern
University). Sports --Marketing; Sports --Economic aspects;
Communication in marketing; Sports spectators --United States;
Professional sports --United States. Business model centered on fan
satisfaction, retention; transform sports product into
enduring brand that quickly adapts to changing market
Ed. Wilbur C. Rich (2000).
The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities.
(Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 237 p.). Sports facilities --
Economic aspects -- United States; Sports facilities --
Political aspects -- United States.
Patrick Robinson with Nick Robinson (1993).
Horsetrader: Robert Sangster and the Rise and Fall of the Sport
of Kings. (London, UK: HarperCollins, 340 p.). Sangster,
Robert; Race horses -- Breeding; Horse industry -- United
States; Businessmen -- United States --
Mitt Romney with
Timothy Robinson (2004).
Turnaround: Crisis, Leadership, and the Olympic Games.
(Washington, DC: Regnery Pub., 396 p.). Head of the 2002 Salt
Lake City Winter Olympics Organizing Committee. Olympic Winter
Games (19th : 2002 : Salt Lake City, Utah); Winter Olympics
--Planning. Early 1999 - took over as CEO;
revamped budget, kept costs down, marketed games to sponsors.
Mark S. Rosentraub (1999).
Major League Losers: The Real Cost of Sports and Who's Paying
for It. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 364 p.). Sports --
Economic aspects -- United States; Sports teams -- United States
-- Costs; Sports teams -- United States -- Finance; Cities and
towns -- United States -- Economic conditions; Sports team
owners -- United States.
Phil Schaaf (2004).
Sports, Inc.: 100 Years of Sports Business: Event Evolution
... (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 394 p.). Sports
Economic aspects; Sports Marketing.
Gerald W. Scully (1995).
The Market Structure of Sports. (Chicago, IL: University
of Chicago Press, 207 p.). Sports -- Economic aspects -- United
States; Sports administration -- United States; Sports -- United
States -- Marketing.
Richard G. Sheehan (1996).
Keeping Score: The Economics of Big-Time Sports. (South
Bend, IN: Diamond Communications, 339 p.). Sports--Economic
aspects--United States; Professional sports--Economic
Kenneth L. Shropshire; with a foreword by
Sharon Pratt Kelly (1995).
The Sports Franchise Game: Cities in Pursuit of Sports
Franchises, Events, Stadiums, and Arenas. (Philadelphia,
PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 102 p.). Sports franchises
-- United States; Sports franchises -- Economic aspects --
United States; Sports franchises -- Social aspects -- United
States; Cities and towns -- United States -- Social conditions.
Kenneth L. Shropshire and Timothy Davis
The Business of Sports Agents. (Philadelphia, PA:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 206 p.). Sports agents--United
States; Sports--Corrupt practices--United States; College
Murray A. Sperber (1998).
Onward to Victory: The Crises That Shaped College Sports.
(New York, NY: Holt, 578 p.). College sports--United
Beer and Circus: How Big-Time College Sports Is Crippling
Undergraduate Education. (New York, NY: Holt, 322 p.).
College sports--United States--History; College sports--Economic
aspects--United States; College sports--Moral and ethical
aspects--United States; Universities and colleges--United
Leigh Steinberg with Michael D'Orso (1998).
Winning with Integrity: Getting What You're Worth Without
Selling Your Soul. (New York, NY: Villard, 239 p.).
Sports Agent. Negotiation in business.
Neil J. Sullivan (1987).
The Dodgers Move West: The Transfer of the Brooklyn Baseball
Franchise to Los Angeles. (New York, NY: Oxford
University Press, 252 p.). Los Angeles Dodgers (Baseball team)
-- History; Brooklyn Dodgers (Baseball team) -- History; Sports
and state -- California; Baseball -- California -- Management;
Baseball -- New York (State) -- New York -- Management.
The Minors: The Struggles and the Triumph of Baseball's Poor
Relation from 1876 to the Present. (New York, NY: St.
Martin's Press, 307 p.). Baseball teams -- United States --
History -- 19th century; Baseball teams -- United States --
History -- 20th century.
The Diamond in the Bronx: Yankee Stadium and the Politics of New
York. (New York. NY: Oxford University Press, 225 p.).
Yankee Stadium (New York, N.Y.) -- History -- 20th century;
Baseball -- New York (State) -- New York -- Political aspects;
Baseball -- New York (State) -- New York -- History -- 20th
Stefan Szymanski, Andrew Zimbalist (2005).
National Pastime: How Americans Play Baseball and the Rest of
the World plays Soccer. (Washington, DC: Brookings
Institution Press, 263 p.). Professor of Economics and Strategy
at the Tanaka Business School (Imperial College London); Robert
A. Woods Professor of Economics (Smith College). Professional
sports--Economic aspects--Cross-cultural studies;
Baseball--Economic aspects--United States; Soccer--Economic
comparison of two sports, mega-businesses they have
Stefan Szymanski (2009).
Playbooks and Checkbooks: An Introduction to the Economics of
Modern Sports. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 248 p.). Professor of Economics, MBA Dean at the Cass
Business School (City University London). Professional sports
--Economic aspects: Sports --Economic aspects: Sports
administration. World of sports through economics, world of
economics through sports; core paradox of sports industry
- would not survive if competitors obliterated each other to
extinction, financially or otherwise; nothing to sell without
rivals; how this unique economic truth plays out in sports
world, both on, off field; how economics
has guided antitrust, monopoly, cartel issues in sporting world;
motivation provided by prize money, discrepancies in players'
salaries, why incentive structure for professional athletes
encourages them to cheat through performance-enhancing drugs,
match fixing; how changes in media broadcasting allow owners,
athletes to play to global audience, why governments continue to
publicly fund sporting events (Olympics), despite almost certain
Wray Vamplew (1988).
Pay Up and Play the Game: Professional Sport in Britain,
1875-1914. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
394 p.). Professional sports--Great Britain--History--19th
century; Professional sports--Economic aspects--Great Britain;
Professional sports--Great Britain--History--20th century.
Ted Vincent (1994).
The Rise and Fall of American Sport: Mudville's Revenge.
(Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 358 p. [rev. ed.]).
Jay Weiner (2000).
Stadium Games: Fifty Years of Big League Greed and Bush League
Boondoggles. (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota
Press, 503 p.). Professional sports -- Economic aspects --
Minnesota -- Minneapolis; Stadiums -- Economic aspects --
Minnesota -- Minneapolis; Sports franchises -- Economic aspects
-- Minnesota -- Minneapolis.
Ann E. Weiss (1993).
Money Games: The Business of Sports. (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 186 p.). Sports--Economic aspects--United
States; Sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States;
Professional sports--Economic aspects--United States;
Professional sports--Moral and ethical aspects--United States;
Athletes--Professional ethics--United States; Sports--Economic
David Whitford (1993).
Playing Hardball: The High-Stakes Battle for Baseball's New
Franchises. (New York, NY: Doubleday, 271 p.). National
League of Professional Baseball Clubs; Baseball -- Economic
aspects -- United States; Baseball teams -- United States --
Management; Sports franchises -- Location -- United States.
Varsity Green: A Behind the Scenes Look at Culture and
Corruption in College Athletics. (Stanford,
CA, Stanford University Press, 208 p.). Sports
Journalist. College sports --Economic aspects --United States;
College sports --Corrupt practices --United States. Conspicuous,
high-revenue business of college sports; depth, breadth of
influence, both financial and otherwise; how academic
institutions capitalize on success of athletic programs, role
sports-based revenues play across campus; climate that big-money athletics has created over
past decade; how corrupting
influences that drive college athletics have affected every
aspect of youth sports, seeped into communities.
Andrew Zimbalist (1999).
Unpaid Professionals: Commercialism and Conflict in Big-Time
College Sports. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 252 p.). Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics (Smith
College). College sports -- Moral and ethical aspects -- United
States; College sports -- Economic aspects -- United States;
College sports -- United States -- Management; College athletes
-- United States.
May the Best Team Win: Baseball Economics and Public Policy.
(Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 198 p.). Robert A.
Woods Professor of Economics (Smith College). Major League
Baseball (Organization); Baseball--Economic aspects--United
States; Baseball--Law and legislation--United States; Antitrust
In the Best Interests of Baseball?: The Revolutionary Reign of
Bud Selig. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 272 p.). Robert A. Woods
Professor of Economics (Smith College). Selig, Allan H. (Allan
Huber), 1934- ; Baseball--Management; Baseball commissioners.
Selig redefined role of
commissioner, shepherded transformation of industry into a
business; brought owners together as partners.
Business History Links
A Brief History of Billiards and the
Tools of the Trade
"Advances in the game of billiards and the equipment used to
play the game occurred very much in parallel. This brief history
is intended to chronicle the links between the two." Covers the
period 1600-1930 and topics such as an early form of the game
played with two wooden balls, the mace and the cue, types of
cushions and chalk, and ivory and synthetic resin balls. From
the English Amateur Billiards Association.
The Business of Baseball
A great contribution for anyone who cares about the history of
baseball, this site includes key documents (contracts, court
cases, etc.), data (player salaries, league attendance,
franchise valuations, etc.), biographies, suggested readings,
interviews, and more.
Centre for the International Business of
Based at Coventry University, the CIBS and its affiliates are
primarily interested in researching the world of sport
management. Visitors can learn about the scope of their work,
their thematic research projects, and read their weblog.
Scholars and others with an interest in this work will want to
look over their working paper series. Recent papers have
included "The Only Way Forward for African Sport?" and "The
circumstances in which English football clubs become insolvent".
Additionally, visitors can also check out their podcasts which
feature commentary on such subjects as the "Financial aspects of
football" (soccer), "Sport Marketing", and "David Beckham".
50 Years of Dodger Baseball, 1958-2008
Details about golden anniversary celebration in 2008 of move of
Dodgers baseball team from Brooklyn to Los Angeles. Features
history of the team's move, other articles, trivia, event
listings, video clips, opportunities for fan participation,
other material related to celebration. From the official Major
League Baseball website for the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Rodney Fort's Sports Economics: Sports
Years of salary, attendance, and financial information for Major
League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the
National Football League, the National Hockey League, and
English and European football associations - organized by sport
(Rodney Fort, Professor, Program in Sport Management Division of
Kinesiology, University of Michigan).
The Fortunate 50
Profiles, compiled annually, of the 50 top-earning U.S.
athletes. The "figures include salary, bonuses, winnings,
endorsement money and appearance fees." Also includes a list of
the 20 top-earning athletes from outside the U.S., and
predictions of athletes who might make the top-50 list in the
future. From Sports Illustrated.
The History of Fitness
Article on the history of physical fitness from primitive times
through the 20th century. Includes discussion of exercise and
fitness in ancient China, India, the ancient Near East, Greece
and Rome, Europe, and the U.S. The U.S. sections cover President
Theodore Roosevelt's physical fitness ideologies, physical
education in public schools, fitness pioneer Jack LaLanne, Dr.
Kenneth Cooper, and other exercise-related trends and people.
Written by exercise science professors.
International Museum of the Horse
Founded in 1978, is the
largest equestrian museum in the world (located on the grounds
of the Kentucky Horse Park). The permanent exhibition, "Legacy
of the Horse", traces the history of all horses into the 20th c.
chronologically. Highlights of the collections include
memorabilia of racing champions, to include the Calumet Farm
Collections which contains 560 Thoroughbred racing trophies,
riding accoutrements and equipment.
Europe’s first surf museum - formal opening in North Devon in
the summer of 2011; project began in 2003, has staged
exhibitions all over the UK, seen by around 200,000 people. 2009
- became a Registered Charity (1131433), established itself as
the national body responsible for looking after Britain’s
surfing heritage that dates more than two centuries; most
extensive and historically significant collection of vintage
surfboards, literature and memorabilia on public display and for
academic research in Europe.
State-of-the-art, non-lending research facility dedicated to the
world of horse sports, shooting, and fishing. It is open to the
public and admission is free; 16,000-book collection covers a
wide range of horse and field sports, including foxhunting,
Thoroughbred racing, dressage, eventing, steeplechasing, polo,
coaching, shooting, and angling. Over 4,000 rare books from the
sixteenth century onwards.
American Society for Sport History
Committed to the promotion of research in and teaching of the
history of sport, exercise and physical activity through our
annual conferences and our internationally renowned Journal of
Sport History. We are committed to sharing ideas and information
about the study of sport and exercise across time and space and
in diverse historical context. We invite you to share our
passion for history and sport with a growing community of
scholars and practitioners.
Founded in 1995 by Don Hayes of
Ellsworth, Don Fletcher of Orono, and Greg Foster of Cumberland;
established with the mission to “preserve and publicize the
business of skiing in Maine, while celebrating Maine’s ski
history and heritage,” the board of directors has undertaken a
number of projects to identify and preserve our skiing heritage
and to share this heritage with the younger generations.
Sports Business Institute (University of
October 17, 2005 -- In recognition of the dramatic rise in the
popularity of sports-related businesses, the University of
Southern California's Marshall School of Business established
the Sports Business Institute, believed to be the nation's first
all-encompassing sports business center at a premier academic
institution; will provide a center for scholarly research and
executive education programs, as well as offer seminars and
symposiums for industry participants and stakeholders. A board
of advisors consisting of noted sports business leaders will
guide the Institute's strategic direction and activities.
The Sports Economist
Intended to be a depository of economic thinking on issues in
sport, and to a lesser extent, economics in general.
Preserves the history of surfing for future generations. We
collect, preserve, and document, surf craft, print, photos, oral
histories, art, cinematography, and surfing memorabilia. Through
education and outreach we tell surfing's story and bring its
rich lore to life.
To Collect, Preserve and Celebrate Vermont's Skiing History.