- Golden United Life Insurance Co., Columbus, OH,
established Compu-Serv Network, Inc. subsididiary to support
in-house computer processing , develop
time-sharing service; drove emergence of online service
industry; 1977 - name changed to CompuServ Incorporated; 1979 - first service to offer electronic
mail capabilities, technical support to personal computer users;
1980 - first online service to offer real-time
chat (CB Simulator); acquired by H&R Block 1982 - formed Network
Services Division to provide wide-area networking capabilities
to corporate clients; 1998 - acquired by AOL.
29, 1969 - Internet created; connection established
between computers at UCLA, Stanford Research Institute in first
wide area packet switching network, two node ARPANET (Advanced
Research Projects Agency Network) of US Department of Defense,
over 50 kbps line provided by AT&T.
1971 - Ray
Tomlinson (Bolt Beranek and Newman) wrote/sent first email
program through ARPANET (Internet) between two machines side by
side; selected @ symbol to separate login name from host name in
May 22, 1975
- Robert M. Metcalfe, of Woodside, CA, David R. Boggs/Charles P.
Thacker of Oalo Alto, CA and Butler W. Lampson, of Portola
Valley, CA, received a patent for a "Multipoint Data
Communication System with Collision Detection"; Ethernet;
assigned to Xerox Corporation.
December 13, 1977
- Robert M. Metcalfe, of Woodside, CA, David R. Boggs, of Palo
Alto, CA, Charles P. Thacker; of Palo Alto, CA, Butler W.
Lampson of Portola Valley, CA, received a patent for a
"Multipoint Data Communication System with Collision Detection"
("apparatus for enabling communications between two or more data
processing stations comprising a communication cable arranged in
branched segments including taps distributed thereover");
ethernet; assigned to Xerox Corporation.
- William F. von Meister announced The Source, first popular online
services company, at Plaza Hotel in New York; Isaac Asimov,
sharing platform, proclaimed, "This is the beginning of the
information age" (recalled Bettie Steiger, former Source
executive, Xerox marketing executive at Palo Alto Research
Center); May 24, 1985
- founded Quantum Communications (AOL).
December 1984 -
Stanford University computer scientists Len Bosack, Sandy Lerner
co-founded Cisco Systems; named for San Francisco, gateway to
Pacific Rim; 1991 - John Chambers hired as Senior
Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Operations; January
1995 - Chambers appointed CEO.
March 15, 1985
first .com registered in what had yet to be labeled "world wide
web"; took nearly decade for domain and consumer Internet to
take off; 2010 -
over 80 million .com websites; domain - platform for $400
billion in annual economic activity, broader Internet economy
drives more than $1.5 trillion in global annual economic
activity (more than global sales of medicine, investment in
renewable energy, government investment in R&D, combined);
economic activity flowing across .com infrastructure likely to
grow to $950 billion in annual revenue by 2020(source:
Information Technology and Innovation Foundation).
- Eric Thomas, engineering student in Paris, wrote first version
of LISTSERV, first email list management software; prior to
invention, all email lists administered manually.
November 12, 1990
- Tim Berners-Lee, consulting software engineer at CERN
(European Laboratory for Particle Physics, originally known as
Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire), largest Internet
node in Europe, wrote program for first web browser
WorldWideWeb, on NeXT computer; December 25,
1990 - communicated with first web server at
6, 1991 - posted summary of project for organizing
information on computer network using "web" of hyperlinks:
"WorldWideWeb" (W3); put first website online, CERN telephone book
(immediately useful, rapidly accepted); organized content
through uniform source locators; 1994
- founded World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology; comprised companies willing to create
standards, recommendations to improve quality of Internet;
December 2004 - accepted chair in Computer Science
at School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of
April 21, 1993
- Mosaic web browser 1.0 released; written at National Center
for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Marc Andreesen one of
founders of Netscape, Jim Clark one of founders of Silicon
Graphics led development team.
February 1994 -
Jerry Yang, David Filo, Stanford University Ph.D students, created
Yahoo! (acronym for Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle!);
March 1, 1995 -
April 4, 1994 -
Jim Clark, Marc Andreessen founded Mosaic Communications,
renamed Netscape Communications; first commercial browser
enabled better links, faster moves through Internet;
October 1994 - Netscape web browser 1.0 released;
August 10, 1995 - Netscape, developer of Navigator,
popular software for surfing World Wide Web, went public;
largest Initial Public Offering (IPO) in Wall Street history -
five million shares priced at $28, traded to high of $72 (market
value of $1.96 billion).
April 12, 1994
- Laurence Canter, attorney in Arizona, used first Internet
spamming program; created software program, simple Perl
script, that flooded Usenet message board readers with notice
for "Green Card Lottery" to solicit business for his law firm of
Canter & Siegel; reaction from online community vigorously
critical, condemned advertising; new, burgeoning business of
unsolicited mass Internet advertising spawned; term "spam"
coined from sketch in "Monty Python's Flying Circus" BBC
television show (waitress offered menu full of variations of
spam to unwilling patron).
March 25, 1995
- Ward Cunningham installed WikiWikiWeb
on Internet domain c2.com (started
developing it in 1994); first site to be called wiki (Honolulu
International Airport counter employee had told him to take
so-called "WikiWiki" Chance RT-52 shuttle bus line that ran
between airport's terminals; substitute for 'quick', avoided
name quick-web; "wiki" shorter form of wiki wiki - Hawaiian for
fast); computer software allows users to create, edit, link web
pages, to "comment on and change one another's text";
early 2000s -
adopted in enterprise as collaborative software (project
communication, intranets, documentation);
March 15, 2007 - 'wiki' entered Oxford
English Dictionary Online.
- Microsoft released Internet Explorer 1.0; released Windows
95, sold more than 1 Million copies within 4 days.
December 15, 1995
- Alta Vista web site, developed by researchers at Digital
Equipment Research Laboratories in Palo Alto, CA, made public;
first web-page discovery tool to gain wide popularity; initially
indexed 16 million web pages; January 5, 1996 -
handled 2 million requests per day; November 1996
- 22 million requests per day.
January 1996 -
Larry Page, Sergey Brin began collaboration on search engine
called BackRub (named for unique ability to analyze "back links"
pointing to given website); September 7, 1998 -
Google Inc. opened (play on word googol, coined by Milton
Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasner,
popularized in book, Mathematics and the Imagination by Kasner
and James Newman; refers to number represented by numeral 1
followed by 100 zeros; reflected company's mission to organize
seemingly infinite amount of information available on web);
September 21, 1999 - beta label came off website,
search engine launched; August 19, 2004 - initial
public offering; priced at $85 per share. Traded above $300 per
share within first year; November 6, 2007 - traded
at $747.24, all-time high.
July 4, 1996 -
Hotmail went online (created by Sabeer Bhatia, Jack
Smith); acquired by Microsoft for $400 million.
- Andrew Weinreich, former General Counsel of the Hertz
Technology Group, launched SixDegrees.com, first recognizable
social network site; based on the Web of Contacts model of
social networking; allowed users to create profiles, list
Friends; 1998 -
could surf Friends lists; about 100 employees, registered about
1,000,000 members; failed to become a sustainable business;
2000 - acquired by
YouthStream Media Networks for US$125 million;
January 16, 2001 -
Andrew P. Weinreich, Mark R. Salamon, Shoshana Zilberberg,
Nicole D. Berlyn, Leeann Mitchell, Cliff Rosen, Adam Seifer,
Justin Green, David Haber, David Samuels, Ron Chibnik, Scott
Clifford, Chandrasekhar Boddu received a patent for a "Method
and Apparatus for Constructing a Networking Database and System"
("A networking database containing a plurality of records for
different individuals in which individuals are connected to one
another in the database by defined relationships. Each
individual has the opportunity to define the relationship which
may be confirmed or denied."); assigned to six degrees, inc.;
first patent in social networking; more successful social
networking sites, based on the "Social-circles network model",
followed (Friendster, My and system" XING, Facebook).
December 23, 1997
- Jorn Barger, of Robot Wisdom, regarded as first blogger; began
business of hunting, gathering links to things in which he was
interested; David Winer (Scripting News), Cameron Barrett
(CamWorld) early proponents.
October 1, 1998
- ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
created through Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between U.S.
Department of Commerce, ICANN to transition management of Domain
Name System (DNS) from U.S. government to global community;
not-for-profit public/private partnership dedicated to keeping
Internet secure, stable, interoperable; assumed responsibility
for selling top-level domain names for Internet (coordination
role of Internet’s naming system).
June 28, 1998
- Microsoft released Windows 98.
April 1, 1999
- David Smith, of New Jersey, arrested, charged with originating
"Melissa" e-mail virus, infected more than 1 million computers
worldwide, caused more than $80 million in damage (served 20
months in federal prison in exchange for helping FBI track
authors of other computer viruses).
October 25, 2001
- Microsoft released Windows XP.
2002 - Blake
Ross (17), Dave Hyatt launched Mozilla Firefox project,
community-made Web browser; November 9, 2004 -
released Firefox 1.0, open-source and non-profit web browser;
2006 - Interbrand named Firefox one of top ten brands
in world (over 15% of world’s Web users use it); with Joe Hewitt
formed Parakey, Inc. to develop software billed as Web-based
operating system; July 2007 - acquired by
2002 - Jonathan
H. Abrams founded Friendster in Mountain View, CA; April
2004 - removed as CEO; June 27, 2006 -
Abrams, of Sunnyvale, CA, received a patent for a "System,
Method and Apparatus for Connecting Users in an Online Computer
System Based on Their Relationships Within Social Networks"
("...computer system collects descriptive data about various
individuals and allows those individuals to indicate other
individuals with whom they have a personal relationship").
August 2003 -
Tom Anderson, Chris DeWolfe founded MySpace, interactive,
user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs,
groups, photos, music, videos for teenagers and adults
internationally, in Beverly Hills, CA; revenues generated by
advertising, no paid-for features for end user; July
2005 - acquired by News Corporation for $580 million.
Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, Chris Hughes launched
Facebook from Harvard dormitory room
as a social
utility to help people communicate more efficiently
with friends, family, coworkers; June 2004 -
moved operations to Palo Alto, CA.
February 14, 2005
- Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim founded YouTube, Inc. in
Menlo Park, CA; November 2006 - acquired by Google
for $1.65 billion.
November 2006 -
Google paid $1.65 billion in stock for YouTube, 19-month old
December 16, 2007
- Growth in email users (% change in visitors from November 2006
- November 2007)
(source: comScore; http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/12/15/technology/190-google-graph2.jpg; http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/12/15/technology/190-google-graph1.jpg)
February 2, 2008
- Microsoft made an unsolicited $44.7 billion bid for Yahoo in
attempt to better compete with Google.
(Cisco Systems), David Bunnell with Adam Brate.
Making the Cisco Connection: The Story Behind the Real Internet
Superpower (New York, NY: Wiley, 218 p.). Cisco Systems,
Inc.; Cisco Systems, Inc.; Telecommunication;
Telecommunication--Equipment and supplies; Routers (Computer
- Cisco Systems
- Cisco (http://www.pratt.duke.edu/images/
(Cisco Systems), Jeffrey A. Young (2000).
Cisco Unauthorized: Inside the High-Stakes Race to Own the
Future (Roseville, CA: Forum, 310 p.). Cisco Systems,
Inc.; Internet industry--United States; Internetworking
(Cisco Systems), Ed Paulson (2001).
Inside Cisco: The Real Story of Sustained M & A Growth.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 314 p.). Cisco Systems, Inc.; Computer
industry--Mergers--California; Consolidation and merger of
(Cisco Systems), John K. Waters (2002).
John Chambers and the CISCO Way: Navigating Through Volatility.
(New York, NY: Wiley, 192 p.). Chambers, John T.; Cisco Systems,
Inc.; Chief executive officers--United States--Biography;
Internet industry--United States--Management.
(Cisco Systems), Robert Slater (2003).
The Eye of the Storm: How John Chambers Steered Cisco Through
the Internet Collapse. (New York, NY:
HarperBusiness, 289 p.). Chambers, John, 1949- ; Cisco Systems,
Inc.--Management; Corporate turnarounds--United States--Case
studies; Computer industry--United States--Management--Case
studies; Data transmission equipment industry--United
States--Management--Case studies; Computer industry--United
States--History; Data transmission equipment industry--United
States--History; Internet industry--United States--History.
(Facebook), Aaron Greenspan (2008).
Authoritas: One Student's Harvard Admissions and the Founding of
the Facebook Era. (Palo
Alto, CA: Think Press, 335 p.). Founder Think Computer
Corporation, Inventor Facebook. Greenspan, Aaron; Harvard
University --Students --Biography; Harvard University --Faculty;
Facebook; Computer programmers --United States --Biography;
Entrepreneurship. Origins of social networking company; September, 2003 - invented The Facebook; sent email to
Harvard students describing newest feature of houseSYSTEM as
"the Face Book," an online service for finding other students;
2004 - Mark Zuckerberg started "thefacebook.com"; raised capital, created Facebook
(co-founders of ConnectU also said Facebook was their idea, that Zuckerberg
(Facebook), Ben Mezrich (2009).
The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook A Tale of
Sex, Money, Genius and Betrayal. (New York, NY:
Doubleday, 272 p.). Zuckerberg, Mark, 1984-; Saverin, Eduardo;
Facebook (Firm); Facebook (Electronic resource); Webmasters
--United States --Biography; College students --United States
--Biography; Businesspeople --United States --Biography; Online
social networks. Columnist for Boston Common.
revolution in way hundreds of millions of people relate to one
another; Facebook succeeded by
bringing people together, its success tore two best friends
(Facebook), David Kirkpatrick (2010).
The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is
Connecting the World. (New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster, 384 p.). Former Senior Editor for internet and
Technology at Fortune magazine. Facebook (Firm); Internet
industry --United States; Online social networks --History.
From dorm-room novelty to company with 500
million users; how 19-year-old Harvard student created
company that has transformed Internet; how he grew it to current
enormous size; how Zuckerberg steadfastly refused to compromise
his vision, insistently focused on growth over profits, created company that has changed social life in United
(Google), John Battelle (2005).
The Search: The Inside Story of How Google and Its Rivals
Changed Everything. (New York, NY: Portfolio, 288 p.).
Co-founding Editor of Wired, Founder of The Industry Standard.
Google (Firm); Google; Internet industry--United States; Web
search engines; Internet searching; Information society--United
States. Story of Google's
success: how search technology works, power of targeted
advertising, impact on society.
Sergi Brin and
Larry Page - Founders, Google
(Google), Neil Taylor (2005).
Search Me: The Surprising Success of Google. (London:
Cyan, 192 p.). Google; Google (Firm); Google; Internet
industry--United States; Brand name products -- Case studies.
(Google), David Vise, Mark Malseed (2005).
The Google Story. (New York, NY: Delacorte Press, 336
p.). Reporter (Washington Post); Researcher. Google (Firm);
Google; Internet industry--United States; Web search engines;
Internet searching; Information society--United States.
Account of the populist media company.
(Google), Randall Stross (2008).
Planet Google: How One Company’s All-Encompassing Vision Is
Transforming Our Lives OR One Company's Audacious Plan To
Organize Everything We Know. (New York, NY: Free Press,
288 p.). Columnist (New York Times). Google (Firm); Internet
industry --United States --History; Web search engines --United
States --History. Business plan to become
indispensable gatekeeper of all world's information, one-stop
destination for all information needs; 68% of all Web searches,
profits that are the envy of business world, surplus of talent;
more offerings Google adds, more ubiquitous
its presence, more dependent its users,
more information to its comprehensive
collection of data.
(Google), Bernard Girard (2009).
The Google Way: How One Company is Revolutionizing Management As
We Know It. (San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press, 256
p.). Google (Firm) --Management; Internet industry --United
States --Management; Web search engines --United States
--Management. Culture of innovation, way
people work, how organizations are controlled, how employees are
managed; focus on users, automation; how eCommerce has
profoundly changed relationship between businesses, customers.
(Google), Jeff Jarvis (2009).
What Would Google Do? (New York, NY: Collins
Business, 272 p.). Proprietor of Buzzmachine.com, new media
columnist (Guardian in London). Google; Information technology
--Management; Technological innovations; Creative ability in
business; Management. 40 rules to manage,
live by; new worldview of internet generation: how it
challenges, destroys, opens vast new opportunities; how
everyone, everything (corporations, governments, nations,
individuals) must evolve in Google era.
(Google), Janet Lowe (2009).
Google Speaks: Secrets of the Worlds Greatest Billionaire
Entrepreneurs, Sergey Brin and Larry Page. (Hoboken, NJ:
Wiley, 315 p.). Brin, Sergey, 1973-; Page, Larry, 1973-; Google
(Firm); Google; Computer programmers --United States
--Biography; Businesspeople --United States --Biography;
Internet programming --United States; Web search engines.
People, philosophies behind company which has has become global
household name, created new model for corporate responsibility,
employee relations - in less than 15 years.
(Google), Ken Auletta (2009).
Googled: The End of the World As We Know It.(New
York, NY, Penguin Press, 400 p.). America's premier media
critic. Google (Firm); Internet industry --United States; Web
search engines --United States --History; Internet searching.
What we know, don't know, about what future holds for imperiled
media industry; how Google (stand-in for the digital revolution)
formed, crashed into traditional media businesses (from
newspapers to books, to television, to movies, to telephones, to
advertising, to Microsoft); how industry is being disrupted,
redefined; Google's rise, "secret sauce" of Google's success,
why worlds of "new" and "old" media often communicate as if
residents of different planets; Google engineers assume that old
ways of doing things can be improved, made more efficient; will generate about $20 billion in advertising
revenues in 2009 (more than combined prime-time ad revenues of
CBS, NBC, ABC, FOX); poised to become world's first $100
billion media company; risks.
(Google), Steven Levy (2011).
In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives.
(New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 448 p.). Senior Writer at
Wired, Former Senior Editor and Chief Technology Correspondent
for Newsweek. Google (Firm); Google; Internet industry --United
States. Inside Google headquarters, Googleplex, to show how
Google works; engineering mind-set, adoption of Internet values
as speed, openness, experimentation, risk taking - key to
Google’s success; pampers engineers (free food, dry cleaning,
on-site doctors, masseuses), gives them resources they need to
succeed; more than 23,000 employees, Larry Page signs off on
every hire; stumbled in China, chasing successful competitor for
first time (social media).
(LinkedIn), Judith Hurwitz (2011).
Smart or Lucky: How Technology Leaders Turn Chance into Success.
(San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 240 p.). Former LinkedIn
employee, President and CEO of Hurwitz & Associates.
Entrepreneurship; Businesspeople; High technology industries;
Technological innovations; Success in business; Sustainable
development. How to recognize lucky break, have foresight to
take advantage of it; most successful technology entrepreneurs
understand value of combination of luck and smarts, make it work
for them; those who fail may be lucky but get complacent,
believe they’re smartest players in market, fail to make changes
needed to sustain leadership; LinkedIn: 1) shifted focus quickly
to infrastructure, relationships, planning; 2) drew up, followed
roadmap; 3) stuck with its target market.
(Lycos), Bob Davis (2001).
Speed Is Life: Street Smart Lessons from the Front Lines of
Business. (New York, NY: Currency, 203 p.). Former CEO
of Lycos. Davis, Bob, 1956- ; Lycos, Inc.; Telecommunications
engineers--United States--Biography; Executives--United
(MySpace), Julia Angwin (2009).
Stealing MySpace: The Battle To Control the Most Popular Website
in America. (New York, NY: Random House, 371 p.).
Reporter (Wall Street Journal). MySpace (Firm); Internet
industry --United States --History. How MySpace became media
powerhouse; Rupert Murdoch, MySpace versus Facebook; 2005 - acquired by News Corporation for $580
million as part of strategy to move media conglomerate into 21st
(Netscape), Michael A. Cusumano and David B.
Competing on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape and Its Battle
with Microsoft (New York, NY: Free Press, 361 p.).
Internet Software Industry, Netscape Communications, Microsoft
(Netscape), Joshua Quittner and Michelle
Speeding the Net: The inside Story of Netscape and How It
Challenged Microsoft (New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly
Press, 323 p.). Netscape Communications Corporation--History;
Microsoft Corporation--History; Internet software
(Netscape), Jim Clark with Owen Edwards
Netscape Time: The Making of the Billion-Dollar Start-up That
Took on Microsoft (New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 276
p.). Netscape Communications Corporation -- History; Internet
software industry -- United States -- History.
Jean Burgess and Joshua Green (2009).
YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. (Malden,
MA Polity, 172 p.). Research Fellow at the Centre of Excellence
for Creative Industries and Innovation (Queensland University of
Technology, Brisbane, Australia); Research Manager and
Postdoctoral Researcher in the Comparative Media Studies Program
(MIT). YouTube (Electronic resource); Online social networks
--Social aspects; Internet --Social aspects; Information
society. Participatory media in contemporary online environment,
first mass-popular platform for user-created video;
contemporary and future implications of online media; how it
relates to wider transformations in culture, society, economy;
how central to struggles
for authority, control in new media environment; how used by
media industries, audiences, amateur producers, communities of
(Wikipedia), Marshall T. Poe (2008).
Everyone Knows Everything: Wikipedia and
the Globalization of Knowledge. (New York, NY: Random
House, 288 p.). Department of History (University of Iowa).
Wikipedia--history; internet--mass collaboration;
How mass collaboration on internet (Web
2.0) revolutionized, democratized markets, culture, society;
offerred everyone unprecedented opportunities to work together;
Wikipedia - started in 2001 with 10 regular contributors, closer
to 500,000 by beginning of 2007; initial 16 articles to
estimated 5 million today in 2008, in at least 200 different
languages; now vast communities of well-informed, dedicated
amateurs work together to produce, share information.
(Wikipedia), Andrew Lih; Foreword by
Jimmy Wales (2009).
The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the
World's Greatest Encyclopedia. (New York, NY:
Hyperion, 272 p.). Wikipedia; Electronic encyclopedias; User
What enabled creation of Wikipedia -
Internet culture that inspired hacker ethos, USENET, Free
Software movement; Apple's forgotten HyperCard project
inspired Ward Cunningham to create wiki (saved original Nupedia
encyclopedia started by Larry Sanger, Jimmy Wales); from idea to
inception in 2001 to global phenomenon with cultural
Jimmy Wales - Wikipedia (http://img.timeinc.net/time/2008/time_100_walkup/jimmy_wales.jpg)
(Yahoo!), Anthony Vlamis & Bob Smith (2001).
Business the Yahoo! Way: Secrets of the World's Most Popular
(Milford, CT: Capstone, 231 p.). Yahoo! Inc.; Internet
(http://us.i1.yimg.com/us.yimg. com/ i/docs/david_filo.jpg)
(Yahoo!), Karen Angel (2002).
Inside Yahoo!: Reinvention and the Road Ahead. (New
York, NY: Wiley, 276 p.). Yahoo! Inc.; Success in business.
Janet Abbate (1999).
Inventing the Internet. (Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 264 p.). Internet, Computer Network.
Eds. William Aspray, Paul. E. Ceruzzi (2008).
The Internet and American Business. (Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 596 p.). Rudy Professor of Informatics Indiana University
in Bloomington); Curator of the National Air and Space Museum,
Smithsonian Institution. Internet--United States--Economic
aspects; Electronic commerce--United States; Internet
industry--United States; Internet--United States--Social
aspects; Information technology--United States--Economic
aspects. Impact of
commercialized Internet since 1995 on American business and
society; new business models, new companies, adjustments by
established companies, rise of e-commerce, community building;
dot-com busts, difficulties encountered by traditional
industries; new problems (copyright violations associated with
music file-sharing, proliferation of Internet pornography).
Daniel Bell (1976).
The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social
Forecasting. (New York, NY: Basic Books, 507 p.). Henry Ford II Professor of Social Sciences
Emeritus (Harvard University). Social history --20th century;
Social prediction; United States --Social conditions --1945- .
Prediction: development of different society reliant on
“economics of information” rather than “economics of goods”;
would not displace older society, would overlie some of previous
layers (as industrial society did not completely eradicate
agrarian sectors of society); spread of a knowledge class,
change from goods to services, role of women - dependent on
expansion of services in economic sector, increasing dependence
on science as means of innovating and organizing technological
Tim Berners-Lee with Mark Fischetti (1999).
Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the
World Wide Web by Its Inventor. (San Francisco, CA:
Harper, 226 p.). Berners-Lee, Tim; World Wide Web (Information
Edward Castronova (2005).
Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games.
(Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Associate Professor
of Telecommunications (Indiana University). Internet
games--Social aspects; Internet games--Economic
Implications of online game
industry for business, culture.
Paul E. Ceruzzi (2008).
Internet Alley: High Technology in Tysons Corner, 1945-2005.
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 242 p.). Curator of the National Air
and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. Internet --History.
How defense, telecommunications industries shaped Tysons
Corner's development in postwar period; history of suburban
development; became midpoint of "Internet alley" called Dulles
Corridor; several reasons geography played vital role.
Paul E. Ceruzzi
Internet Alley: High Technology in Tysons Corner,
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 242 p.). Curator of the
National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Internet --History. How defense, telecommunications
industries shaped Tysons Corner's development in postwar
period; history of suburban development; became midpoint
of "internet alley" called Dulles Corridor, reasons
geography played role.
Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu (2006).
Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World.
(New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 240 p.).
Internet--Social aspects; Internet--Government policy;
Internet--Law and legislation. Internet's challenge to
governmental rule in the 1990s, ensuing battles with governments
around the world.
Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon (1996).
Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet.
(New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 304 p.). Internet.
Shannon Henry (2002).
The Dinner Club: How the Masters of the Internet Universe Rode
the Rise and Fall of the Greatest Boom in History. (New
York, NY: Free Press, 288 p.). Technology Reporter (Washington
Post). Chief executive officers--Washington Metropolitan Area;
Internet industry--Washington Metropolitan Area; High technology
industries--Washington Metropolitan Area; Stocks--Washington
Metropolitan Area; Investments--Washington Metropolitan Area.
Leslie S. Hiraoka (2005).
Underwriting the Internet: How Technical Advances, Financial
Engineering, and Entrepreneurial Genius Are Building the
Information Highway. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 297
p.). Department of Management Science (Kean University).
Internet; Internet--Economic aspects; Information superhighway.
Internet's commercial development.
Michael Indergaard (2003).
Silicon Alley: The Rise and Fall of a New Media District.
(New York, NY: Routledge, 256 p.). Associate Professor of
Sociology (St. John's University). Internet industry--New York
(State)--New York; High technology industries--New York
(State)--New York; Internet; Electronic commerce.
Casey Kait and Stephen Weiss (2001).
Digital Hustlers: Living Large and Falling Hard in Silicon Alley.
(New York, NY: Regan Books, 344 p.). Internet industry--New York
(State)--New York--Case studies; Entrepreneurship--New York
(State)--New York--Case studies.
Philip J. Kaplan (2002).
F'd Companies: Spectacular Dot.com Flameouts. (New York,
NY: Simon & Schuster, 191 p.). President of PK Interactive. F'd
companies : spectacular dot.com flameouts / Philip J. Kaplan;
Business failures--United States--Case studies; Internet
industry--United States--Case studies; Electronic
commerce--United States--Case studies.
Byung-Keun Kim (2005).
Internationalising the Internet: The Co-Evolution of Influence
and Technology. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar
Publishing, 300 p.). Professor, School of Industrial Management
(Korea University of Technology and Education).
Internet--Economic aspects; Internet--Social aspects;
Technological innovations--Economic aspects; Technological
innovations--Social aspects. Global formation of Internet
system, how digital economy formed.
Sarah Lacy (2008).
Once You're Lucky, Twice You're Good: The Rebirth of Silicon
Valley and the Rise of Web 2.0. (New York, NY: Gotham,
304 p.). Reporter (BusinessWeek). Web site development
industry--California; Internet industry--California; Web 2.0.
Where the "dot.bomb" books
left off - growth of social networking (Facebook, Digg,
Youtube), entrepreneurs (Marc Andressen, Paypal's Max Levchin);
futuristic hyperbole of dot.com era not wrong, just early.
Michael Lewis (2001).
Next: The Future Just Happened. (New York, NY: Norton,
236 p.). Internet--Social aspects; Internet--Economic aspects.
Charlene Li, Josh Bernoff (2008).
Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social
Technologies. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 286
p). Vice President and Principal Analyst (Forrester Research);
Vice President (Forrester Research). Online social networks
--Economic aspects; Information society --Economic aspects.
Global groundswell of
people using online social technologies to discuss products,
companies, write news, find deals; affects every industry,
foreign to powerful companies (feel vulnerable); how to turn
threat into opportunity: 1) evaluate new social technologies as
they emerge, 2) determine how different groups of consumers
participate in social technology arenas, 3) apply four-step
process for formulating future strategy, 4) build social
technologies into business .
Eds. Robert E. Litan and Alice M. Rivlin
The Economic Payoff from the Internet Revolution.
(Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 292 p.).
Technological innovations--Economic aspects; Business
enterprises--Computer network resources; Internet; Evolutionary
Robert E. Litan, Alice M. Rivlin (2001).
Beyond the Dot.coms: The Economic Promise of the Internet.
(Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 130 p.).
Internet--Economic aspects--United States--Forecasting;
Industrial productivity--United States; Labor
D. Quinn Mills (2002).
Buy, Lie, and Sell High: How Investors Lost Out on Enron and the
Internet Bubble. (New York, NY: Financial Times Prentice
Hall, 288 p.). Internet industry--Finance; Internet
industry--United States; Online information services
Christos P. Moschovitis (1999).
History of the Internet : A Chronology, 1843 to the Present.
(Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 312 p.). Internet (Computer
Greg Pelling and the Cisco Systems IBSG Asia
Pacific and Japan Team (2005).
Cisco Net Impact: Competitive Advantage from Internet Innovators
in Asia Pacific and Japan. (Singapore: Wiley (Asia), 323
p.). Managing Director Asia Pacific and Japan for Cisco Systems
Internet Business Solutions Group; Former Senior Partner for PWC
Technology Consulting Practice. Internet--Economic
aspects--Asia; Internet--Economic aspects--Pacific Area;
Internet--Economic aspects--Japan; Business
enterprises--Asia--Computer network resources; Business
enterprises--Pacific Area--Computer network resources; Business
enterprises--Japan--Computer network resources; Computer
networks--Economic aspects--Asia--Case studies.
How to achieve visible benefits
from Internet, how to use it to manage organizations in
Adam Penenberg (2009).
Viral Loop: From Facebook to Twitter, How Today's Smartest
Businesses Grow Themselves. (New York, NY, Hyperion:
272 p.). Paradigm-busting phenomenon - essence of how most
successful Web 2.0 companies grow (each new user begets more
users (spread it by using product), and telling the colorful
story of its main players, with viral loop.
Anthony B. Perkins, Michael C. Perkins (2001).
The Internet Bubble: The Inside Story on Why It Burst--and What
You Can Do To Profit Now. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness,
327 p.). Internet industry--Finance; Online information services
Robert H. Reid (1997).
Architects of the Web: 1,000 Days That Built the Future of
Business. (New York, NY: Wiley, 370 p.). Computer
software industry--United States--History;
Businesspeople--United States--Biography; World Wide
Frank Rose (2011).
The Art of Immersion: How the Digital Generation Is Remaking
Hollywood, Madison Avenue, and the Way We Tell Stories.
(New York, NY: Norton, 354 p.). Contributing Editor, Wired
magazine. Internet entertainment industry -- Social aspects;
Internet entertainment -- Social aspects; Internet marketing --
Social aspects; Entertainment computing -- Social aspects;
Internet -- Social aspects. Transmedia—what it is, where it came
from, how it is changing culture; people reshaping media for
two-way world (Will Wright, The Sims; James Cameron, Avatar),
Damon Lindelof, Lost), dozens of others; changing how we play,
Steve Rosenbaum (2011).
Curation Nation: How to Win in a World Where Consumers are
Creators. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional,
304 p.). CEO of Magnify.net, largest real-time video aggregation
and curation engine on Internet. Online social networks; Market
segmentation; Management. Curation -
enables people to sort through digital excess, find what's
relevant; why brands, publishers, content entrepreneurs must
embrace aggregation, curation to grow an existing business or
launch new one; takes advantage of Web's breadth, depth and
provides measure of human sorting, filtering that search engines
can't achieve; trusted source of value in otherwise meaningless
chaos of digital noise; demand for quality, context becomes more
urgent as volume of digital information in world increases.
Scott Rosenberg (2009).
Say Everything: How Blogging Began, What It's Becoming, and Why
It Matters. (New York, NY: Crown, 416 p.). Cofounder of
Salon.com. Blogs; social media; Internet --History.
new species of written conversation, complex network of
innovators; dilemmas that still face bloggers; privacy, self-expression,
authority, community in era of Google, Facebook.
Johnny Ryan (2010).
A History of the Internet and the Digital Future.
(Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 256 p.). Senior Researcher
(Institute of International and European Affairs, Dublin,
Ireland). Internet -- history. Development of Internet from
1950s to present; how balance of power has shifted between
individual and state in areas of censorship, copyright
infringement, intellectual freedom, terrorism, warfare; how
Internet has revolutionized political campaigns; how development
of World Wide Web enfranchised new online population of
assertive, niche consumers; how dot-com bust taught smarter
firms to capitalize on power of digital artisans; trends that
are shaping businesses, politics, media of digital future (from
government-controlled systems of Cold War to today’s move towards
cloud computing, user-driven content, new global commons).
Stephen Segaller (1998).
Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet. (New York,
NY: TV Books, 399 p.). Internet--History; Computer
networks--History; Telecommunications engineers--United States;
Information technology--History--20th century.
Sherman So, J. Christopher Westland (2009).
Red Wired: China's Internet Revolution. (London,
UK, Marshall Cavendish Limited, 254 p.). China Technology
Reporter ("South China Morning Post"); Professor (University of
Illinois, Chicago). China -- Internet --history. China - 250
million Internet users, largest in the world (70% under 30, vs.
US, 70% older than 30); 42.4% of users go online via
internet café; how China has adopted Internet at rapid pace;
role that technology has played, lessons from Internet companies
Clifford Stoll (1995).
Silicon Snake Oil: Second Thoughts on the Information Highway.
(New York, NY: Doubleday, 247 p.). Computers and civilization;
Internet; Information technology.
Linus Torvalds and David Diamond (2001).
Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary.
(New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 262 p.). Torvalds, Linus, 1969- ;
Linux; Computer programmers--Finland--Biography.
Walter B. Wriston (2007).
Bits, Bytes, and Balance Sheets: The New Economic Rules of
Engagement in a New Wireless World. (Stanford, CA:
Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 160 p.). Former
Chairman, CEO of Citicorp. Internet--Economic aspects;
Information technology; Electronic commerce.
Consequences of changes produced
by new economy of Internet; new rules (based on economic dogma
not human nature), intellectual capital more important than
physical capital; information revolution has radically affected
business, government practices, political policymaking
throughout world; personal ethics of good people should regulate
new economy, not increased government regulation, not more laws.
Jonathan Zittrain (2008).
The Future of the Internet and How To Stop It. (New
Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 342 p.). Professor of Internet
Governance and Regulation (Oxford University), co-founder of
Harvard Law School’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society.
Internet; Internet--Social aspects; Internet--Security measures.
As 'tethered appliances',
applications eclipse PC, very nature of Internet, "generativity,"
or innovative character, is at risk; sputtering because of its
runaway success; generative Internet is on path to lockdown,
ending its cycle of innovation, facilitating new kinds of
Matthew A. Zook (2005).
The Geography of the Internet Industry: Venture Capital, Dot-Coms,
and Local Knowledge. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 200
p.,). Internet industry--Location.
Business History Links
First U.S. Web Site: Documentation of
the Early Web at SLAC (1991-1994)
This collection documents the installation of the first United
States Web server at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
(SLAC). Features a chronology, images of the first SLAC Web
pages, a list of some of the people involved in Web activities
at SLAC (along with publications such as "The Virtual Library in
Action"), and other related documents. From Archivist Jean Marie
Deken of the SLAC Archives and History Office.
of the Birth of the Dot.Com Era
Established in June 2002 by David Kirsch, Professor of Strategy
and Entrepreneurship, Robert H. Smith School of Bussiness
(University of Maryland); what did, did not work; archive
contains 6.4 million e-mail messages, memos, slide
presentations, photographs, marketing materials, databases
representing thousands of companies.
Geek's History of the Internet
How The Web Was One: An Oral History of
Vanity Fair set out to compile an oral history of the Internet,
speaking with scores of people involved in every stage of the
Internet’s development, from the 1950s onward. From more than
100 hours of interviews we have distilled and edited their words
into a concise narrative of the past half-century—a history of
the Internet in the words of the people who made it.
Internet Evolution: Riding the Waves of
This October 2006 report looks at "Web 2.0," a "catch-all
buzzword that people use to describe a wide range of online
activities and applications." It provides an overview of Web 2.0
and some of the concepts (such as blogs, wikis, and podcasts)
that have been associated with the trend, and statistics showing
the rise of services such as Photobucket, Wikipedia, and
MySpace. From the Pew Internet & American Life project.
La Historia Económica en Internet
parts; 1) evolution of computers and the development of the net;
2) economic history, trying to look for the topics of their own;
3) interesting sites in the net, for economic history. Economic
History, Internet, computers, data base, resources of
Not-for-profit project, started by Internet expert and historian
Ian Peter, as overview portal for Internet history materials.
Founded on June 11, 2005 as weblog dedicated to obsessively
profiling and reviewing new Internet products and companies. In
addition to covering new companies, we profile existing
companies that are making an impact (commercial and/or cultural)
on the new web space.
What Are CERN's Greatest Achievements?:
The World Wide Web
History of the invention of the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1989 by
Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN (European Organization for
Nuclear Research). "The basic idea of WWW was to merge the
technologies of personal computers, computer networking and
hypertext into a powerful and easy to use global information
system." Discusses early Web pages, Web servers, browsers, how
the Web is not identical to the Internet, and how the Web works.
History of the creation of the Web in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee
and of the origins of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C),
founded in 1994. Highlights include Berners-Lee's original
proposal for the Web, a biography and FAQ from Berners-Lee, and
archival documents about the organization and uses of the Web.