Business History Links
INDUSTRIES: Business History of Issues for Businesswomen
business biographies  

March 1919 - Marian de Forest conceived idea of strong network of women in executive positions who would work to take their rightful place in professions next to men; five women chartered first Zonta club in Buffalo, NY; confederation of nine Zonta clubs formed with 600 members to encourage women’s teamwork, courage, risk-taking, self-reliance (first generation of college-educated women, first generation of North American women to vote, part of growing legion of women entering workforce - employed at least 50% of time at executive or decision-making levels); November 8, 1919 - drafted, adopted Bylaws and a Constitution, selected name Zhonta (meaning honest and trustworthy, derived from Lakhota (Teton Dakota) language of Native-American Sioux peoples); later changed to Zonta; 1930 - Confederation organized first European club, (Vienna, Austria), became Zonta International; September 1930 - Zonta International incorporated in State of Illinois; grew to 130 clubs in six countries spanning three continents, pushed for gender equity in employment.

July 15, 1919 - National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs founded (later filed to "do business as" (dba) Business and Professional Women/USA (BPW/USA);  three major issues on legislative agenda: elimination of sex discrimination in employment, the principle of equal pay, and the need for a comprehensive equal rights amendment; 1956 - Business and Professional Women's Foundation incorporated; 1963 - President Kennedy signed Equal Pay Act into law (18 years after Women's Pay Act of 1945 introduced in Congress as first ever legislation to require equal pay); October 1994 - National Business Women's Week first celebrated; January 29, 2009 - President Bush signed  Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act; July 1, 2009 - merged with Business and Professional Women's Foundation; BPW Foundation transforms workplaces by strengthening the capacity of organizations and businesses to create work environments that are inclusive and value the skills and contributions of working women. A Successful Workplace, as defined by BPW Foundation, is one that practices and embraces work-life balance, equity and diversity.

1962 - Felice N. Schwartz founded Catalyst to help women enter the workforce; first board of directors comprised five college presidents (Smith, Wellesley, Lawrence, Mills, Sarah Lawrence) who endorsed idea of organization to expand options for women; 1969- first national survey of employer attitudes towards hiring women for part-time management positions; 1971 - established National Network of Career Resource Centers; 1977 - created Corporate Board Placement service; 1980 - established Career and Family Center; 1986 - created Center for Career and Leadership Development; 1993 - established national benchmark for women's progress in corporate America.

June 26, 1998 - The Supreme Court issued a landmark sexual harassment ruling, putting employers on notice that they can be held responsible for supervisors' misconduct even if they knew nothing about it.

2007 - The American Economic Association awarded John Bates Clark Medal, given every 2 years to nation's most promising economist under 40, to Susan Athey (36), professor at Harvard University; first woman ever to receive medal in 60 years of its being awarded. Of 29 previous winners: 11 have subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Economics. The Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession reported that in 2006 - about 8% of all full professors in PhD-granting economics programs were female.

Stacie Nevadomski Berdan and C. Perry Yeatman, (2007). Get Ahead by Going Abroad: A Woman's Guide to Fast-track Career Success. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 256 p.). Senior Vice-President, one of the top 50 executives at Kraft Foods; Burson-Marsteller VP (at 27), global managing director after a three-year stint in Asia. Employment in foreign countries; Women--Employment--Foreign countries; Women--Vocational guidance. How to catapult one's career further, faster than by remaining in US.

Srully Blotnick (1985). Otherwise Engaged: The Private Lives of Successful Career Women. (New York, NY: Facts on File, 296 p.). Women--Employment--United States--Psychological aspects--Longitudinal studies; Women--United States--Sexual behavior--Longitudinal studies; United States--Social life and customs--Longitudinal studies.

Douglas M. Branson (2006). No Seat at the Table: How Corporate Governance and Law Keep Women Out of the Boardroom. (New York, NY: New York University Press, 256 p.). W. Edward Sell Chair in Business Law (University of Pittsburgh School of Law). Women executives--United States; Career development--United States; Corporate governance--United States. Dynamics of corporate governance process, double standards that often characterize it; women must follow different paths than men to gain CEO status -  flexible, conscious, often frequent shifts in their professional behaviors, work ethics as they climb corporate ladder. 

--- (2009). The Last Male Bastion: Gender and the CEO Suite in America’s Public Companies. (New York, NY: Routledge, 263 p.). Senior Fellow (University of Melbourne, Australia). Women chief executive officers --United States; Glass ceiling (Employment discrimination) --United States. 1997 - female become chief executive officer of Fortune 500 corporation (Mattel); 1999 - 4 women CEOs; 2009 - 15 women CEOs at Fortune 500 companies (vs. greater advancements in politics, not-for-profits, colleges and universities); educations, career progressions, pronouncements, observations, family lives of 19 women who have risen to top (sitting and former CEOs); two questions: 1) why haven’t more women reached CEO suite?; 2) how might women in business better position themselves to ascend to top?

Carrie Brown (2002). Rosie's Mom: Forgotten Women Workers of the First World War. (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 240 p.). Women--Employment--United States--History--20th century; World War, 1914-1918--Women--United States. 

Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene, Myra M. Hart (2004). Clearing the Hurdles: Women Building High-Growth Businesses. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT/Prentice Hall, 270 p.). Associate Professor in the Strategy and Policy Department (Boston University School of Management); Richard M. Schulze Chair in Entrepreneurship (University of St. Thomas, Minneapolis, MN); Jack M. Gill Chair of Entrepreneurship and Director of The Johnson Center for Entrepreneurship & Innovation (Indiana University); Dean of the Undergraduate School (Babson College); Class of 1961 Professor of Entrepreneurship (Harvard Business School). Women-owned business enterprises; Businesswomen. 

Martha Burk (2005). Cult of Power: Sex Discrimination in Corporate America and What Can Be Done About It. (New York, NY: Scribner, 262 p.). Chairwoman of the National Council of Women's Organizations. Augusta National Golf Club; Sex discrimination against women--United States; Sex discrimination in employment--United States.

Mary Ellen S. Capek and Molly Mead (2005). Effective Philanthropy: Organizational Success Through Deep Diversity and Gender Equality. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 320 p.). Principal in Capek & Associates, Visiting Scholar at the Anderson Schools of Management (University of New Mexico); Lincoln Filene Professor at the University College of Citizenship and Public Service (Tufts University). Endowments; Endowments--Case studies; Charities; Charities--Case studies; Women--Scholarships, fellowships, etc.; Women--Services for--Finance; Minorities--Services for--Finance; Sex discrimination against women; Organizational effectiveness. Strategies for strengthening organizations through commitment to diversity, gender equality.

Teri L. Caraway (2007). Assembling Women: The Feminization of Global Manufacturing. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 208 p.). Assistant Professor of Political Science (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities). Women--Employment; Manufacturing industries--Employees; Sexual division of labor; Women--Employment--Indonesia; Manufacturing industries--Indonesia--Employees; Sexual division of labor--Indonesia. 

Margaret Chin (2005). Sewing Women: Immigrants and the New York City Garment Industry. (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 208 p.). Assistant Professor of Sociology (Hunter College). Women clothing workers--New York (State)--New York--History; Clothing trade--New York (State)--New York--History; Alien labor, Asian--New York (State)--New York--History; Alien labor, Latin American--New York (State)--New York--History.

Eds. Linda Coughlin, Ellen Wingard, Keith Hollihan (2005). Enlightened Power: How Women Are Transforming the Practice of Leadership. (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 539 p.). Chief Administrative Officer (Cendant Corporation); Executive Coach on the Faculty of the Institute for Women's Leadership; Writer. Leadership; Women executives. 

Ed. Dianne Cyr and Blaize Horner Reich; foreword by Denise M. Rousseau (1996). Scaling the Ivory Tower: Stories from Women in Business School Faculties. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 202 p.). Business schools--United States--Faculty; Women college teachers--United States; College teachers--Tenure--United States.

Marilyn J. Davidson and Cary L. Cooper (1992). Shattering the Glass Ceiling: The Woman Manager. (London, UK: P. Chapman, 185 p.). Women executives -- Great Britain; Women in the professions -- Great Britain -- Promotions.

Virginia G. Drachman (2002). Enterprising Women: 250 Years of American Business. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 184 p.). Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Businesswomen--United States--History; Businesswomen--United States--Exhibitions.

Alice Eagly, Linda Carli (2007). Through the Labyrinth: The Truth About How Women Become Leaders. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 336 p.). Professor and Chair of Psychology and Faculty Fellow of the Institute for Policy Research (Northwestern University); Associate Professor of Psychology (Wellesley College). Women executives; Women--Promotions; Leadership in women. Labyrinth, instead of glass ceiling; seven reasons why; how to navigate through it; address critical questions.

Susan Eisenbeg (1998). We'll Call You If We Need You: Experiences of Women Working Construction. (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 216 p.). Master Electrician and Poet. Women construction workers--United States--Interviews.

Janice Reals Ellig, William J. Morin (2001). What Every Successful Woman Knows: 12 Breakthrough Strategies to Get the Power and Ignite Your Career. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 228 p.). Women executives; Businesswomen--Promotions; Career development.

Warren Farrell (2005). Why Men Earn More: The Startling Truth Behind the Pay Gap--and What Women Can Do About It. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 270 p.). Three Time Board Member National Organization for Women (NOW). Pay equity; Women--Employment; Equal pay for equal work. 

Eds. Marianne A. Ferber and Julie A. Nelson (1993). Beyond Economic Man: Feminist Theory and Economics. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 178 p.). Professor Emerita of Economics and Women's Studies (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Senior Research Associate at the Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). Feminist economics; Economic man; Economics.   

--- (2003). Feminist Economics Today: Beyond Economic Man. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 209 p.). Professor Emerita of Economics and Women's Studies (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Senior Research Associate at the Global Development and Environment Institute (Tufts University). Feminist economics; Economic man; Economics. 

Anne B. Fisher (1990). Wall Street Women. (New York, NY: Knopf, 177 p.). Women in finance -- New York (State) -- New York; Wall Street.

Herbert J. Freudenberger and Gail North (1985). Women's Burnout: How to Spot It, How to Reverse It and How to Prevent It. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 244 p.). Women--Mental health; Burn out (Psychology).

Carol Gallagher with Susan K. Golant (2000). Going to the Top: A Road Map for Success from America's Leading Women Executives. (New York, NY: Viking, 308 p.). Women executives--United States; Success in business--United States.

(HBS), Liz Roman Gallese (1985). Women Like Us: What Is Happening to the Women of the Harvard Business School, Class of '75--the Women Who Had the First Chance to Make It to the Top. (New York, NY: Morrow, 252 p.). Harvard University. Graduate School of Business Administration; Master of business administration degree--United States; Women executives--United States.

Claudia Goldin (1990). Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 287 p.). Women--Employment--United States--History; Sex discrimination in employment--United States--History.

Joanne Gordon (2005). Be Happy at Work: 100 Women Who Love Their Jobs, and Why. (New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 327 p.). Contributing Editor (Forbes). Women employees--Job satisfaction; Women employees--Interviews.

Daryl M. Hafter (2007). Women at Work in Preindustrial France. (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 318 p.). Professor Emerita of History (Eastern Michigan University). Women -- Employment -- France -- History -- 18th century; Women in guilds -- France -- History -- 18th century; Working class women -- France -- History -- 18th century; Sex discrimination against women -- France -- History -- 18th century; Discrimination in employment -- France -- History -- 18th century. Women as skilled workers in 18th century is central to understanding history of work, technology in preindustrial age; not unusual for women to be actively engaged in economic activities as workers, managers, merchants; some developed vertically integrated wholesale and retail businesses.

Diane Halpern and Fanny M. Cheung (2008). Women at the top: Tell Us How to Combine Work and Family. (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 320 p.). Professor of Psychology and Director of the Berger Institute for Work, Family, and Children (Claremont McKenna College); Professor of Psychology and Chairperson of the Department of Psychology (The Chinese University of Hong Kong). Work and family; Women executives --Family relationships. How women with family responsibilities have attained top positions; how women can create dually-successful lives.

Ellen Hartigan-O’Connor (2009). The Ties That Buy: Women and Commerce in Revolutionary America. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 253 p.). Associate Professor of History (University of California, Davis). Households --Economic aspects --United States --History --18th century; Women --Economic conditions; United States --Commerce --History --18th century. Lives of urban women in early America (1750-1820) - quintessential market participants, with fluid occupational identities, cross-class social, economic connections, firm investment in cash and commercial goods for power and meaning; how they used ties of residence, work, credit, money to shape consumer culture at time when politics of marketplace was gaining national significance; how women used, were used by shifting forms of credit and cash in economy transitioning between neighborly exchanges, investment-oriented transactions; landladies, enslaved washerwomen, shopkeepers, hucksters sustained themselves by serving mobile population; new economic practice in America—shopping—mobilized hierarchical, friendly relationships into wide-ranging consumer networks that depended on these same market connections.

(HBS), Monique Maddy (2004). Learning To Love Africa: My Journey from Africa to Harvard Business School and Back. (New York, NY: HarperBusiness, 358 p.). Maddy, Monique; Businesswomen Tanzania Biography; New business enterprises Tanzania; Entrepreneurship Tanzania. What it takes to build a business where the political framework for capitalism doesn't exist, and how to persevere in bringing Africa into the twenty-first century - memoir of despair for Africa, which seemingly has been written off by the developed world, and of tempered optimism for the future author believes Africa can achieve. From Yekepa, Liberia to New York City, author conceives plan to start a telecommunications company in Africa.

Harvard Business Review (2005). Harvard Business Review on Women in Business. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 213 p.). Women in the professions; Women executives; Businesswomen; Women -- Employment re-entry; Career development; Work and family; Achievement motivation. Most important factors affecting women in workplace.

Margaret Heffernan (2007). How She Does It: How Women Entrepreneurs Are Changing the Rules of Business Success. (New York, NY: Viking, 288 p.). Former Producer for the BBC. Businesswomen; Women-owned business enterprises. Womens' attributes: 1) tremendous need to achieve; 2) don’t feel they have safety net , can't turn back; 3) smart about markets and timing; 4) practice diversity; 5) place values at heart of their business, take culture very seriously; 6) work from different concept of power than men. 

Margaret Hennig and Anne Jardim (1977). The Managerial Woman. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 221 p.). Women executives; Executives; Organizational behavior.

Sue Herera (1997). Women of the Street: Making It on Wall Street--the World's Toughest Business. (New York, NY: Wiley, 208 p.). Anchor (CNBC). Women stockbrokers--United States--Biography; Wall Street (New York, N.Y.).

Lois Kathryn Herr (2003). Women, Power, and AT&T: Winning Rights in the Workplace. (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 200 p.). American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Trials, litigation, etc .; Sex discrimination against women -- Law and legislation -- United States; Sex discrimination in employment -- Law and legislation -- United States.

Sylvia Ann Hewlett (2007). Off-Ramps and On-Ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road To Success. (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 320 p.). Founder, President of the Center for Work-Life Policy, Director of the Gender and Policy Program at the School of International and Public Affairs (Columbia University). Women in the professions--United States; Women--Employment--United States; Corporations--United States--Case studies; Working mothers--United States; Work and family--United States. Successful efforts of group of cutting-edge global companies to retain talented women, reintegrate them if they’ve already left; what works, why; actions to reverse female brain drain, ensure access to talent over long term.

Alice Kessler-Harris (2001). In Pursuit of Equity: Women, Men, and the Quest for Economic Citizenship in 20th Century America. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 374 p.). R. Gordon Hoxie Professor of American History (Columbia University). Women’s rights--United States--History--20th century; Women--Legal status, laws, etc.--United States--History--20th century; Women--United States--Economic conditions--20th century; New Deal, 1933-1939; United States--Social policy. Economic impact of gender bias on women.

Alice Kessler-Harris (2003). Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 414 p. [20th anniversary ed.]). Women--Employment--United States--History; Working class women--United States--History.

Angel Kwolek-Folland (1998). Incorporating Women: A History of Women and Business in the United States. (New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 275 p.). Businesswomen--United States--History; Women-owned business enterprises--United States--History.

Eds. Anne Laurence, Josephine Maltby and Janette Rutterford (2009). Women and Their Money 1700-1950: Essays on Women and Finance. (New York, NY: Routledge, 309 p.). Professor of History (Open University); Professor of Accounting and Finance (University of York); Professor of Finance (Open University). Women --Finance, Personal --History; Finance --History. Women's financial activity from early days of stock market in 18th century England, South Sea Bubble to mid-20th century; how women managed their own finances despite legal, social restrictions.

Stephen Longstreet (1979). The Queen Bees: The Women Who Shaped America. (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 210 p.). Women--United States--Biography.

Felicia Mabuza-Suttle with Thebe Ikalafeng (1999). Felicia: Dare To Dream. (Rivonia, SA: Zebra Press, 155 p.). Award-Winning Businesswoman, Talk-Show Host. Mabuza-Suttle, Felicia; Women, Black -- South Africa -- Biography; Businesswomen -- South Africa -- Biography; Women television personalities -- South Africa -- Biography; Blacks in television broadcasting -- South Africa; Talk shows -- South Africa.

Judi Marshall (1984). Women Managers: Travellers in a Male World. (New York, NY: Wiley, 251 p.). Women executives.

--- (1995). Women Managers Moving On: Exploring Career and Life Choices. (New York, NY: Routledge, 347 p.). Women executives -- Case studies; Mid-career -- Case studies; Corporate culture -- Case studies.

Angie Morgan and Courtney Lynch (2005). Leading from the Front: No Excuse Leadership Tactics for Women. (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 224 p.). Cofounders of Lead Star. Leadership; Women executives. 10 key practices that turn women into leaders, improve their decision making, focus, performance.

Evelyn F. Murphy, Ph.D., with E.J. Graff (2005). Getting Even: Why Women Don't Get Paid Like Men-- and What To Do About It. (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 352 p.). Former Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, President of The WAGE Project, Inc.; Senior Correspondent for the American Prospect. Sex discrimination in employment--United States--Prevention; Sex discrimination against women--United States; Women in the professions--United States--Interviews; Women employees--United States--Interviews; Women--Employment--United States--Anecdotes. 

Ed. with introduction by Nancy A. Nichols; foreword by Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1994). Reach for the Top: Women and the Changing Facts of Work Life Harvard Business Review, 185 p.). Women executives--United States; Sex role in the work environment--United States; Sex discrimination in employment--United States; Women--Employment--United States.

Jeannette M. Oppedisano (2000). Historical Encyclopedia of American Women Entrepreneurs: 1776 to the Present. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 283 p.). Businesswomen--United States--Biography; Businesswomen--United States--History--Encyclopedias; Businesspeople--United States--Biography; Businesspeople--United States--History--Encyclopedias. 

Jane Robinson (2002). Pandora's Daughters: The Secret History of Enterprising Women. (London, UK: Constable, 222 p.). Women. Biography. 

Louise Marie Roth (2006). Selling Women Short: Gender Inequality on Wall Street. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 284 p.). Assistant Professor of Sociology (University of Arizona). Women stockbrokers--New York (State)--New York; Equal pay for equal work--New York (State)--New York. How America's financial capital has swept enduring discriminatory practices under the rug.  

Andrea E. Smith-Hunter (2006). Women Entrepreneurs Across Racial Lines: Issues of Human Capital, Financial Capital and Network Structures. (Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 261 p.). Associate Professor of Marketing and Management (Siena College). Women-owned business enterprises--United States; Minority business enterprises--United States; Businesswomen--United States. Systematic, conceptual framework for understanding issues of network structures, human and financial capital, analyzed through a comparative analysis of minority and white women entrepreneurs.  

Barbara Stanny (2002). Secrets of Six-Figure Women: Surprising Strategies To Up Your Earnings and Change Your Life. (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 274 p.). Wages--Women; Women executives--Salaries, etc.; Women in the professions--Salaries, etc.; Women--Employment; Career development; Success in business.

Sheila Wellington and Catalyst with Betty Spence (2001). Be Your Own Mentor: Strategies from Top Women on the Secrets of Success. (New York, NY: Random House, 302 p.). President of Catalyst; Former Vice President of Communications at Catalyst. Mentoring in business; Businesswomen.

Barbara White, Charles Cox, and Cary Cooper (1992). Women's Career Development: A Study of High Flyers. (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 252 p.). Women executives--Great Britain; Businesswomen--Great Britain; Women--Employment--Great Britain.

Melissa W. Wright (2006). Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism. (New York, NY: Routledge, 195 p.). Associate Professor in Geography and in the Program on Women's Studies (Penn State University). Women--Employment--Mexico--Case studies; Capitalism--Social aspects--Mexico--Case studies; Export processing zones--Social aspects--Mexico--Case studies; Women--Employment--China--Case studies; Capitalism--Social aspects--China--Case studies; Export processing zones--Social aspects--China--Case studies. Feminist criticism. Myth of  disposable third world woman; how young women workers around world eventually turn into living forms of waste.

Ellie Wymard (1999). Conversations with Uncommon Women: Insights from Women Who've Risen Above Life's Challenges to Achieve Extraordinary Success. (New York, NY: AMACOM, 254 p.). Women in the professions--United States--Interviews; Women in politics--United States--Interviews; Women in public life--United States--Interviews; Successful people--United States--Interviews; Women in the professions--United States--Biography; Women in politics--United States--Biography; Women in public life--United States--Biography; Successful people--United States--Biography.

Ed. Mary A. Yeager (1999). Women in Business. (Northampton, MA: E. Elgar Pub, 3 vols.). Associate Professor of History (UCLA). Businesswomen. 



Advancing Women in Leadership Journal                                                          

More and more women are now located amongst the upper echelons of leadership in a number of professions, including higher education, business, and the entertainment business. As a result, there has been an increased interest in scholarly publications and journals on the subject of women in leadership. In 1997, a group of scholars convened to electronically publish the first issue of the Advancing Women in Leadership Journal, and since then they have worked diligently to maintain the high standards of this online journal. Published several times a year, the journal has featured articles on Hispanic female school superintendents, the experiences of black women in historically black institutions, and gender politics. Visitors should feel most welcome to peruse the back issues of the journal offered here, or they may also consult the most recent issue at their leisure.

American Business Women's Association                                                                                               

Founded in 1949 by Hilary A. Bufton Jr., a Kansas City, Mo., businessman, ABWA has thousands of members in chapters and Express Networks nationwide. The organization provides business training and networking opportunities for women of diverse occupations and backgrounds. ABWA has dedicated more than half a century to women's education and provided workplace skills and career development training for more than 545,000 members. Mission: To bring together businesswomen of diverse occupations and to provide opportunities for them to help themselves and others grow personally and professionally through leadership; education, networking support and national recognition.

Business and Professional Women (BPW)                                                                                       

BPW vision: to create successful and equitable workplaces for women and families through policy, education and information; Facebook -


Leading research and advisory organization working with businesses and the professions to build inclusive environments and expand opportunities for women at work. As an independent, nonprofit membership organization, Catalyst uses a solutions-oriented approach that has earned the confidence of business leaders around the world. Catalyst conducts research on all aspects of women’s career advancement and provides strategic and web-based consulting services on a global basis to help companies and firms advance women and build inclusive work environments. In addition, we honor exemplary business initiatives that promote women’s leadership with our annual Catalyst Award. Consistently ranked No. 1 among U.S. nonprofits focused on women’s issues by The American Institute of Philanthropy.

Center for Women's Business Research                                                                                                        

Since 1989, premier source of knowledge about women business owners and their enterprises worldwide. The Center’s mission is to unleash the economic potential of women entrepreneurs by conducting research, sharing information and increasing knowledge about this fast-growing sector of the economy.

The Center for Women's Leadership                                                                                        

The Center for Women’s Leadership at Babson College provides educational programs, conducts research, and provides executive outreach that promote the advancement and accomplishment of women at all stages of their professional development and the achievement of competitive advantage by companies focused on women stakeholders—employees, suppliers, directors, and customers.

Institute for Women's Leadership                                                                                   

Provides training in leadership, life development and partnership to women and men seeking to effect breakthrough change within their organizations.

Jane M. Klausman Women in Business Scholarships                                                              

Since 1998 - helping women pursuing undergraduate degrees in business management overcome gender barriers, from the classroom to the boardroom; named for Jane M. Klausman, member of the Zonta Club of Syracuse, New York, USA and Zonta International Parliamentarian from 1990-1995 (left a generous bequest to the Zonta International Foundation); 175 Scholarships to women from 39 countries awarded.

Women & the Economy                                                                                                

This website focuses on the position of women in the economy. Topics includes a brief history of economic thinkers (such as Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes); background about money, banking, debt, economics and war, and feminist economics; women's economic contributions and economic inequality; women and globalization; and economic alternatives, such as barter systems and food buying clubs. Also includes stories about individual women. From the UN Platform for Action Committee (UNPAC).

Women-Owned Business Economic Research                                                  

Compilation of research studies on women-owned businesses, covering topics such as business ownership rates, women-owned sole proprietorships, venture capital in women-led firms, and more. Includes documents back to 1995. From the United States Small Business Association (SBA) Office of Advocacy.

Women Working, 1870-1930                                                                                         

Collection provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard's library and museum collections. This collection explores women's roles in the US economy between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Working conditions, conditions in the home, costs of living, recreation, health and hygiene, conduct of life, policies and regulations governing the workplace, and social issues are all well documented. The collection currently contains 2,396 books and pamphlets, 1,075 photographs, and 5,000 pages from manuscript collections.

The Women's Forum for the Economy & Society                                                                

Founded in 2005 by Aude Zieseniss de Thuin to promote women’s vision on the economic and social issues that matter most. Goals: Bring together the world's women and men leaders to provide new perspectives on the key issues of the present and future; Create powerful, worldwide networking to enhance the influence of women throughout the world; Generate action plans to promote women's contributions to society and encourage diversity in the business world.



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