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INDUSTRIES: Business History of Publishing: To 1900
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Publishing: From 1900

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 May 11, 868 - Diamond Sutra, Buddhist scripture, first known dated printed book (by Wang Chieh dedicated to his parents); found with about 1,130 bundles of manuscripts in one of Caves of Thousand Buddhas in Turkestan; made as 16-ft scroll with six sheets of text printed from wood blocks, one sheet with woodcut showing Buddha with disciples, pair of cats.

February 23, 1452 (estimated date) - Johannes Gutenberg began printing project, first block-printed, two-volume, 42-line Bible (number of lines per page printed with movable type), Biblia Pauperum or Mazarin Bible, in Mainz, Germany; March 1455 - all copies sold; November 6, 1455 - lost control of press in financial dispute with Johann Fust, his partner (notarized Helmasperger Instrument).

August 14, 1457 - John Faust and Peter Scheffer, his assistant, produced a Psalter, volume containing the Book of Psalms, in large folio; first printed book that appeared with a date.

November 18, 1477 - William Caxton published Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres, first book to be printed in England.

1501 -Ottaviano Petrucci, of Venice, founded first modern-style music publishing house; produced first book of music made from movable type, 96 chansons, as Harmonice musices odhecaton A (sometimes referred to as "the Odhecaton"), earliest known example of printed polyphonic music.

1534 - King Henry VIII granted royal charter to Cambridge University to found Cambridge University Press; 1584 - first work published; oldest printer, publisher in the world.

1586 - Oxford University obtained decree confirming its privilege to print books; 1633 - University appointed Delegates to oversee this privilege; 1668 - began to develop in recognizable way (as known today).

July 22, 1598 - Stationers' Register, licensed  printed works (by decree of Queen Elizabeth), entered William Shakespeare's play, The Merchant of Venice; gave Crown tight control over all published material; first version not published for another two years.

May 2, 1611 - The Authorized Version of the Bible (King James Version) first published.

1621 - Shakespeare's First Folio published.

May 23, 1622 - Nicholas Bourne, Thomas Archer issued first edition of "The Weekly Newes from Italy, Germanie, &c."; September 25, 1622 - Nathaniel Butter, son of small London stationer, William Shefford published "Newes from Most Parts of Christendom", rival weekly; May 12, 1623 - Butter, [Fox] Bourne, and [William] Shefford published "The Newes of the present week"; first English newspapers.

June 8, 1637 - Rene Descartes published "Discourse on Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences"; regarded as major work in science and mathematics; expressed his disappointment with traditional philosophy and with limitations of theology; only logic, geometry and algebra held his respect, because of the utter certainty which they can offer; Descartes's ideas swept aside ancient and medieval traditions of philosophical methods and investigation.

1645 - Queen Christina and Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna of Sweden founded Post- och Inrikes Tidningar (PoIT) as an outlook for the government to voice its official view; oldest current newspaper in the world, national newspaper and gazette of Sweden, country's official notification body for government and corporate announcements, bankruptcies, declarations or auctions; January 1, 2007 - print version replaced with online edition. 

November 7, 1665 - The" London Gazette" was first published.

1667 - John Milton published "Paradise Lost," epic poem about fall of Adam and Eve.

May 15, 1672 - Massachusetts enacted first copyright law.

January 21, 1677 - First medical book (pamphlet) published in Boston, MA.

June 27, 1693 - John Dunton published Ladies' Mercury in London; first women's magazine.

March 11, 1702 - First English daily newspaper "Daily Courant," published; 1735 - acquired by Daily Gazetteer.

April 24, 1704 - Postmaster John Campbell published first regularly issued American newspaper, the Boston News-Letter; served as a semi-official report summarizing items of news for reader convenience; colonies' first continuous newspaper; foreign news was printed on the front page and part of the second and third pages, followed by colonial news, and finally local news on the last page.

April 12, 1709 - First edition of Tatler magazine in England.

March 1, 1711 -Joseph Addison, Richard Steele founded the Spectator; approximately 2,500 words long, original run consisted of 555 numbers; 1714 - revived as thrice weekly for six months; 1828 - Spectator revived, published weekly;  oldest continuously published magazine in English April 25, language.

1719 - Daniel Defoe's fictional work "The Life and Strange Adventures of Robinson Crusoe" published (shipwrecked sailor who spends 28 years on deserted island); based on experiences of shipwreck victims, of Alexander Selkirk,Scottish sailor who spent four years on small island off coast of South America in early 1700s.

August 7, 1721 - James Franklin older brother of Benjamin Franklin, published first issue of The New England Courant, Boston's third newspaper; Benjamin Franklin (15) printer's apprentice; constant battles with Cotton Mathers, Puritanical Boston; June 25, 1726 - last issue published.

1724 - Thomas Longman (24) bought business of William Taylor in Paternoster Row; 1725 - published William Wollaston's The Religion of Nature Delineated, first book ever typeset by Benjamin Franklin;1755 - succeeded by his nephew Thomas Longman II; published Dr. Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language, first comprehensive English-language dictionary; 1797 - third Thomas Longman took over; 1799 - in partnership with Owen Rees, bought the copyrights of Joseph Cottle; began new century with publication of work of Wordsworth, Sir Walter Scott; 1842 -fourth Thomas Longman and brother (William) took over; succeeded by sons (Macaulay, Disraeli, Christina Rossetti, Florence Nightingale); 1852 - published first edition of Roget's Thesaurus; 1884 - J. W. Allen, schoolteacher. joined company; built educational lists, developed markets in India, elsewhere; 1909 - sixth generation of Longmans (Robert Guy, William L.) became partners; educational publishing continued to be mainstay; literary reputation maintained (Stella Gibbons, Mary Renault and Thornton Wilder, Gavin Maxwell, Stevie Smith, Leon Garfield), 1968 - acquired by Financial and Provincial Publishing Company; 1970 - merged with Penguin Books; 1972 - group named Pearson Longman Group; last Longman family member involved (Mark).

December 19, 1732 - Benjamin Franklin, of Philadelphia, first published "Poor Richard's Almanack"; filled with proverbs preaching industry and prudence; published continuously for 25 years, became one of the most popular publications in colonial America, sold an average of 10,000 copies a year.

August 5, 1735 - Jury acquitted John Zenger (New York Weekly Journal, America's first party newspaper), despite instructions from Governor's hand-picked presiding judges; charged with seditious libel against Governor William Cosby of the New York Colony for printing explanation of Chief Justice Lewis Morris for his dissenting vote on the legality of Cosby's creating a new provincial Supreme Court to sit as a "Court of Exchequer" (without a jury) to hear his suit against Rip Van Dam (71), highly respected senior member of New York provincial council, for recovery of over half of salary Van Dam had earned while serving as acting governor of New York during year between Cosby's appointment, his arrival in colony; Zenger defended by Philadelphia attorney, Andrew Hamilton, successfully argued that Zenger's articles were not libelous because they were based on fact; landmark case on freedom of press.

August 18, 1735 - Evening Post began publishing in Boston MA; April 24, 1775 - ceased publication.

February 13, 1741 - Andrew Bedford published first American magazine, "The American Magazine", in Philadelphia; beat Benjamin Franklin's "General Magazine" off the presses by three days.

March 5, 1743 - The Christian History published; first religious journal in U.S.

1744 - Antoine Aubanel founded printing business in Avignon; 1756 -  awarded title of "master printer"; 1780 - appointed official printer to Pope; oldest French publisher still in activity; 1998 - acquired by Martiniere.

May 1, 1753 - Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist and explorer, published the first edition of his Species Plantarum; gave systematic names to plants that are still in use today; called the father of classification; 1758 - extended familiar scheme of dual Latin names to identify animals; 1905 - The Species Plantarum taken by international consent as starting point for modern botanical nomenclature.

May 9, 1754 - Benjamin Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette" published first cartoon.

April 15, 1755 - Dr. Samuel Johnson, English lexicographer, published Dictionary of the English Language.

1758 - James Franklin, Ben Franklin's nephew, published first issue of Newport Mercury (Rhode Island); August 22, 1762 - Ann Franklin (mother) became editor (son died); first female editor of an American newspaper.

October 29, 1764 - Thomas Green, printer, published first weekly edition of The Connecticut Courant (Hartford Courant); sold newspaper to Ebenezer Watson (assistant); 1777 - Hannah Watson (widow) took over paper, became one of first women publishers in America; 1837 - began daily edition; 1913 - launched Sunday paper; oldest newspaper in continuous publication in U. S.; 1979 - acquired by Times Mirror.

1768 - Former lieutenant in Royal Marines from Edinburgh, John MacMurray, bought bookselling business of William Sandby at 32 Fleet Street, dropped "Mac" in response to outbreak of Scottophobia; 1812 - moved to 50 Albemarle Street (for next 118 years); managed by seven generations of Murrays; oldest independent publisher in U.K; 2002 - acquired by  Hodder Headline publishers.

1768 - Colin Macfarquhar, printer, and Andrew Bell, engraver, created Encyclopedia Britannica in Edinburgh, Scotland, during Scottish Enlightenment, to serve new era of scholarship; formed a "Society of Gentlemen" to publish new reference work; hired William Smellie (28) to edit it; 1771 - three volume set (2,670 pages) published as "Encyclopaedia Britannica, or, A dictionary of arts and sciences, compiled upon a new plan"; 1827-1901 - A & C Black, Edinburgh publishing firm, managed 7th-9th editions; May 9, 1901 - acquired from Adam and Charles Black by Horace E. Hooper and Walter M. Jackson; 1920-1941 - ownership passed to Sears, Roebuck, then William Cox, back to Sears in 1928; 1941 - acquired by William Benton (founder of Benton & Bowles advertising agency); 1974 - acquired by Benton Foundation (nonprofit organization set up by former U.S. Senator, William Benton, CT-D, and his wife, Helen Hemingway Benton); 1985 - four parts: Micropaedia, Macropaedia, Propaedia, two-volume index; January 1996 - acquired by billionaire Swiss financier, actor Jacqui Safra.

1772 - Morning Post first published in London; 1795 - acquired by Daniel Stuart; 1937 - acquired by Sir James Berry, owner of Daily Telegraph.

1772 - Antoine-Marcel Lemoine, composer, violinist, professor of music, founded musical publishing business in Paris; 1810 - published Messe Solennelle (composed for coronation of Napoleon I); 1816 - succeeded by Jean-Henry Lemoine (son and piano professor); published works of Chopin, Berlioz, Donizetti, Halevy, Franck, Gounod, Messiaen, Piazzolla; 1850 - Achille Lemoine (son, pianist, professor of piano), took over; 1895 - Henry-Félicien, Léon Lemoine (sons) renamed Henry Lemoine & Cie.; 1920 - Henry-Jean (son of Henry-Félicien) took over; 1987 - Pierre Lemoine head of Les Editions Henry Lemoine.

September 1, 1773 - Phillis Wheatley's "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral," was published; first African-American poet to be published.

February 1775 - Robert Bowne (31, of Flushing, NY), two associates opened Bowne & Co. Merchants, stationary, general merchandise store, at Number 39 Queen Street (now Pearl St.), in New York City; became oldest business operating under same name in history of New York commerce; 1818 - Robert H. Bowne and John L. Bowne (sons) took control; 1843 - headed by  Robert, William, John Bowne (grandchildren); 1898 - end of Bowne family management; Stanley M. Dewey took over (20 year employee); 1909 - appointed company's fifth president, company incorporated for first time; 1922 - Dewey interest acquired by Edmund A. Stanley, young Bowne & Co. associate (with company since 1908); moved out of stationery, into printing enterprise; 1933 - Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) formed (required, by law, new public offering issue prospectuses, instituted annual reporting requirements for publicly-held companies); 1946 - sales exceeded $1 million; 1961 - sales of $3 million; 1968 - went public; acquired The La Salle Street Press, Inc., largest financial printer in Chicago; 1974 - sales of $38 million; 1984 - first company to join EDGAR, new SEC voluntary electronic filing program for corporations; assisted prime contractor in development of program; 1990 - sales of $205 million; evolved into information management company; 1996 - sales of $501 million; formed Bowne Business Services (non-financial printing businesses), Bowne Digital Services (service provider for database management, on-demand printing, and digital print technologies); 1997 - sales of $716 million, record net income of $54 million.

Robert Bowne Robert Bowne - Bowne & Co. (

January 24, 1775 - Benjamin Towne established "The Pennsylvania Evening Post" (3 times/week) in opposition to Tory Ledger; May 30, 1783 - began publishing on daily basis; first daily newspaper in U.S.

June 23, 1775 -  First American-made book, titled "Impenetrable Secret", advertised in Philadelphia, PA in Pennsylvania Mercury; printed, sold by Story and Humphreys, advertisement announced it was "printed with types, paper and ink manufactured in this Province".

July 6, 1776 - "Pennsylvania Evening Gazette" published Declaration of Independence (announced on front page).

March 26, 1780 - British Gazette and Sunday Monitor published; first British Sunday newspaper.

January 8, 1783 - Connecticut became first state to pass copyright statute, "Act for the Encouragement of Literature and Genius"; enacted with help of Dr. Noah Webster.

1784 - First London edition of The Daily Universal Register (later renamed the Times).

February 5, 1784 - Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser (Alexandria, VA) began printing; December 8, 1800 - Mathew Brown and Samuel Snowden published first issue of Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer; December 9, 1800 - purchased Columbia Mirror and Alexandria Gazette and original 1784 press from William Fowler; July 11, 1808 - name changed to Alexandria Daily Gazette; 1812 - name changed to Alexandria Gazette, Commercial and Political.

September 21, 1784 - "Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser" became nation's first daily newspaper.

July 29, 1786 - John Scull, Joseph Hall published Gazette, first newspaper published west of Alleghenies; brought printing press from Philadelphia, set it up in small shop in village growing up around Fort Pitt; August 2, 1927 - Paul Block owned, published Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

January 1, 1788 - "The Times" published first edition;  London's oldest-running newspaper.

1789 - United Methodist Church established publishing agency in Philadelphia; oldest, largest general agency of The United Methodist Church; 1854 - Nashville operation opened as publishing house for Methodist Episcopal Church South; 1939 - three branches of Methodism united; 1968 - Evangelical United Brethren-Methodist merged; became The United Methodist Publishing House.

January 21, 1789 - The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth printed in Boston, MA; first novel by an American writer  published in America; first editions of the book did not carry the author's name, but a later printing carried the name of Sarah Wentworth Apthorp Morton; some scholars attribute the book's authorship to William Hill Brown; content was a thinly veiled account of the seduction and suicide of a young woman in Morton's family.

May 31, 1790 - First copyright law enacted under new U.S. Constitution: term of 14 years with privilege of renewal for term of 14 years; books, maps, charts protected; copyright registration made in the U.S. District Court where the author or proprietor resided; claims recorded by Clerks of U.S. District Courts; 1870 - copyright functions centralized in the Library of Congress under the direction of the then Librarian of Congress Ainsworth Rand Spofford; April 29, 1802 - prints added to protected works; August 18, 1856 - dramatic compositions added to protected works; March 3, 1865 - Photographs added to protected works; 1897 - Copyright Office became separate department of Library of Congress (part of the legislative branch of government), Register of Copyrights position created, Thorvald Solberg appointed; August 24, 1912 - Motion pictures, previously registered as photographs, added to classes of protected works; December 12, 1980 - copyright law amended regarding computer programs; December 1, 1990 - Protection extended to architectural works.

June 9, 1790 - "The Philadelphia Spelling Book "by John Barry, first copyright entry registered in U.S. District Court of Pennsylvania.

1791 - Giovanni Pomba founded bookstore in Turin, Italy; 1854 - Giuseppe Pomba founded Union Turinese Typographical-Publishing (UTET); oldest Italian publishing house; 2002 - acquired by Group De Agostini.

August 19, 1791 - Benjamin Banneker sent copy of first Almanac to secretary of state Thomas Jefferson (black American appointed by President George Washington to three man team of surveyors, headed by Major Andrew Ellicott, to survey the future District of Columbia); first of six Farmers' Almanacs; included commentaries, literature, fillers that had political and humanitarian purpose.

December 4, 1791 - WS Bourne published first edition of The Observer; London's oldest Sunday newspaper; 1814 - acquired by William Innell Clement; 1870 - acquired by Julius Beer, wealthy businessman; 1905 - acquireed from executors of Frederick Beer by Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe); 1911 - acquired by William Waldorf Astor; 1977 - acquired by Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO); 1981 - acquired by Lonrho plc; June 1993 - acquired by Guardian Media Group.

1792 - Benjamin Warner, Jacob Johnson opened bookstall on Market St. in Philadelphia; acquired by Warner; 1816 - Warner formed partnership John Grigg, Warner & Grigg; 1825 - Hugh Elliot made partner; formed Grigg, Elliott & Co.; 1836 - Joshua Ballinger Lippincott, former employee of Clarke bookseller, acquired store at corner of Fourth and Race Streets in Philadelphia, founded J. B. Lippincott & Co.; sold bibles, prayer-books; January 1, 1847 - Henry Grambo, Edmund Claxtion, George Remsen made partners; 1850 - acquired Grigg, Elliott, formed Lippincott, Grambo & Co.; major book distribution company; 1855 - renamed J. B. Lippincott & Co.; one of largest publishers in U.S.; 1868 - published Lippincott's Magazine; 1885 - converted to stock company, renamed J. B. Lippincott Company; 1886 - Craige Lippincott (son) named president; 1911 - replaced by J. Bertram Lippincott; 1940 - Joseph Wharton Lippincott became president; Joseph Wharton Lippincott, Jr. became fourth generation to head company; expanded to Europe and Asia; 1977 - acquired by Harper & Row; May 1990 - acquired by Wolters Kluwer N.V. for $250 million; merged with Raven Publishers, became Lippincott-Raven; 1998 - merged with Williams & Wilkins, ultimately formed Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (unit of Wolters Kluwer Health).

1792 - Robert B. Thomas, first editor, published The Farmer's Almanac; used complex series of natural cycles to devise secret weather forecasting formula (uncanny accuracy); 1848 - John H. Jenks, second editor, permanently, officially added "Old" to the title of the Almanac; 1855 - cover, "four seasons" drawing by artist Henry Nichols, became "permanent" ; 1863 - circulation of 225,000; 1939 - acquired by Robb Sagendorph, founder of Yankee magazine; became editor; early 1990s - passed four million circulation mark; 13 editors since 1792.

December 9, 1793 - Noah Webster established "The American Minerva", New York City's first daily newspaper.

1796 - Amelia Simmons ("an American orphan") published "American Cookery, or, The art of dressing viands, fish, poultry, and vegetables: and the best modes of making puff-pastes, pies, tarts, puddings, custards, and preserves, and all kinds of cakes, from the imperial plumb to plain cake, adapted to this country, and all grades of life" (Albany, NY: Printed by Charles R. & George Webster); first American cookbook written and published in America; first cook book that developed recipes for foods native to America.

1798 - Richard Taylor launched Philosophical Magazine, one of first scientific journals produced by independent company; start of many close collaborations with scholarly societies; 1852 - Dr William Francis, chemist, joined Taylor; formed Taylor & Francis; continued tradition of close links with academic community; 1936 - became private limited company with leading scientists as directors, shareholders; 1998 - went public, listed on London Stock Exchange.

1798 - Thomas Nelson sold second-hand books in town square in Edinburgh, Scotland; early 1800s - published inexpensive religious, classic works for "common man"; 1829 - first traveling sales representative called on bookshops; 1839 - management passed to sons; 1850 - Thomas Nelson, Jr., invented rotary press, revolutionized printing, publishing; 1853 - largest printing, publishing house in Scotland; 1901 - introduced American Standard Version of Bible; mid-1900s - company's focus shifted to popular, educational, coffee table books; 1960 - merged with The Thomson Organization, worldwide publishing, communications firm; 1969 - acquired by Sam Moore, founder of National Book Company in 1958, Royal Publishers, Inc. in 1961; 2006 - went private; became wholly-owned subsidiary of Faith Media, division of InterMedia Partners.

November 16, 1801 - Alexander Hamilton founded New-York Evening Post; 1881 - Henry Villard took control; 1933 - changed to tabloid format; 1939 - acquired by Dorothy Schiff; 1977 - acquired by Rupert Murdoch for $31 million.

July 7, 1802 - Robert Rusticoat created "The Wasp" in New York; first comic book published.

October 3, 1805 - Members of Massachusetts Medical Society authorized first U.S. pharmacopoeia prepared by a medical society in U.S.; 1808 - published as The Pharmacopoeia of the Massachusetts Medical Society (286 p.), edited by Drs. James Jackson and John Collins Warren; 1778 - Dr. William Brown, Physician-General to the Hospitals of U.S. wrote earliest pharmacopoeia produced in U.S. (32 p.) for use in U.S. Army Military Hospital at Lititz, PA.

1806 - Noah Webster published "A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language", America's first dictionary; challenged other existing dictionaries on several counts: spelling (which Webster would reform), pronunciation, etymology (word histories), modernity, and definitions; April 14, 1828 - published American Dictionary of the English Language (2,500 copies) priced at $20, did not sell out after 13 years in print; 1831 - George and Charles Merriam opened G. & C. Merriam Co., printing and bookselling operation in Springfield, MA; 1843 - acquired rights to Webster's dictionary upon Webster's death.

1807 - Charles Wiley (25) opened printing shop on Reade St. in lower Manhattan; 1809 - formed printing, publishing, bookselling partnership with Cornelius Van Winkle, a noted printer; 1812 -  "C. Wiley, Printer" appeared for first time on title pages of several legal works; 1820 - focused on publishing, bookselling; 1826 - son John (18) took over at his death; 1836 - hired George Putnam as junior partner; 1875 - company adopted current name, John Wiley & Sons; January 16, 1904 - family business incorporated, with William H. Wiley as President, Charles Wiley as Vice President, William O. Wiley as Secretary.

Wiley Offices Office - circa 1880 ( assets/1142/17/offices.gif)

1809 - Jacob Dietrick, Staunton, VA newspaper publisher, published "Der Deutsche Adler" (The Ohio Eagle) in Lancaster, OH, especially for local German farmers; 1812 - owned by Edward Shaeffer (printed in German, English); acquired by John Herman (printed both editions through early 1820s); 1833 - Thomas White, an Eagle editor, took over, published Eagle, local Fairfield Advertiser; November 1833 - Eagle acquired by John and Charles Brough (founders of The Cincinnati Enquirer); 1842 - acquired by Edwin Wright; 1870 - acquired by former Lancaster Gazette printer Thomas Wetzler.; 1899 - Edward Wetzler (son) took over; 1935 - owned by Charles Wetzler; 1936 - merged with Lancaster Gazette (founded in April 1826 by early local pioneer, War of 1812 veteran Gen. George Sanderson and Benjamin Oswald); Charles Sawyer, owner; 1966 - acquired by Thomson Newspapers; 2000 - acquired by Gannett.

1812 - John Collins Warren, M.D., of Massachusetts Medical Society (MMS), established The New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery and the Collateral Branches of Science; 1828 - journal merged with the Medical Intelligencer (established in 1823), became weekly Boston Medical and Surgical Journal; 1914 - became official organ of the MMS, began publishing Medical Society's proceedings; 1921 - Society purchased Boston Medical and Surgical Journal for one dollar; 1928 - Boston Medical and Surgical Journal's name changed to The New England Journal of Medicine.

1813 - George E. Clymer, Philadelphia mechanic, invented Columbian Press, first printing press invented in America; iron horizontal platen hand-printing press used system of compound levers that multiplied the pull of the operator to replace the iron screw previously used for downward pressure; price of $400, twice cost of wooden press; 1818 - moved to England; 1825 - founded Clymer, Dixon (William Dixon) to manufacture presses.

September 4, 1813 - Amasa Converse, his family founded Christian Observer, first U.S. religious newspaper; America's oldest Presbyterian publishing tradition.

November 29, 1814 - The Times in London became first newspaper printed by steam; hand presses replaced by new machines invented by Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Bauer; newspapers could be produced on a scale that could meet public demand.

March 1817 - James and John Harper founded J. & J. Harper, a print shop; 1825 - largest book publisher in the United States; 1833 - name changed to Harper & Brothers; 1962 -  merged with Row, Peterson & Co., became Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.; 1987 - acquired by News Corporation; 1989 - merged with William Collins, Sons and Co Ltd., formed HarperCollins.

February 7, 1818 - "Academician" began publishing in New York City; first successful U.S. educational magazine.

1819 - William Collins (printing), Charles Chalmers (bookselling, stationary) established printing and publishing business in Glasgow, Scotland; 1826 - Collins bought Chalmers's interest, with copyright of books already published; 1841 - printed of Bibles; 1848 - Sir William Collins (son) became partner, expanded firm as publishing venture, specialized in religious, educational books; 1868 - company renamed William Collins, Sons and Co Ltd.; 1900 - William Collins (III) began to publish children's literature; 1904 - founded Collins Brothers & Co to operate in Australia, New Zealand; 1905 - William Collins & Co, New York, incorporated to facilitate transatlantic bible sales, sales of new pocket classics; 1906 - William Collins (IV) succeeded; 1945 - William (V) took over as chairman, managing director; 1983 - acquired publishing interests of Granada Group Ltd. (Hart-Davis, MacGibbon & Kee); 1989 - acquired by News Corporation, merged with Harper & Row, publishers, formed HarperCollins.

1819 - James Patrick established Tuscarawas Chronicle, small weekly newspaper in New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas County, OH; Joseph Medill, Canadian-born lawyer, married Patrick's daughter, Katharine; left law, took up journalism;  started with Coshocton (Ohio) Whig, then Cleveland Leader, then foundering Chicago Tribune; espoused abolitionist cause, trumpeted virtues of young country lawyer named Abraham Lincoln, played major role in getting Lincoln elected to presidency.

April 1, 1819 - William Redding published "American Farmer", weekly magazine of agriculture, horticulture, in Baltimore, MD (had changed name of The Maryland Censor, founded on August 20, 1818); managed by John S. Skinner, postmaster of Baltimore; $4/year; September 1830 - half interest acquired from Skinner by J. Irving Hancock (subsequently acquired in full); Gideon B. Smith, editor; 1831 - suspended publication; aquired by Lindan & Moore; acquired by E. P. Roberts (editor); acquired by Samuel Sands (John S, Skinner, as editor); editorship resumed by E. P. Roberts; December 1855 - part of Sands's interest acquired by Nicholas B. Worthington (acquired in full in 1858; acting president of Maryland Agricultural College [University of Maryland], 1864-1867); 1856 - began publication of "Rural Register" (ceased in 1860); 1859 - interest acquired by Mr. Lewis; February 1862 - "American Farmer" suspended (impossible to reach soutrhern subscribers due to Civil War); July 1, 1866 - Worthington & Lewis resumed publishing; discontinued few years later; January 1, 1872 - Samuel Sands, former owner, resumed publication, as American Farmer & Rural Register ($2/year); first successful agricultural journal.

January 3, 1820 - John Miller (printer), John Hutchens (bookseller) founded Manufacturers and Farmers Journal and Providence and Pawtucket Advertiser as twice-weekly publication; motto of paper was, 'Encourage National Industry'; 1823 - Miller became sole publisher; July 21, 1829 - Providence Daily Journal began daily publishing; January 26, 1863 - published evening edition, The Evening Bulletin; July 19, 1885 - Providence Sunday Journal first issued; 1885 - Providence Journal Company incorporated; 1997 - acquired by A. H. Belo Corp.; oldest continuously published daily newspaper in U.S.

May 5, 1821 - John Edward Taylor founded, published first edition of Manchester Guardian; published weekly; 1855 -went daily (C.P. Scott, editor); 1907 - acquired from Taylor family by Scott for £242,000; 1932 - John Russell Scott (son) sole owner; June 1936 - transferred ownership to Scott Trust; 1944 - AP Wadsworth, editor; 1988 - major redesign; March 2001 - over 2.4 million unique users, most popular UK newspaper website; September 12 2005 - UK's first full-color national newspaper.

John Edward Taylor - Manchester Guardian (

May 13, 1821 - Samuel Rust, of New York City, received patent for a "Printing Press"; Washington press, first practical, successful printing press built in America.

June 23, 1821 - J. T. Melcher established "The Nantucket Inquirer" (Nantucket, MA) . published first issue , Samuel H. Jenks, editor (first island newspaper, "The Nantucket Gazette," published in 1816, discontinued in 1817due to lack of readers); 1845 - Hon. John Morissey published "The Nantucket Weekly Mirror"; 1865 - merged with "The Inquirer", renamed "The Inquirer and Mirror"; 2009 - moved print operations off-island (after 188 years of printing on-island), began printing in color.

August 4, 1821 - Atkinson & Alexander published first edition of Saturday Evening Post; four page newspaper with no illustrations; 1897 - acquired for $1,000 by Cyrus H. Curtis, owner of Ladies' Home Journal; January 1898 - redesigned, reappeared as a journal with emphasis on business, public affairs, romance; 1899 - George Horace Lorimer hired as literary editor; March 1916 - Lorimer met Norman Rockwell (22), artist from New York, immediately accepted two front covers; start of 45-year relationship with magazine; November 22, 1919 - first 200 page issue; 1937 - circulation reached 3,000,000; December, 1963 - last of Rockwell's 317 covers in magazine's attempt to update its image by abandoning paintings on front cover; February 8, 1969 - ceased publication; failed to increase circulation or advertising revenue to offset printing cost.

October 20, 1822 - "The Sunday Times" first published in England.

1824 - Chelmsford (MA) Journal published; 1835 - acquired by publishers of Lowell (MA) Courier; 1867 - acquired by George A. Marden, Edward T. Rowell; 1878 - Lowell Daily Citizen (founded by 1856 merger of three newspapers) printed first Boston Telephone Directory; 1882 - Citizen Newspaper Co. formed; 1894 - Lowell Courier merged with Lowell Daily Citizen/Citizen Newspaper Co., formed Courier-Citizen Co.; published morning, afternoon papers; Edward T. Rowell elected president; 1899 - George Marden elected president after Rowell's death; 1906 - Phillip S. Marden (son) elected president; 1941 - newspaper division acquired by The Lowell Sun; 1966 - James F. Conway, Jr., elected president, CEO; 1972 - Courier-Citizen went public; 1988 - 50% interest acquired by NADCO; James F. Conway III named president (chairman of the board in 1994); 2000 - acquired Dover Publications, Inc.; recognized by Forbes Magazine as one of "The Best 200 Companies in America."

1825 - Daniel Appleton founded D. Appleton & Co.; 1933 - merges with the Century Co. (founded in 1881); 1948 - merged with the F.S. Crofts Co. (founded in 1924); 1960 - bought by the Meredith Publishing Co.

1826 - Myron Bartlett established Macon Telegraph as weekly newspaper (three years after incorporation of city); $3 for year's subscription; early 1840s - began to align itself with policies, candidates of Democratic party; 1855 - Joseph Clisby became owner, editor; 1860 - became daily newspaper; April 21, 1865 - suspended publication (Federal troops occupied city toward end of Civil War; resumed two weeks later); 1869 - merged with Journal and Messenger; 1914 - acquired by William T. Anderson, Peyton T. Anderson (brothers); 1930 - acquired Macon News (founded 1884), combined staff positions from two papers; 1951 - Peyton Anderson Jr. (son) took over; 1969 - acquired by Knight Newspapers (become Knight Ridder in 1974); 1983 - Macon Telegraph merged with Macon News, renamed Macon Telegraph and News; spring 2006 - Knight Ridder (country's second-largest newspaper publisher) acquired by McClatchy Company for about $4.5 billion.

February 4, 1826 - "The Last of the Mohicans" by James Fennimore Cooper published; one of earliest distinctive American novels, second of five-novel series called "Leather-stocking Tales"; first major American novelist after publishing his second best-selling novel, "The Spy".

September 1, 1827 - Samuel F.B. Morse, backed by Arthur and Lewis Tappan, brothers and silk importers invested $30,000, launched The Journal of Commerce in New York (original page size 35 by 24 inches); Gerard Hallock (editor of Observer), David Hale (nephew of Revolutionary War hero Nathan Hale(nephew of Revolutionary War hero Nathan Hale) invested $5,000 each, took control of paper (Hallock as editor, Hale ran business); 1848 - with six other newspapers formed Associated Press (Gerard Hallock as AP's first chairman.

Samuel F. B. Morse - The Journal of Commerce  (

Arthur Tappan - The Journal of Commerce ( images/274/MAAP_ArthurTappan_Then_274.jpg)

 Lewis Tappan - The Journal of Commerce ( images/274/Lewis_Tappan_274.jpg)

March 16, 1827 - Group of free black men in New York City founded Freedom's Journal as four-page, four-column standard-sized weekly (John B. Russwurm, Samuel Cornish as co-editors); first black-owned and operated newspaper in United States.

July 11, 1828 - Robert Stephen Rintoul, with assistance of friends, founded The Spectator in London (advertised as 'The New London Weekly Paper, by the original Editor and contributors of the Atlas'); principal aim was to convey intelligence by summarizing news of week from London dailies; converted to outlook and opinion; 1858 - acquired by a Mr. Scott for a lump sum plus an annuity; 1861 - acquired by Meredith Townsend; formed partnership with Richard Holt Hutton (Unitarian minister); 1922 - Sir Evelyn Wrench took over business side of newspaper (acquired controlling interest for £25,000 in 1925); Sir Angus Watson, businessman from Newcastle. held minority stake; 1954 - acquired by Ian Gilmour, became editor-cum-proprietor; 1967 - acquired by Harry Creighton; 1975 - paper, premises (since 1929) acquired by Henry Keswick (Jardine Matheson dynasty); 2004 - acquired (with Daily and Sunday Telegraphs) for £665 million by Sir David and Sir Frederick Barclay (multi-millionaire twin brothers from Channel Islands, owners of Scotsman newspaper and London's Ritz hotel). 

Robert Stephen Rintoul - The Spectator (

April 14, 1828 - Noah Webster, Yale-educated lawyer with avid interest in language and education, published American Dictionary of the English Language, with dictionary with 70,000 entries (almost exactly 63 years after Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language was published); one of the first lexicons to include distinctly American words (more than 10,000 "Americanisms"); standardized English spelling (process that had started as early as 1473, when printer William Caxton published the first book printed in English).

1828 - John Fairfax, James Sharp Senior (former editor at Warwick Advertiser) founded Leamington Spa Sketch Book (partnership dissolved in four month); 1835 - became part-owner of Leamington Chronicle and Warwickshire Reporter; 1836 - successfully defended libel suit; unable to meet costs, applied to Insolvency Court (paid creditors in full in 1851); September 26, 1838 - arrived in Sydney, Australia with £5 in his pocket; April 1, 1839 - became librarian of Australian Subscription Library; February 8, 1841 - with Charles Kemp bought daily Sydney Herald from Frederick Stokes for 10,000 pounds (on long-term credit; 4-page newspaper established on April 18, 1831 by Stokes, Alfred Stephens, William McGarvie); August 1, 1842 - renamed Sydney Morning Herald; September 30, 1853 - Fairfax acquired Kemp's interest; admitted Charles Fairfax (eldest son) as partner; 1856 - James Fairfax (second son) made partner; renamed John Fairfax & Sons; 1852 - circulation of 4,000; 1895 - converted to mechanical typesetting (lowered labor costs, sped production); December 1990 - forced into receivership after failed leveraged buyout to thwart hostile takeover; 1991 - acquired by Tourang Limited, consortium led by Conrad Black; January 7, 1992 - name changed to John Fairfax Holdings Limited. 

June 1, 1829 - John R. Walker and John Norvell published first edition of Pennsylvania Inquirer; November 1829 - acquired by Jesper Harding, Bible publisher; July 1, 1930 - renamed Pennsylvania Inquirer and Morning Journal; June 2, 1834 - name changed to Pennsylvania Inquirer and Daily Courier; January 1, 1842 - name changed to Pennsylvania Inquirer and National Gazette; 1859 - William W. Harding (son) became owner; April 2, 1860 - name changed to Philadelphia Inquirer (circulation of 7,000, price reduced to 2 cents/copy); 1889 - acquired by British-born James Elverson, Sr., Civil War telegrapher to Secretary of State Seward; press room electrically-powered; convinced that employment advertisements increased circulation; 1911- Elverson's son became publisher; 1929 - Eleanor Elverson Patenotre (daughter) became owner; March 1930 - controlling interest acquired by Curtis-Martin Newspapers (combined circulation of Curtis-Martin newspapers in Philadelphia over 823,000); defaulted on payments, reclaimed by Elverson Corporation; 1936 - acquired by Moses L. Annenberg; 1969 - acquired by Knight Newspapers, merged with Ridder Publishing Company; third oldest newspaper daily newspaper in United States.

October 4, 1830 - Isaac Adams, of Boston, MA, received a patent (un-numbered) for a "wooden-frame 'double-feeder' printing from a single forme"; first power printing press capable of fine book work.

1831 - George and Charles Merriam opened G. & C. Merriam Co., printing and bookselling operation in Springfield, MA; 1843 - acquired rights to Webster's dictionary upon Webster's death; September 24, 1847 - first Merriam Webster dictionary published (priced at $6, generated $250,000 in royalties to Webster's heirs over the ensuing 25 years); 1850 - Massachusetts ordered copy for every school, New York ordered 10,000 copies to be used in schools throughout state; 1898 - Webster's Collegiate Dictionary published (largest abridgement of Merriam-Webster's unabridged dictionary); 1899 - expiration of copyright on Merriam-Webster's 1847 edition (repeated court challenges over copyrights and trademarks); 1947 -Merriam-Webster Pocket Dictionary published; 1982 - company renamed Merriam-Webster Inc.

May 5, 1831 - Sheldon McKnight founded Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer, a 4-page weekly; January 4, 1848 - name changed to Detroit Free Press; April 1940 - bought by John S. Knight; 1974 - part of Knight Ridder.

1832 - Newark Daily Advertiser established (Newark's first daily newspaper); evolved into Newark Star-Eagle; 1935 - Newark Ledger acquired by S. I. Newhouse (parent company Advance Publications); 1939 - merged with Star-Eagle; became Newark Star-Ledger; name later changed to The Star-Ledger; March 1971 - surpassed Evening News in daily circulation (Newark News was on strike); 1972 -The Evening News closed.

September 2, 1833 - Benjamin Day published The New York Sun, first "penny paper"; 1887 - introduced evening edition; 1916 - acquired by Frank Musney (New York Press); January 4, 1950 - merged with New York World-Telegram; 1966 - became part of New York World Journal Triubune; 1967 - closed.

February 18, 1834 - George H. Evans published "The Man" in New York City; , first U.S. pro-labor newspaper.

May 6, 1835 - James Gordon Bennett, Sr. published first edition of New York Herald (price 1 cent).

1836 - Joshua Ballinger (J. B.) Lippincott established publishing business in Philadelphia; 1978 - acquired by Harper & Row.

1836 - J. B. Wolters founded Schoolbook Publishing Company in Groningen, Netherlands; 1858 - P. Noordhoff established Noordhoff publishing house; 1886 - Nicolaas Samson left civil service to run publishing business; 1891 - Ebele E. Kluwer published first textbook; 1968 - Wolters merged with Noordhoff; 1970 - Samson merged with A.W. Sijthoff, formed Information & Communications Union (ICU); 1972 - Wolters-Noordhoff merged with ICJ (book and journal publisher for administrative market); 1983 - ICU renamed Wolters-Samson; 1987 - Kluwer merged with Wolters-Samson to fend off hostile takeover by Elsevier, became Wolters Kluwer.

March 31, 1836 - First 400 copies of monthly installment of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, by 24-year-old writer Charles Dickens, published under pseudonym Boz; 40,000 copies printed by 15th episode; 1837 - published in book form. 

July 30, 1836 - Island Gazette and Journal of Commerce first English newspaper published in Hawaii; sporadically published, lasted three years; 1856 - weekkly Pacific Commercial Advertisier established; first regular English language paper; 1882 - Advertiser became daily; 1921 - name changed to Honolulu Advertiser.

1837 - Charles C. Little and James Brown formed Little, Brown and Company, publishing business.

1837 - Solomon Juneau, one-time fur-trader, later successful businessman, first mayor of Milwaukee, founded Milwaukee Sentinel newspaper; mid-1840s - became a daily; 1924 - acquired by Hearst Corporation; 1962 - announced the closing of the paper, following long, costly strike; acquired by Journal Company; became Monday-through-Saturday paper; 1995 -Milwaukee Journal and Sentinel merged; April 2, 1995 - Journal Sentinel first published.

January 7, 1837 - John Adams Green, Edmund Butler Osborne established weekly Quincy Patriot (hometown paper of President John Quincy Adams); July 1, 1851 - acquired by Gideon F. Thayer, George White; 1852 - George Washington Prescott (18) began as carrier; April 1852 - Thayer interest acquired by White; April 1853 - re-acquired by John Green (died 1861); 1869 - Prescott, former business manager, formed Green & Prescott, partnership with Mrs. Green); 1894 - Prescott acquired full ownership; 1899 - Prescott started daily The Quincy Daily Ledger; 1908 - Annie L. Prescott (daughter) took over; 1916 - weekly, daily merged into The Quincy Patriot Ledger; 1937 - Russell Cutler Low (brother-in-law) became president; 1979 - G.W. Prescott Publishing Co. acquired Memorial Press Group, award-winning Old Colony Memorial (Plymouth, MA); 1997 - acquired by Newspaper Media LLC; 2006 - acquired by GateHouse Media (87 dailies in 20 states, 198 paid weeklies; one of largest publishers of locally based print, online media in United States.

February 25, 1837 - Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, VT, received patent for an "Electric Motor"; ("an Improvement in Propelling Machinery by Magnetism and Electro-Magnetism"); first U.S. electric printing press.

May 17, 1837 - Arunah  Shepherdson Abell founded Baltimore Sun; four tabloid-size pages, sold for a penny.

1838 - George Palmer Putnam (24) and John Wiley founded Wiley & Putnam; 1848 - partnership dissolved, forms G. Putnam Broadway; 1872 - name changed to G. P. Putnam's Sons.

November 3, 1838 - First issue of The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce; published twice/week under editor J.E. Brennan (reflected interest of Bombay's business community); 1846 - new owner, Dr. George Buist appointed editor; 1850 - became daily; 1859 - merged Bombay Standard and Chronicle of Western India, formed Bombay Times & Standard; 1861 - Editor Robert Knight combined The Bombay Times & Standard, Bombay Telegraph & Courier; formed The Times of India (national publication); 1890 - acquired by Editor Henry Curwen, Charles Kane; 1892 - T. J. Bennett became editor (Curwen died), formed partnership, joint stock company with F.M. Coleman, Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. (BCCL); 1946 - acquired by Ram Kishan Dalmia but funded by illegal money transfers from other companies (Ram Kishan imprisoned in 1955); 1948 - acquired by Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain of the Sahu Jain Group (Bijnore, UP); Shanti Prasad Jain, son-in-law of Ram Kishan Dalmia, first chairman of group; 1996 - circulation exceeded 1 million; 2000 - circulation exceeded 2 million; 2006 - new holding company created, TBSL (controlled TimesJobs SimplyMarry (earlier called TimesMatri), MagicBricks; 2008 - acquired Virgin Radio (UK) for 53.2 million pounds; India's largest media, entertainment house, The Times Group; world's largest broadsheet English daily.

March 23, 1839 - First recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] (Boston's Morning Post).

1840 - The Courier, first newspaper in Charleston, IL, began publishing; 1856 - Weekly Independent Gazette started in Mattoon, IL; 1865 - Mattoon Journal started in Mattoon, IL; 1905 - Weekly Independent Gazette merged with Mattoon Journal; 1966 - Betty Boyer, former Courier employee, began Daily Times; 1968 - Courier merged with Daily Times, named Times-Courier; 1971 - Journal Gazette, Times-Courier acquired by Howard Publications; April 2002 - acquired by Lee Enterprises.

January 18, 1840 - First use of line diagram to illustrate current event in U.S. newspaper; Extra Sun published with finely drawn, violently realistic picture of flaming vessel, depicted January 15 burning in Long Island Sound of Steamboat Lexington (over 100 lives lost).

April 10, 1841 - New York "Tribune" began publishing under editor Horace Greeley.

April 20, 1841 - Edgar Allen Poe's story, The Murders in the Rue Morgue, first appeared in Graham's Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine; generally considered to be the first detective story; 1868 - English novelist Wilkie Collins published a detective novel, The Moonstone; 1887 - Sherlock Holmes first appeared in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel A Study in Scarlet.

June 22, 1841 - Adrien Delcambre and James Haddon Young of Lisle, France,  received first U.S. patent for a "Type Setter" ("Machine fore Setting Type"); typesetting machine with piano-style keys to operate push-type levers that released type to fall by gravity.

July 17, 1841 - Ebenezer Landells, wood engraver, Henry Mayhew, writer, founded Punch magazine; taken over by printing firm of Bradbury and Evans (1872 - became Bradbury and Agnew); 1969 - acquired by United Newspapers; 1992 - closed; September 1996 - Mohamed Al Fayed re-launched the magazine with a glittering party at Harrods; 2002 - magazine closed again.

October 26, 1841 - Isaac Van Anden and Henry Cruse Murphy founded Brooklyn Eagle and Kings County Democrat (morning paper, as temporary political forum for 1842 election); 1850 - name changed The Brooklyn Daily Eagle by Samuel G. Arnold, editor (succeeded Walt Whitman); 1936 - acquired by Brooklyn Times-Union; September 5, 1938 - name changed to Brooklyn Eagle; 1940 - acquired in bankruptcy sale, for approximately $400,000, by FDS Corporation (Frank Schroth and unidentified associates; published as daily newspaper for 114 consecutive years, absorbed all other Brooklyn daily papers, except Brooklyn Citizen; nation's most widely read afternoon newspaper at one point; 1955 -closed following protracted CIO American Newspaper Guild strike; paper, all of its assets of Good Will, Printing Facilities, etc., offered for sale; 1996 - revived (Monday-Friday).

Henry Cruse Murphy - Brooklyn Eagle ( CgNtZSk5hLw/s320/Henry+Cruse+Murphy+copy.jpg)

1842 - The Daily News began publishing in Galveston, TX; 1843 - Willard Richardson became editor, made it one of nation's first papers distributed statewide by rail; 1865 - Alfred Horatio Belo joined The Daily News (most powerful newspaper in Texas); succeeded Richardson, became majority owner of Company; 1882 - A. H. Belo Corporation incorporated; sent George Bannerman Dealey, young associate, north to select location for sister newspaper; 1885 - The Dallas Morning News began publishing under Dealey; 1920 - Dealey became president of Company; 1922 - launched WFAA-AM, one of first radio stations in U.S., first network affiliate in Texas; 1926 - company renamed A.H. Belo Corporation; 1930s - became first "super-power" radio station in Southwest; 1997 - acquired The Providence Journal Company, biggest transaction in its history (The Providence Journal; KING-TV, etc.); 2001 - name changed to Belo Corp.

Alfred Horatio Belo - Belo Corp. (

January 7, 1842 - Joseph W. Gray founded Plain Dealer weekly newspaper in Cleveland, OH with $1,000 investment, 300 subscribers, single, hand -powered press; January 2, 1885 - acquired by Liberty E. Holden; operated as The Plain Dealer Publishing Company, part of Forest City Publishing Company; 1913 - placed in trust; 1932 - merged, with Cleveland News, into Forest City Publishing Company; 1963 - Thomas V. H. Vail (36, Holden's great-grandson) became publisher/editor; March 1, 1967 - acquired by Advance Publications (Newhouse Newspapers) for $54.2 million; 1968 - Ohio's largest daily newspaper.

Joseph W. Gray - Cleveland Plain Dealer (

May 10, 1842 - Julius Springer (25) founded bookstore in Berlin, quickly followed by publishing house, Springer-Verlag; focused on political writings, youth literature, agriculture and forestry, pharmacy and engineering; 1881 - logo, Knight from chess, created; 1924 - opened Vienna office; 1964 - opened office in New York; 1999 - majority share in Springer-Verlag acquired by Bertelsmann; April 1, 2003 - BertelsmannSpringer, Kluwer Academic Publishers acquired by Cinven and Candover (British financial investors); 2004 - merged.

May 14, 1842 - Illustrated London News first published.

November 9, 1842 - George Bruce, of New York City, received first U.S. design patent, for typefaces and borders; August 29, 1842 - Act of Congress authorized new form of patent.

1843 - James Wilson, hat maker from Scottish town of Hawick, founded The Economist  to campaign: 1) for free trade, internationalism and minimum interference by government and 2) against the protectionist Corn Laws (repealed in 1846).

James Wilson - Economist ( James_Wilson_by_Sir_John_Watson-Gordon.jpg)

1843 - Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, from Scottish Isle of Arran, formed Macmillan publishing; 1988 - acquired for $2.5 billion by Robert Maxwell; 1999 - acquired by Georg von Holtzbrinck publishing group; June 2004 - acquired Scribner Book Companies for $15 million.

October 1, 1843 - "The News of the World," Britain's most popular Sunday newspaper, first published.

December 19, 1843 - Charles Dickens' classic story "A Christmas Carol" published in England.

1844 - Samuel Pearson established Samuel Pearson & Son, building and engineering firm in Huddersfield in north of England; 1880 - Weetman Dickinson Pearson, grandson, (later First Viscount Cowdray), took control of company; 1897 - incorporated as S. Pearson & Sons, Inc; grew into one of world's largest construction companies; 1919 - acquired 45% of Lazard Freres (grew to 80% during Depression; divested in 1999); 1920 - formed Westminster Press; 1957 - acquired Financial Times, 50% stake in The Economist; 1968 - acquired publisher Longman; 1971 - acquired Penguin Group; October 29, 2012 - announed plans to merge Penguin Group with Random House (Bertelsmann AG) to form world's biggest consumer book publisher.

File:1st Viscount Cowdray.jpg Weetman Pearson - Pearson (

April 17, 1844 - Richard M. Hoe, of New York, NY, received a patent for an "Inking-Roller"; cylinder and flatbed combination printing press.

May 25, 1844 - First telegraphed news dispatch, sent from Washington, DC to Baltimore, appeared in Baltimore Patriot.

September 17, 1844 - Thomas F. Adams of Philadelphia, PA, received a patent for a "Machine for Printing in Colors"; printing press with different colors of ink applied in one impression, called "polychrome printing"; process used several ink fountains feeding different color rollers which operated in parallel on the same axle, to produce stripes of different colors to ink corresponding lines of type.

August 28, 1845 - Rufus Porter published first issue of "The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise, and Journal of Mechanical and Other Improvements" (Scientific American, circulation less than 300); July 1846 - sold for $800 to Orson Desaix Munn (22) and Alfred Ely Beach (20); founded Munn & Company; 1848 - circulation of 10,000; 1850 - founded first branch of U.S. Patent Agency; 1852 - circulation of 20,000; 1853 - 30,000; 1948 - acquired by Gerard Piel, Dennis Flanagan and Donald Miller; founded Scientific American, Inc.; 1986 - acquired by Verlagsgruppe Georg von Holtzbrinck, German-based publishing group; oldest continuously published magazine in the U.S.

1846 - Charles Scribner, Isaac D. Baker, New York City dry goods merchant, opened publishing business, Baker & Scribner, in meeting rooms leased from The Brick Meeting House, corner of Nassau Street and Park Row in New York City; annual rent: $600; 1879 - business conducted as Charles Scribner's Sons; 1999 - joined Thomson Gale; June 2004 - Scribner Book Companies acquired by Macmillan for $15 million.

February 5, 1846 - Oregon Printing Associatioon (William G. T'Vault, James W. Nesmith, John P. Brooks, George Abernethy, John H. Couch, Robert Newell, John E. Long) published first issue of "Oregon Spectator"; first newspaper published west of Rockies.

January 9, 1847 - Sam Brannan, Elbert P. Jones, Edward C. Kemble published first edition of The California Star; 4-page weekly; San Francisco's first newspaper; June 10, 1848 - publication temporarily halted, staff had rushed off to Sierra gold fields; November 11, 1848 - acquired competitor, The Californian; January 22, 1849 - Kemble changed name to The Alta California; first daily newspaper in California; 1891 - ceased publication.

June 10, 1847 - James Kelly (leather), John E. Wheeler, Joseph K.C. Forrest published first edition of Chicago Daily Tribune (city's third newspaper) in one-room plant located at LaSalle and Lake Streets; 400 copies printed on hand press; June 18, 1855 - acquired by Joseph Medill (32), editor of Cleveland Morning Leader, Dr. Charles Ray; 1874 - Medill gained full control of newspaper; 1911 - Robert R. McCormick, Joseph Medill Patterson (Medill grandsons) assumed leadership of company; 1918 - Chicago Tribune-New York News Syndicate formed; 1924 -  WGN Radio (720 AM) went on air (call letters reflected Chicago Tribune’s renowned slogan, "World’s Greatest Newspaper"); 1948 - established WGN-TV in Chicago, followed by WPIX-TV in New York; 1981 - Tribune Broadcasting Company formed; acquired Chicago Cubs baseball team from Wrigley family for $20.5 million; 1982 - Tribune Entertainment Company formed; 1995 - revenues of $2.2 billion; June 2000 - completed $8.3 billion merger with Times Mirror Company (Los Angeles Times) - largest acquisition in newspaper industry history; December 20, 2007 -  Zell, Chicago real estate magnate, completed $8.2 billion takeover of company.

July 24, 1847 - Richard M. Hoe, of New York City, received a patent for a "Printing Press" (a "new and useful Improvement in the Method of Giving the Reciprocating recti-Linear Motion to the bed of the Napier Printing-Press"); rotary type printing press - created a revolution in printing by rolling a cylinder over stationary plates of inked type, used the cylinder to make an impression on paper, eliminated the need for making impressions directly from the type plates themselves, which were heavy and difficult to maneuver.

1848 - Rotary press first introduced.

May 1848 - David Hale, publisher of the Journal of Commerce, and James Gordon Bennett, publisher of New York Herald, founded Associated Press cooperative to offset the prohibitive cost of the telegraph.

June 26, 1849 - Barlow Granger published first edition of Iowa Star; 1903 - sold to banker Gardener Cowles; 1915 - name changed to Des Moines Register; 1985 - acquired by Gannett.

1850 - Samuel Merrill bought Indianapolis bookstore, entered publishing business; name changed to Merrill, Meigs and Company; 1883 - name changed to Bowen-Merrill Company; 1899 - acquired Houghton-Mifflin law-book division, became major publisher of legal texts; 1903 - William C. Bobbs became a partner, name changed to Bobbs-Merrill Company; 1908 - entered educational publishing; 1959 - acquired by Howard W. Sams Company, text book publisher; January 28, 1975 - registered "Bobbs-Merrill" trademark firs used in 1903 (books).

March 16, 1850 - ''The Scarlet Letter'', by Nathaniel Hawthorne, published; story of adultery, betrayal in colonial America.

September 18, 1851 - Henry Jarvis Raymond, George Jones published first edition of New-York Daily Times; August 18, 1896 - controlling interest acquired by Adolph Ochs (borrowed $250, acquired controlling interest in 4-page Chattanooga Times daily in 1878) for $75,000, nearly all of it borrowed; installed himself as publisher; circulation: 9,000; October 10, 1898 - price of daily paper reduced to 1 cent; circulation tripled within year, to 76,000 from 26,000, advertising revenues soared.

October 1851 - Paul Julius Reuter, German immigrant, opened office in City of London; transmitted stock market quotations between London, Paris via new Calais-Dover cable; 1865 - Reuters Telegram Company went public; 1916 - reorganized as private company, Reuters Ltd.; 1925 - majority holding acquired by Press Association, UK press agency; 1941 - restructured, owned by British National and Provincial Press; 1947 - Press Associations of Australia and New Zealand added as owners; 1970 - introduced Videomaster (screen display of stock, commodity prices); 1984 - Reuters Holdings PLC went public; 1986 - acquired Instinet, world's largest electronic agency brokerage firm; 1994 - launched Reuters Financial Television Service; 1998 - acquired Lipper Analytical Services, leading fund performance measurement company; 1999 - formed Factiva, interactive business services joint venture with Dow Jones, for corporate, professional markets; April 17, 2008 - acquired by Thomson Corp. for $16.6 billion; renamed Thomson Reuters Corp.

1854 - London Times offered £1,000 for discovery of alternative raw material for paper (other than cotton and linen rags) – wood not used in paper manufacture until 1880s.

1855 - Bookkeeper Francis Scott Street, printer Francis Shubael Smith formed partnership bought fiction magazine; 1858 - acquired New York Weekly Dispatch from Amos Williamson (both were former employees); 1880s-1959 - published inexpensive novels, weekly magazines; 1883 - Ormond Smith (son) took over (after Street's death); credited with having discovered more writers who gained prominence than almost any other American publisher; September 8, 1923 - published first issue of Sport Story Magazine; 1940s - strarted publishing sports yearbooks; 1940 - first college football yearbook edition (first publications to offer a complete review of the previous season, comprehensive preview of the coming one); 1949 - stopped publishing pulps (country's oldest "pulp" magazine publishing house); 1959 - magazine lines acquired by Conde Nast Publications, Inc. (controlling interest of which acquired by S.I. Newhouse, Sr.); Street & Smith Preservation project (Syracuse University): 1864 to 1971 -

1855 - John Camden Hotten established publishing company in UK; 1874 - acquired by Andrew Chatto, W.E. Windus for 25,000 ponds; renamed Chatto & Windus.

June 29, 1855 - Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh established The Daily Telegraph and CourierSeptember 17, 1855 - taken over, re-launched  by Joseph Moses Levy, printer and owner of the Sunday Times, as payment for bad debt; sold for a penny; 1928 - acquired by William and Gomer Berry; 1937 - absorbed The Morning Post; 1986 - acquired by Conrad Black.

July 4, 1855 - Walt Whitman's first edition of self-published Leaves of Grass printed; contained dozen poems. 1856 - second edition included "Sundown Poem," later called "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry," one of his most beloved pieces.

August 4, 1855 - John Bartlett (29), ran then owned Harvard University Bookstore, privately printed first edition of his compilation as "A Collection of Familiar Quotations" (258 pages contained entries from 169 authors); great success; 1863 - joined Boston publishing firm of Little, Brown, and Company after having issued three more editions; rose to senior partner of firm.

June 1856 - William Rand opened small printing shop in Chicago's Loop, precursor of Rand McNally; 1864 - began partnership with Andrew McNally; took over management, then ownership, of Chicago Tribune's job printing shop; formed Rand McNally & Company; printed tickets, timetables to serve railroads of Chicago, nation's premier railroad hub; 1869 - published Western Railway Guide, first railroad guide; August 1871 - published first map in Railway Guide; 1873 - published first railway map of U. S., produced first machine-colored maps, incorporated; 1876 - introduced Rand McNally's Business Atlas, later renamed Commercial Atlas & Marketing Guide (still produced today); 1899 - William Rand left company to pursue other interests; Andrew McNally became President, family ran business for next century; 1904 - Rand McNally published first automobile road map, New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity ("mapping solutions" began when Andrew McNally took photos of every intersection he passed on his honeymoon trip); April 15, 1924 - released first comprehensive road atlas, "Auto Chum"; first edition of what became best-selling Rand McNally Road Atlas; 1937 - opened first Map & Travel Store) in New York City); 1974 - Andrew McNally IV named president; July 24, 1962 - registered "Rand McNally" trademark first used in 1943 (books); 1997 - acquired by New York-based AEA Investors LLC (private investment firm founded in 1968 by Rockefeller, Mellon, Harriman families) for $500 million; 2003 - filed for bankruptcy protection as part of deal to be acquired by Leonard Green & Partners L.P (Los Angeles); December 6, 2007 - acquired by Patriarch Partners LLC, private investment firm.

Andrew McNally - Rand McNally (

July 2, 1856 - Henry M. Whitney, son of members of first company of missionaries to Hawaiian Islands, published first issue of weekly Pacific Commercial Advertiser; 1870 - acquired by printers James Black and William Auld; 1880 - acquired by sugar baron, Claus Spreckels (for whom Spreckelsville, Maui, is named); 1882 - began daily production; 1888 - acquired by Hawaiian Gazette Company; 1895 - acquired by Lorrin A. Thurston, former secretary of Hawaiian Gazette Company, descendant of missionaries, militant leader in Hawaiian affairs for more than half a century; 1921 - name changed to The Honolulu Advertiser; 1931 - Lorrin P. Thurston (son) succeeded as president, publisher; 1961 - Thurston Twigg-Smith (nephew) succeeded; 1967 - formed Persis Corporation (known as Asa Hawaii Corporation until 1978) as Advertiser's parent company; 1992 - acquired from Persis Corporation by Gannett Pacific Corporation (subsidiary of Gannett Company); March 2001 - joint operating agreement, Hawaii Newspaper Agency dissolved; The Honolulu Advertiser, Star-Bulletin separated their business relationship, began publishing separately; largest statewide daily, Sunday newspaper, reaches more homes, readers than any other publication in Hawaii.

Lorrin A. Thurston - The Honolulu Advertiser (

October 7, 1856 - Cyrus Chambers, Jr., of Kennet Square, PA, received a patent for a "Paper Folding Machine" ("fold paper for books and other purposes the desired number of times so that the pages will come in their regular order and proper position with respect to each other and irrespective of the edge"); installed in Bible printing house of Jasper Harding & Son, Philadelphia, PA, to fold book and newspaper sheets; made three right angle folds to produce 16-page folded signature; October 2, 1860 - received a pa\tent for a "Copying Press".

December 1, 1856 - Associated Practical Printers (7 printers) published first edition of Daily Morning Call in San Francisco; James J. Ayers, co-founder, first editor; May 23, 1866 - P. B. Forster and Company became publisher; 1871 - name of publisher changed to San Francisco Call Company; January 8, 1895 - Charles M. Shortridge listed as Editor and Proprietor (had also owned the San Jose Daily Mercury); August 14, 1897 - acquired by John D. Spreckels (also acquired San Diego Union and Daily Bee); 1898 - built Call/Spreckels Building (315 feet - tallest building for many years west of Mississippi); September 1, 1913 - ceased publication; December 14, 1913 - Morning Call acquired by San Francisco Chronicle. 

1857 - The Philological Society of London called for new English Dictionary; February 1, 1884 - First portion, or fascicle, of the actual Oxford English Dictionary was published; April 1928 - last volume was published (over 400,000 words and phrases in ten volumes); 1989 - Second edition of Oxford English Dictionary published (22,000 pages bound in twenty substantial volumes).

1857 - John Frederick Feeney, John Jaffray founded the Birmingham Daily Post in Birmingham, England as a Monday to Friday Paper of four pages, priced at one penny; 1870 - John Feeney (son) started evening offshoot of the "Daily Post", the "Daily Mail"; 1894 - became operator of the "Post" and the "Mail" (retirement of Sir John Jaffray); largest selling broadsheet in the West Midlands region; first to introduce Linotype machines, and the first to have a London office linked by private wire to its headquarters; 1991 - acquired in management buy-out, Midland Independent Newspapers (MIN) formed; November 1997 - Mirror Group acquired MIN for 305 million pounds; September 1999 - Mirror Group merged with Trinity plc (founded 1985) to become biggest newspaper publisher in the UK (240 regional papers, 5 national titles, 4 sports newspapers).

January 3, 1857 - Fletcher Harper (Harper Brothers) published first issue of Harper's Weekly; editorials played significant role in shaping, reflecting public opinion from start of the Civil War to end of the century; circulation exceeded 100,000, peaked at 300,000 on occasion, readership probably exceeded half a million people.

February 3, 1857 - James McClatchy published first issue of The Daily Bee in Sacramento, CA: "The name of The Bee has been adopted as being different from that of any other paper in the state and as also being emblematic of the industry which is to prevail in its every department"; 1883 - Valentine Stuart and Charles Kenny (sons) bought out last remaining co-owner of newspaper after their father's death; September 1, 1923 - After nearly 40 years of running the company as equals, brothers agreed to bid privately against each other for sole control of company; C.K. submitted higher bid, took over; 1979 - acquired first out-of-state newspapers; 1989 - Erwin Potts became first non-family member to head company; 1999 - revenues exceed $1 billion for the first time; 2004 - 20th consecutive year of daily circulation growth, record unmatched in U.S. newspaper industry; March 13, 2006 - McClatchy Company announced agreement to purchase Knight Ridder, United States' second largest chain of daily newspapers for $4.5 billion in cash and stock; gave McClatchy 32 daily newspapers in 29 markets, total circulation of 3.3 million.

James McClatchy - founder McClatchy Company (

September 15, 1857 - Timothy Alden, of New York, NY, received a patent for a ""Type Setting and Distributing Machine"; type arranged in cells around the circumference of a horizontal wheel which picked up and dropped desired type in proper order in a line from several receivers as it rotated.

November 1857 - Moses Dresser Phillips published first issue of The Atlantic, new journal of American politics, art and literature; featured poems by Emerson, Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier and James Russell Lowell (magazine's first editor).

March 23, 1859 - Major Lawrence Knox (early 20s) published first edition of Irish Times at No.4 Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1 (one of ten available newspapers); June 8, 1859 - became daily newspaper (had been three times/week), 'new conservative daily paper'; later, became 'unionist', followed by "a new unionist policy.... a policy devoted to the reunion of the country"; 1873 - acquired by Arnott family; 1900 - went public; 1974 -  Trust formed to secure, maintain The Irish Times as "an independent newspaper primarily concerned with serious issues for the benefit of the community throughout the whole of Ireland, free from any form of personal or party political, commercial, religious or other sectional control".

Major Lawrence Knox - Irish Times (

April 23, 1859 - William Byers beat rival publisher (Cherry Creek Pioneer) by 20 minutes, distributed first newspaper (The Rocky Mountain News) ever published in frontier boomtown of Denver, Colorado; 1926 - acquired by E. W. Scripps; 1942 - Jack Foster (Editor) adopted tabloid style; 2001 - entered joint operating agreement with The Denver Post; allowed papers to share all business services (advertising, printing, preserve two editorial voices in community); February 27, 2009 - ceased publication (declining classified and advertising revenue, rising distribution costs); oldest continuously operated business in Colorado.

William Byers - Rocky Mountain News (

November 24, 1859 - John Murray Publishing published British naturalist Charles Darwin's ''On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection'' (or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) in England; laid groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics; immediately sold out initial print run; 1872 - book had run through six editions.

June 7, 1860 - First U.S. "dime novel" published: "Malaseka, The Indian Wife of the White Hunter," by Mrs. Ann Stevens.

1861 - Union soldiers produced first paper named Stars and Stripes during Civil War from facilities of captured newspaper plant in Bloomfield, MO; one-page paper appeared only four times; February 8, 1918 - revived in Paris, largely the creation of Second Lieutenant Guy T. Viskniskki, an AEF press officer and former censor at the American Field Test Headquarters in Neufchateau, France; produced weekly by an all-military staff to serve the doughboys of the American Expeditionary Force under General of the Armies John J. "Black Jack" Pershing; June 13, 1919 - publication ceased; April 18, 1942 - second renaissance as small group of servicemen founded a four-page weekly paper in a London print shop ([peak circulation of 526,000); May 8, 1945 - Pacific edition launched; remains in publication without interruption.

1861 - A. Jerome (Ai) Barney, Jerome A. Barney (son) founded Marin County Journal (California). county's first newspaper; October 5, 1872 - acquired by Simon Fitch Barstow; 1900 - Harry Granice (The Sonoma Index-Tribune) established San Rafael Independent; November 1, 1926 - Independent acquired by Harry Lutgens (Sonoma Valley Forum, Sebastopol Times, press secretary to Governor Friend W. Richardson); October 1927 - went daily; 1937 - acquired by California Newspapers. Inc. (Jack Craemer, Roy A. Brown, William Hart); 1948 - merged with Marin Journal, formed Marin Independent Journal; December 7, 1979 - acquired by Gannett; 2000 - acquired by MediaNews group (William Dean Singleton).

August 31, 1861 - Full pages of New York Tribune printed for first time in U.S. using curved stereotype plates. Such plates were first cast by Charles Craske in 1854 in New York City for a Hoe rotary press.

February 3, 1862 - Thomas Edison (15 years old) became the first publisher of a newspaper produced and sold on a moving train, Grand Trunk Herald; set up a small press in the baggage car of the Grand Trunk Railroad train from Port Huron to Detroit, MI; single sheet, measuring 7-in. x 8-in., included local news and advertisements for his father's store; at its peak, he sold about 200 copies a day to train riders. 

November 26, 1862 -  Oxford mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (30) sent handwritten manuscript called Alice's Adventures Under Ground to 10-year-old Alice Liddell; made up the story of a girl who falls down a rabbit hole while on a picnic with Alice and her two sisters (children of one of his colleagues); 1865 - Dodgson published the book at his own expense, under the name Lewis Carroll; 1871 - book's sequel, Through the Looking Glass, published.

January 15, 1863 - Woodpulp paper was first used in the U.S. for a printed newspaper by the Boston Morning Herald of Boston, MA (four-page eight column newspaper that sold for 3 cents per copy).

April 14, 1863 - William Bullock, of Pittsburgh, PA, received a patent for a "Printing Press" ("for printing from movable type of stereotype printing plates...that class of power printing process in which the paper is furnished to the machine in a continuous web or roll"; continuous-roll printing press; 1865 - machine built, used by the New York Sun; first press to use special curved stereo-type plates; both sides of the paper were printed, cut into sheets.

December 10, 1863 - James R. Watson published first issue of Seattle's first newspaper, The Seattle Gazette; fourth town in Washington Territory to have its own newspaper (Olympia, Steilacoom, Walla Walla); 1867 - acquired by Sam Maxwell, renamed The Weekly Intelligencer; 1881 - merged with Seattle Post; 1921 - acquired by Hearst Corporation.

1864 - Goodman and Church, Chicago publisher, offered partnership to Richard R. Donnelley, from Hamilton, ON; 1870 - name changed to Church Goodman & Donnelly Printers; 1871 - renamed Lakeside Publishing and Printing Company (destroyed in Chicago Fire of 1871); 1873 - re-organized, with business manager Alex T. Lloyd; company named Donnelley & Lloyd; started publishing directories; 1877 - company refinanced as Donnelley, Gasselte & Loyd (Donnelley as minority partner); 1880 - established The Chicago Directory Company; 1881 - bought out partners; 1882 - reorganized printing company as R. R. Donnelley & Sons; May 15, 1886 - with Reuben H. Donnelley (son) in charge, with Chicago Telephone Company as partner, published first Chicago Telephone Directory, based on City of Chicago subscriber list (published three times a year); birth of telephone directory Industry, classified telephone directory advertising industry (Yellow Pages); 1890 - incorporated as R.R. Donnelley & Sons; 1899 - Thomas Elliott Donnelley (son) became President; post WW II - Elliott, Gaylor Donnelley (grandsons), Charles Haffner, Jr. (son-in-law) assumed control.

October 1864 - Dr. Louis Charles Roundanez founded The New Orleans Tribune; first Black daily newspaper in United States.

January 16, 1865 - Charles and Michael de Young (19 and 17) founded Daily Dramatic Chronicle in San Francisco with a borrowed $20 gold piece; circulation: 2,000; San Francisco population: 60,000; September 1, 1868 - changed name to Morning Chronicle; July 27, 2000 - Hearst Corporation acquired The Chronicle from The Chronicle Publishing Company.

Richard R. Donnelley - R. R. Donnelley ( Case2Item1NaomiandRRportrait.jpg)

Charles and Michael de Young - San Francisco Chronicle ( photos14/deyoungbros.jpg)

July 6, 1865 - Abolitionists founded The Nation, weekly periodical devoted to politics, culture in New York City on "Newspaper Row" at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan; Joseph H. Richards, publisher (selected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois to speak at Cooper Union in 1860, lecture that made Lincoln nationally known): Edwin Lawrence Godkin, editor; June 1881 - acquired by Henry Villard (New York Evening Post); June 1937 - acquired by Freda Kirchwey (editor of Nation since 1933), husband for $20,000; 1943 - in danger of closing; Kirchwey appealed for $25,000 to keep in business; readers raised $36,000, established Nation Associates to publish journal, arrange political conferences; 1955 - retired as editor, replaced by Carey McWilliams; 2009 - published by Nation Company, L.P.; oldest continuously published weekly magazine in US.

Joseph H. Richards - 'The Nation' (

1866 -  Henry Holt, Frederick Leypoldt founded publishing firm of Leypoldt and Holt in New York; 1873 - renamed Henry Holt and Co.; November 1985 - acquired by Verlagsgruppe Georg von Holtzbrinck.

November 2, 1867 - Harper's Bazar, American weekly women's fashion magazine, began publication in large newspaper format design of Harper's Weekly; intended for women of middle and upper socio-economic classes of second half of 19th century; provided fashions from Paris and the German fashion newspaper, Bazar; focus was on "....the useful with the beautiful, and aiming to include every thing that will be interesting to the family circle.... Being intended largely for ladies, it will devote a considerable space to the matters which fall particularly under their jurisdiction, such as dress and household affairs"; 1901 - became a monthly; 1929 - title changed to Harper's Bazaar.

1868 - Edwin Ginn founded Ginn & Co. in Boston, MA; July 1910 - established the International School of Peace; December 1910 - became World Peace Foundation to promote better international relations and world order by preparing and distributing specialized literature, mostly to college and university libraries, and by holding conferences; 1985 - acquired by Simon & Schuster.

Edwin Ginn - Ginn & Co. ( aps.and.trueblood/photos.aps/Ginn.Edwin.jpg)


1868 - Henry Watterson merged Louisville Journal (est. 1830), Louisville Courier (est. 1843), Democrat (est. 1844); November 8, 1868 - first delivery of Louisville Courier-Journal; 1918 - Judge Robert Worth Bingham bought two-thirds interest in the newspapers, 1920 - acquired remaining stock.

1868 - Matthew Hodder and Thomas Wilberforce Stoughton formed Hodder & Stoughton; 1840s - Matthew Hodder (14) employed with Messrs Jackson and Walford, official publisher for Congregational Union; 1861 - firm renamed Jackson, Walford and Hodder; Jackson and Walford retired.

1868 - James B. Martindale, lawyer and businessman, incorporated Martindale Law and Collection Association (Indianapolis, IN), published The United States Law Directory; 1870 - John H. Hubbell founded J. H. Hubbell & Company, published Hubbell's Legal Directory; 1874 - first edition of Martindale's United States Law Directory "to furnish to lawyers, bankers, wholesale merchants, manufacturers, real estate agents, and all others…the address of one reliable law firm, one reliable bank, and one reliable real estate office in every city in the United States..."; 1931 - two, single-volume publications merged into Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory; first edition published by J.J. Little & Ives Company, New York, as two-volume set; 1987 - first eight-volume edition; January 30, 1990 - acquired by Reed Publishing; 25 volumes and contains listings for over 900,000 attorneys and firms in the United States, Canada and throughout world.

October 10, 1868 - Colonel William Jeff Gatewood, lawyer and publisher of the San Andreas Register, partner Edward W. Bushyhead, San Andreas miner and printer (retired June 1873), J. N. Briseno, printer, published first edition of San Diego Union (4 pages on hand press) at 2626 San Diego Avenue, Old Town; 1886 - acquired by San Diego Union Co.; 1890 - acquired by John D. and Adolph B. Spreckels; December 2, 1895 - T.D. Beasley, F.E.A. Kimball published first issue of The Evening Tribune as daily paper; 1901 - acquired by John D. Spreckels; 1928 - acquired from Spreckels estate by Ira Clifton Copley (The Copley Press Inc. of Illinois); February 2, 1992 - two newspapers merged, formed San Diego Union-Tribune; oldest business in San Diego County, second-oldest newspaper in Southern California.

Edward W. Bushyhead - San Diego Union (

November 4, 1869 - First issue Nature, scientific journal, published; Astrophysicist Norman Lockyer (first editor), Thomas Henry Huxley encouraged Alexander Macmillan to publish "a general scientific journal"; House of Macmillan launched Nature, weekly illustrated journal of science.

1871 - George Allen founded George Allen & Sons; August 1914 - formally registered George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

July 1, 1871 - 10 veteran printers, with $900 in capital, published first afternoon edition of The Daily Dispatch in Columbus, OH (four pages, 3 cents); December 17, 1899 - published first Sunday edition; 1905 - The Columbus Evening Dispatch acquired by brothers Harry Preston Wolfe and Robert Frederick Wolfe (owned Columbus shoe company); 1975 - renamed The Columbus Dispatch; January 1, 1986 - published first morning edition.

1872 - Richard Rogers (R.R.) Bowker (24) collaborated with Frederick Leypoldt in publishing Publishers Weekly; American book-trade journal; January 1866 - Leypoldt established publishing firm of Leypoldt and Holt with Henry Holt; 1868 - published monthly "Literary Bulletin"; 1870 - renamed "Trade Circular"; January 1872 - absorbed George W. Childs's "Publishers' Circular," issued weekly; 1873 - renamed "Publishers' Weekly'.

March 4, 1872 - Eben D. Jordan (founder of Jordan, Marsh & Co. department store), five Boston businessmen published first edition of The Boston Globe (4 cents); August 1973 - General Charles H. Taylor (27) took over as manager of The Boston Daily Globe ($100,000 deficit, losing $1,200/week); 1877 - reorganized, added The Sunday Globe; 1878 - added The Evening Globe; reduced price to 2 cents; converted to 'family' paper (vs. man's paper); 1895 - gained full control (through Jordan estate); 1958 - moved to Dorchester; 1973 - went public under name Affiliated Publications; 1993 - acquired by The New York Times Company for $1.1 billion. 

1873 - Edward H. Butler founded Buffalo News.

January 24, 1873 - First issue of "The Magenta", bi-weekly newspaper; June 2, 1873 - five regular editors, business editor elected; May 21, 1875 - name changed to "The Crimson"; 1911 - established editorial board; 1966 - The Harvard Crimson, Inc. incorporated (revoked, revived in 1986); nation's oldest continuously published daily college newspaper (disputed by other college papers).

June 24, 1873 - Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain), of Hartford, CT, received a patent for "Scrap-Books"; self-pasting Scrapbook; coat only sufficient area of pages of scrapbook with mucilage or adhesive to hold piece that is to be pasted.

August 14, 1873 - Charles Hallock published first issue of "Forest and Stream" magazine in New York City (9th oldest magazine in U.S.); George Bird Grinnell, editor; June 1930 - circulation about 90,000; acquired by Field & Stream (founded 1897; circulation about 130,000); February 2007 - acquired by Bonnier Corporation.

February 1, 1873 - Jesse Yarnell, T. J. Caystile and Samuel J. Mathes published Los Angeles Weekly Mirror advertising sheet; printed by Mirror Printing Office and Book Bindery; December 4, 1881 - Nathan Cole Jr. & Thomas Gardiner launched Los Angeles Daily Times, went bankrupt; January 1, 1882 - Mathes assumed editorial control;  August 1, 1882 - former Union army lieutenant colonel Harrison Gray Otis assumed Times editorship and part control ( bought a quarter interest in Los Angels Daily Times for $6,000); October 1884 - acquired holdings of Yarnell, A.W. Francisco; Colonel Henry H. Boyce acquired Mathes's interest; gained control of Mirror and Mirror's printing company; incorporated Times-Mirror Company; 1886 - Otis bought Boyce's half-interest in paper, named himself president, general manager, editor-in-chief; 1891 - Weekly Mirror incorporated with Saturday Times, became Los Angeles Saturday Times & Weekly Mirror; 1965 - first newspaper to publish over 4 million classified advertisements in one year, first US newspaper to publish over 100 million lines of advertising in year; 1970 - bought controlling interest in Newsday; 1979 - acquired Hartford (Connecticut) Courant; 1980 - acquired Denver Post for $95 million; 1986 - acquired Baltimore Sun, Evening Sun, WMAR-TV for $600 million;  June 2000 - acquired by Tribune Company (Chicago Tribune) in $8.3 billion takeover.

1874 - Morimichi Motono, Nisshusha newspaper company, launched Yomiuri Shimbun as small daily newspaper (had founded letterpress printing business, Nisshusha, in Yokohama, with Takashi Koyasu and Masayoshi Shibata, in 1870, moved it to Tokyo in 1873); came to be known as literary arts publication; 1923 - damaged in earthquake; 1924 - Shoriki Matsutaro took over management of company; introduced sensational news coverage, full-page radio program guide, established Japan's first professional baseball team (now known as Yomiuri Giants); shifted to broad news coverage aimed at readers in Tokyo; 1941 - largest circulation of any daily newspaper in Tokyo area; 1942 - under wartime conditions, merged with Hochi Shimbun; became known as Yomiuri-Hochi; January 2002 - largest newspaper circulation in the world (combined morning, evening circulation of 14,323,781.

Morimichi Motono - Yomiuri Shimbun (

February 21, 1874 - George Stanford, Benet A. Dewes founded Oakland Daily Tribune as 6" by 10", four-page daily; July 24, 1876 -acquired by William E. Dargie; created The Tribune Publishing Company, widened paper's news scope, used newspaper wire services to provide stories from around world; August 28, 1891 - name Oakland Tribune officially adopted; November 14, 1915 - first issue under new publisher, Joseph R. Knowland, former five-term Congressman; January 4, 1928 - founded The Tribune Publishing Corporation; 1977 - acquired by Karl Eller's Combined Communications Corporation; 1979 - acquired by Gannett in merger with Combined; 1983 - acquired for $17 million by Robert C. Maynard, editor; first major metropolitan newspaper owned by an African American; October 15, 1992 - acquired for $10 million by Alameda Newspaper Group, publisher of several competing suburban community newspapers.

December 25, 1875 - Melville E. Stone (27), Percy Meggy, William E. Dougherty published 'experimental' copy of Chicago Daily News as 4-page, 5-column afternoon daily for one cent (Meggy, Dougherty soon left); July 1876 - acquired by Victor F. Lawson (business manager); 1918 - circulation surpassed by Chicago Tribune; 1959 - acquired by Field Enterprises (circulation over 600,000); March 4, 1978 - ceased publication.

April 1, 1875 - Sir Francis Galton published first newspaper weather map in The Times, London; first to identify the anticyclone (as opposed to the cyclone), introduced use of charts showing areas of similar air pressure.

1876 - William Cathcart, ageing Scot who had spent 50 years in "the Argentine" founded The Buenos Ayres Herald (original spelling); single sheet with advertising on front, mostly shipping coverage on back (odd general news, community item thrown in); 1877 - sold to D.W. Lowe of the United States; immediately discarded weekly publication in favor of daily news; 1925 - acquired by Junius Julius (J.J.) and Claude Ronald Rugeroni (came as Englishmen rather than Italians); 1959 - The Standard folded, left Buenos Aires Herald as Argentina's only English-language daily; 1968 - Evening Post Publishing Company (Charleston, SC) acquired controlling block of shares (largely corresponding to J.J. Rugeroni shares); 1998 - Rugeroni's inrterest acquired by Evening Post Publishing Company; became sole owner of Herald. 

February 1876 - -U.S. Army Major Henry Martyn Robert, engineering officer in regular Army, published "Robert's Rules of Order" ("Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies") to bring rules of American Congress to members of ordinary societies; compendium of parliamentary law for parliamentarians, novice club presidents; name synonymous with orderly rule of reason in deliberative societies.Herald. 

Henry Martyn Robert - Rules of Order (

April 5, 1876 - Charles Fellows founded Flint (MI) Journal; March 3, 1883 - George McConnelly started publishing daily; 1911 - acquired by Booth Newspapers Inc.; 1961 - circulation surpassed 100,000 mark; 1976 - acquired by Newhouse family.

December 6, 1877 - Stilson Hutchins first published Washington Post (circulation of 10,000, four pages, 3 cents a copy); 1880 - published first Sunday edition; 1889 - acquired by Frank Hatton, Republican Cabinet member, and Beriah Wilkins, former Democratic congressman; 1905 - acquired by John McLean, owner of Cincinnati Enquirer; 1916 - Edward (Ned) McLean (son) became sole owner/publisher; switched paper's allegiance to Republican party, circulation dropped, advertising decreased, went into receivership; June 1, 1933 - acquired at auction by financier Eugene Meyer for $825,000; 1946 - Phil Graham (son-in-law) became publisher; August 4, 1947 - Washington Post Company incorporated; 1959 - became president of company; 1961 - acquired Newsweek magazine; 1963 - Katherine Graham became president after husband's suicide; 1966 - acquired stake in New York Herald-Tribune's Paris edition from Whitney Communications; 1967 - with NY Times and Whitney launched International Herald Tribune (subsequently jointly owned with NY Times); June 15, 1971 - went public; June 18, 1971 - printed first story on Pentagon Papers; June 16, 1972 - began reporting on break-in at  Democratic National Committee headquarters at Watergate; 1973 - Katherine Graham elected chairman of board, CEO of company;  1979 - Donald Graham (son) took over; 1984 - acquired Kaplan Inc., provider of educational, career services for individuals, schools, businesses for $45 million; 1991 - Donald named chief executive officer; with NY Times acquired Whitney stake in International Herald Tribune; 1993 - Donald became chairman of board; 1999 - acquired Arthur Frommer's Budget Travel; 2003 - sold 50% stake in International Herald Tribune to NY Times for $65 million; Washington Post newspaper publishing business made wholly-owned subsidiary; February 8, 2008 - Katharine Weymouth (41), great grand-daughter, named chief executive of Washington Post Media   (new division to oversee The Washington Post newspaper,  online component), publisher of Washington Post; 5th member of Meyer family to hold position since paper acquired in 1933.

Stilson Hutchins - founder Washington Post ( Washington_Post_founder.jpg)

June 1, 1933 - Washington Post sold at auction (

1878 - Joseph Pulitzer bought The Evening Dispatch of St. Louis at auction for $2,500; May 10, 1883 - takes possession of New York World from Jay Gould.

1878 - Daniel Coit Gilman, first president of Johns Hopkins University, inaugurated Johns Hopkins University's Publication Agency; published American Journal of Mathematics; 1879 - published American Chemical Journal; 1881 - published first book (Sidney Lanier: A Memorial Tribute) to honor the poet who was one of the University's first writers in residence; 1891 - name changed to Johns Hopkins Press; 1972 - name changed to Johns Hopkins University Press; America's oldest university press.

Daniel Coit Gilman - Johns Hopkins University Press ( chronology/images/gilman.gif)

January 28, 1878 - Yale Daily News published, first college daily newspaper.

February 21, 1878 - District Telephone Co., of New Haven, CT issued first telephone directory.  

August 10, 1878 - John H. and Daniel J. Harrington founded The Lowell Sun as weekly newspaper (4 pages); 1892 - went daily; 1941 - acquired Courier-Citizen (formed April 28,1856 by Leonard Brown, George F. Morey), last competitor daily; 1949 - starting Lowell Sunday Sun; 1952 - acquired Lowell Sunday Telegram, only Sunday competition; August 1, 1997 - acquired from great-grandson by MediaNews Group.

November 2, 1878 - Edward Willis Scripps (24) started Cleveland Penny Press, with $10,000 borrowed from family members; January 1, 1883 - acquired control of Cincinnati Penny Post from his brother James; September 2, 1890 - changed name of Penny Post to The Cincinnati Post; 1890 - created Scripps-McRae League to run newspapers; June 3, 1892 - acquired his first paper on Pacific Coast, The San Diego Sun; March 1895 - started Los Angeles Record; July 21, 1906 - merged with Scripps-McRae Press Association, Scripps News Associations into United Press (effective June 21, 1907); February 1908 - Jim Scripps (son) took over; 1911 - started United Press (later known as United Press International, or UPI); 1920 - Robert P. Scripps, Roy W. Howard responsible for editorial, business direction, respectively; 1922 - organized United Feature Service; November 3, 1922 - changed name from Scripps-McRae to Scripps Howard; June 2, 1982 - United Press International acquired by Media News Corp.

1879 - Cyrus H. K Curtis founded The Tribune and Farmer magazine.

1879 - Charles and Herbert Hatch, sons of printer William T. Hatch, used handbills in Nashville, TN to advertise celebrity preacher Henry Ward Beecher; used woodblocks, metal type, developed distinctive style; took on vaudeville acts, minstrel shows, budding motion-picture industry as clients; 1921 - Will T. Hatch continued family tradition; radio - growing presence in America; careers of entertainers touring South relied heavily on posters to spread word; 1950s - Nashville's country music market commissioned bulk of work (produced posters for Johnny Cash, Hank Williams, upstart Elvis Presley); early-1980s - threatened by increased competition, poor management, inexpensive offset printing; 1986 - acquired by Grand Ole Opry; one of world's oldest letterpress print shops.

1879 - The Home News Tribune established; 1993 - The Home News acquired by New Jersey Press, Inc.; 1995 - merged with The News Tribune; 2010 - sixth-largest daily, Sunday newspaper in New Jersey.

April 17, 1879 - Benjamin Frank published first edition of The Sonoma Index newspaper in Sonoma, CA; 1879-1884 - changed hands 13 times, changed name once (to Sonoma Tribune); 1884 - acquired by Harry Granice (great-grandfather of current publishers); renamed The Sonoma Index-Tribune; 1915 - Celeste, Ramona (daughters) took over business; 1946 - Robert Lynch (Ramona's son) took over; 2003 - Bill and Jim Lynch (sons) took over; still family owned, operated.

July 3, 1880 - John Michels, New York journalist, secured investment of about $10,000 from Thomas Edison, published first issue of Science magazine; end of 1881 - Edison withdrew support (too few subscribers); March 1882 - publication ceased; February 9, 1883 - re-published, to report news of scientific societies; Samuel H. Scudder as editor (librarian, nationally-known entomologist); 2,000 subscribers in first year; 1884 - N. D. C. Hodges succeeded as editor; late 1880s - accepted advertising for patent medicines; November 1894 - ownership transferred to James McKeen Cattell, professor of psychology at Columbia University; worked out  agreement with American Academy for the Advancement of Science, turned magazine into America's premier scientific journal.

1880 - Jacobus George Robbers, four other booksellers, founded NV Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier in Rotterdam, Netherlands (name taken from publishing house of Elsevier family, established in 1580); 1894 - Albert E. Reed bought Upper Tovil paper mill at Maidstone, Kent, UK, founded Reed company; 1903 - incorporated as Albert E. Reed & Company Ltd.; 1970 - name changed to Reed International Limited; 1982 - name changed to Reed International PLC; 1992 - Reed International merged with Elsevier NV; January 1, 1993 - name changed to Reed Elsevier PLC.

John Michels - Science magazine ( 1&zoom=5&edge=curl&sig=ACfU3U2Xhg8MueRIq6KwG1PuLSiDoT9kTg)

March 4, 1880 - New York Daily Graphic published first half-tone engraving, by S. H. Horgan.

February 19, 1880 - Gail Borden Johnson founded Houston Post; 1881 - combined paper with the Houston Telegraph; October 1884 - ceased publication; April 5, 1885 - re-established with merger of the Houston Morning Chronicle,  Houston Evening Journal; 1939 - William P. Hobby, president of the paper since 1924, acquired controlling interest (became flagship of Hobby family’s H&C Communications business); early 1990s - ultimately sold to MediaNews Group; 1991 - Post had a daily circulation of 335,000; April 18, 1995 - Houston Post ceases publication after 116 years.

October 29, 1881 - James Albert Wales, cartoonist, Frank Tousey, publisher of dime novels, George H. Jessop, author published firstissue of 'The Judge' (16 pages); 1932 - went monthly; 1947 - closed.

December 4, 1881 - Los Angels Daily Times published first four-page issue.

February 1, 1882 - J.W. Robertson & Company printed, distributed first copies of Honolulu Evening Bulletin (one page, four columns wide); oldest daily newspaper in Hawaii, one of longest-lived west of Mississippi (Henry M. Whitney, editor and book merchant, recorded arrivals and departures of ships and mails, passenger lists and other items of local interest in a hand-written bulletin posted in his stationery shop); April 24, 1882 - enlarged to four six-column pages, renamed Evening Bulletin; July 1, 1912 - merged with Hawaiian Star (founded March 28, 1893), renamed Honolulu Star-Bulletin; 1961 - acquired by Chinn Ho, Alexander S. and J. Ballard Atherton, William H. Hill, John T. Waterhouse; June 1, 1962 - Star-Bulletin and Honolulu Advertiser executives formed Hawaii Newspaper Agency to handle production for both newspapers; August 1971 - acquired by Gannett; 1993 - acquired by Liberty Newspapers, controlled by Florida investor Rupert E. Phillips; March 2001 - joint operating agreement, Hawaii Newspaper Agency dissolved; The Honolulu Advertiser, Star-Bulletin separated their business relationship, began publishing separately; March 15, 2001 - acquired by Black Press Ltd. (Victoria, BC, founded 1975) for $1.

November, 1882 - Former Providence Journal reporter Charles H. Dow (31), Edward Davis Jones (26) and former Drexel, Morgan employee, Charles Milford Bergstresser founded Dow, Jones & Company (as it was called in the beginning) in a small basement office at 15 Wall Street in New York; produced daily hand-written news bulletins called "flimsies" delivered by messenger to subscribers in the Wall Street area; 1884 - Dow Jones Averages the creation of Charles Dow, appeared for the first time in the "Customers' Afternoon Letter"; contained 11 stocks: nine railroads and two industrials; 1896 - Dow Jones Industrial Average launched.

November 16, 1882 - Daily Journal of Milwaukee began publishing; December 12, 1882 - Lucius W. Nieman (24) acquired 22-day old paper; 1891 - became first newspaper to use "run-of-paper" color when it printed red, blue stripes across Page One for governor's inauguration; 1937: created employee-ownership plan; employees bought 30,000 shares (25% interest in company); Agnes Wahl Nieman bequeathed small block of stock ($1 million) to Harvard University in memory of her husband with mandate: earnings from gift were to be used for a single purpose: "To promote and elevate the standards of journalism in the United States and educate persons deemed specially qualified for journalism" (1938 - Nieman Fellowship Program created, oldest and best-known mid-career program for journalists in the world); 1962 - acquired Milwaukee Sentinel from Hearst; 1995 - Milwaukee Journal and Sentinel merged; April 2, 1995 - Journal Sentinel first published.

Lucius Nieman - Milwaukee Journal (

September 4, 1882 - New York Times first newspaper plant to make use of newly available electrical power provided by  Edison Illuminating Company; 27 carbon-filament lamps lamps installed in editorial room, 25 lamps in counting room (replaced gas lighting).

January 4, 1883 - John Ames Mitchell (37-year old illustrator, invested $10,000 inheritance), Andrew Miller published Life magazine in artist's studio at 1155 Broadway in New York City (cupids as mascots o n nameplate); Edward Sandford Martin as first literary editor (co-founder of Harvard Lampoon); 1918 - acquired by Charles Dana Gibson (creator of Gibson Girl, tall, regal beauty, in 1890s, nation’s feminine ideal) for $1 million; 1921 - management of unprofitable magazine turned over to Publisher Clair Maxwell, Treasurer Henry Richter; magazine died; 1936 - name acquired by publisher Henry Luce (Time Inc.) for $92,000; November 23, 1936 - relaunched (10 cents cover price, 380,000 copies printed); birth of photo magazine U.S. (as much space, importance to pictures as to words); December 8, 1972 - weekly Life closed; 1972-1978 - published ten Life Special Reports; 1978 - re-emerged as monthly, new, modified logo; July 1993 - printed on smaller pages, returned to original Life logo; March 2000 - Time Inc. announced it would cease regular publication of Life with May issue; published special newsstand "megazine" issues; October 2004 - revived for second time (weekly publication as free supplement to more than 60 U.S. newspapers with combined circulation of approximately 12 million); March 24, 2007 - Time Inc. announced closing of magazine as of April 20, 2007, kept web site; November 18, 2008 - Google hosted archive of magazine's photographs; March 31, 2009 - Getty Images, Life magazine launched

John Ames Mitchell - founder of Life magazine (

March 4, 1883 - John Gordon Cashman began "Vicksburg Evening Post" in Mississippi.

December 1883 - Cyrus H. Curtis (Curtis Publishing) published first issue of Ladies Home Journal, as women's supplement to Tribune and Farmer (lacked material for farming magazine); 1986 - acquired by Meredith Corporation. 

1884 - Harry Marks established The Financial and Mining News in London; July 1884 - name shortened to Financial News.

1884 - James H. McGraw, teacher in upstate New York, began working in publishing; 1888 - purchased American Journal of Railway Appliances; John A. Hill worked as editor at Locomotive Engineer; 1899 - McGraw incorporated publications under "The McGraw Publishing Company"; 1902 - John Hill incorporated publications under "The Hill Publishing Company"; 1909 - book departments of two publishing companies merged; formed McGraw-Hill Book Company; John Hill took office of President (died in 1916); James McGraw became company's Vice-President.

1884 - Frank V. Strauss, Ohio advertising man, began Frank V. Strauss & Co. as advertising business in New York; started "The New York Dramatic Chronicle" as one-page flyer to combine advertising with theater programs; September 1885 - earliest Strauss program listing found for production at Madison Square Theater; 1888 - opened press on Walker Street; 1911 - renamed Strauss Magazine Theatre Program, multi-page program in magazine format; 1903 - provided programs for 250 theaters; 1934 - name changed to "Playbill"; 1974 - acquired by Arthur T. Birsh; December 19, 1978 - American Theater Press, Inc. registered "Playbill" trademark first used July 6, 1934 (entertainment magazines, fashion magazines, theater guides and luncheon programs).

February 1, 1884 - First volume (A-Ant) of the Oxford English Dictionary published; April 1928 - 125th, final fascicle published; 400,000 words and phrases in 10 volumes, published under title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; verb "set" is OED's longest entry (approximately 60,000 words, over 430 uses); 1933 - supplement, containing new entries and revisions, published; original dictionary reprinted in 12 volumes, officially renamed Oxford English Dictionary.

Sir James A. H. Murray - Primary Editor, Oxford English Dictionary (

August 26, 1884 - Ottmar Mergenthaler, German-born American of Baltimore, MD, received patent for a "Matrix Making Machine" (Linotype typesetting machine); originally called "Blower" machine, later renamed "Linotype" (short for "Line of type"); replaced time-consuming process of setting type by hand; May 12, 1885 - received a patent for a "Machine for Producing Printing-Bars" ("machine in which a series of loose independent matrices or dies each containing one or more characters, and a series of blank dies for spacing purposes, are combined with finger-keys and intermediate connecting and driving mechanism in such manner that when power is applied to the machine and the preferred finger-keys actuated the matrices will be assembled or composed in line"); linotype machine set entire lines of lead type as "slugs" for printing; made obsolete huge masses of hand-set metal type; greatest advance in printing since the development of moveable type 400 years earlier.

Ottmar Mergenthaler - Linotype (

February 18, 1885 - ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' by Mark Twain published.

May 2, 1885 - Clark W. Bryan founded Good Housekeeping Magazine in Holyoke, MA; 1900 - Good Housekeeping Institute established; 1909 - Good Housekeeping Seal (of approval) created; 1911 - 300,000 people read the magazine; Hearst Publishing Company bought magazine; 1966 - 5,500,000 readers.

1886 - Charles Hope Kerr founded Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company in Chicago; early 20th century - became world's leading English-language radical publisher; 1908 - became lively mass circulation magazine (featured radical theory, culture, reportage); nation's oldest labor press.

February 23, 1886 - London Times published world's first classified ad.

March 1886 - Paul S. Schlicht, of Schlicht & Field Company, seller of office supplies and labor-saving devices (Rochester, NY), launched The Cosmopolitan as family literary magazine; published quality fiction, children's stories, homemaking tips; May 23, 1888 - suspended business; 1889 - acquired from Joseph N. Hallock by John Brisben Walker, wealthy entrepreneur; introduced illustrations, attracted writers such as Mark Twain, Willa Cather, H. G. Wells; became leading market for fiction; 1892 - circulation of 75,000; 1905 - acquired by William Randolph Hearst for $400,000; turned it into purveyor of expose journalism to aid his personal political pursuits; 1920s - changed to fiction periodical (featured leading writers such as Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, William Somerset Maugham); 1930s - circulation of 1,700,000, advertising income of $5,000,000; mid-1960s - almost died; Helen Gurley Brown, ambitious and savvy businesswoman, submitted plan for dramatic editorial makeover; took helm, saved Cosmopolitan; published articles about topics other women's magazines avoided; 1980s - profit center of Hearst Corporation, culturally significant force in young women's lives.

March 17, 1886 - Alfred Henry Spink, director of the St. Louis Browns, former writer for  Missouri Republican daily newspaper, published first issue of The Sporting News; single copy cost 0.$.05, year's subscription cost $2.50; oldest sports publication in U.S.

May 15, 1886 - Reuben Hamilton Donnelley (21), son of Richard Robert Donnelley, founded R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. (printing company) in 1864, assistant director of The Chicago Directory Company, with Chicago Telephone Company as partner, published first Chicago Telephone Directory, based on City of Chicago subscriber list (published three times a year); birth of telephone directory Industry, classified telephone directory advertising industry (Yellow Pages); 1887 - named President of company; 1906 - began soliciting business outside Chicago; 1916 - Chicago Directory Company dissolved; 1917 - The Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation incorporated; 1929 - largest independent agent for Bell System directories; August 31, 1961 - acquired by Dun & Bradstreet Corp.; August 1954 - published inaugural issue of Sports Illustrated; July 1, 1998 - spun off as separate, publicly-traded company; 2003 - acquired Sprint Directory Publishing business; nation's largest stand-alone publisher of Yellow Pages directories (; 2005 - published directories in 19 states; 2006 - acquired Dex Media; became third largest print, online Yellow Pages publisher in U.S.; May 28, 2009 - filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.

Reuben Hamilton Donnelley - R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. ( ACfU3U3eylYYSVbm8TC7nkCIdjTLfRB0QQ&w=685)

July 2, 1886 - New York Daily Tribune put first Linotype machine in U.S. into commercial use; set its editorial page; increased speed of newspaper composition by 500 percent; 1892 - 1,000 Linotype machines had been made; 1904 - 10,000 Linotype casting machines in service worldwide.

March 4, 1887 - William Randolph Hearst (23) took over San Francisco Daily Examiner from his father, George (founded December 12, 1865 as Evening Examiner by Caption William S.  Moss, acquired in October 1880); 1889 - "Monarch of the Dailies on masthead; May 21, 1890 - land purchased at Third and Market Streets for $650,000 to build Examiner Building; 1895 - bought New York Morning Journal; 1903 - started his first magazine, Motor; 1905 - bought Cosmopolitan; 1911 - acquired Good Housekeeping;  1915 - formed King Features Syndicate to consolidate comics syndication business; 1929 - started Hearst Metrotone News (newsreel company); 1948 - acquired WBAL-TV (Baltimore), one of country's first TV stations; 1965 - Examiner and San Francisco Chronicle printed, distributed under joint operating agreement (JOA); 1997 - formed Hearst-Argyle Television, nation's second largest non-network-owned television station group; August 6, 1999 - acquired San Francisco Chronicle; February 19, 2004 - Examiner acquired by The San Francisco Newspaper Company, LLC (owned by Philip Anschutz of Denver); 2007 - 20,0000 employees, six operating groups; world's largest publisher of monthly magazines.

June 7, 1887 - Tolbert Lanston, Washington DC, received three patents for "Producing Justified Lines of Type"; monotype type-casting machine, system composing single metal types mechanically; received a patent for a "Form of Type"; received a patent for a "Type Forming and Composing Machine".

October 4, 1887 - The first issue of the "International Herald Tribune" was published as the "Paris Herald Tribune."

1888 - James H. McGraw bought "American Journal of Railway Appliances"; 1899 - established McGraw Publishing Company; 1902 - John Hill established The Hill Publishing Company; 1909 - merger of McGraw and Hill book publishing arms; 1917 - merger of McGraw and Hill journal publishing arms with incorporation of McGraw-Hill.

1888 - Alfred Harmsworth Lord Northcliffe founded print dynasty as free-lance contributor to popular periodicals; 1894 - bought London Evening News; May 4, 1896 - first issue of Daily Mail (page newspaper cost only halfpenny); 1899 - circulation exceeded million. 

January 1888 - Claude King publsihed first issue of Sports Afield, hunting and fishing magazine, in Denver Co (8  pages); oldest outdoor publication in cointinuous existence in North America.

January 9, 1888 - Horatio Bottomley, owner of local newspapers, Douglas G. MacRae, printer, launched London Financial Guide, 4-page newspaper; February 13, 1888 - name changed to the Financial Times; promoted as as "the friend of The Honest Financier and the Respectable Broker"; Bottomley left paper, grown by MacRae; 1893 - used salmon-pink newsprint to distinguish itself from its rival, the Financial News (established in 1884 by Harry Marks); 1919 - acquired by William and Gomer Berry; 1945 - merged with Financial and Mining News; 1957 - acquired by Pearson (including Economist).

Horatio Bottomley - FT (

June 3, 1888 - San Francisco Daily Examiner published Ernest Lawrence Thayer's poem ''Casey at the Bat.''

October 1888 - National Geographic Society (established January 13, 1858) published first issue of National Geographic magazine; sent to 200 charter members; 1899 - circulation of 1,400; February 1903 - Gilbert H. Grosvenor (joined 1899) became editor; January 1905 - filled 11 pages of magazine with photos of Lhasa in Tibet; expected to be fired, instead congratulated by Society member; 1920 - circulation of 713,000; 2009 - read in every country of world, published in 31 local-language editions.

Gilbert H. Grosvenor - National Geographic (

1889 - Erastus H. (E. H.) Scott and A.J. Albert formed Albert and Scott, published Bellum Helvecticum, a high school Latin text; 1894 - Hugh Austin (H. A.) Foresman joined Scott, formed Scott, Foresman and Company; Albert sold his interest in the business; 1909 - entered elementary market with the Elson Grammar School Readers; 1911 - first publisher to use four-color printing, revolutionized textbooks; 1930 - published first Dick, Jane and Spot stories; 1985 - acquired by Time, Inc.; 1989 - acquired by Harper & Row.

Zerna Sharp Erastus H. Scott - Scott, Foresman (

Hugh A. Foresman Hugh A. Foresman - Scott, Foresman (

January 18, 1889 - Students at Cambridge University founded 'The Granta', periodical of student politics, student badinage, student literary enterprise (named after river that runs through town); RC Lehmann, first editor; published works of A. A. Milne, Michael Frayn, Stevie Smith, Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath; 1979 - rescued by small group of postgraduates, relaunched as Granta: The Magazine of New Writing, with both writers, their audience drawn from world beyond Cambridge.

July 8, 1889 - Dow Jones & Company's "Customers' Afternoon Letter" became Wall Street Journal; four pages,  two cents, advertising was 20 cents a line; Company had 50 employees.

October 2, 1889 -  W.L. Jones, former resident who had worked for Puget Sound Argus, put out first edition (5000 copies) of The Morning Leader in Port Townsend, WA; 1920s - acquired by Ray O. Scott; 1946 - acquired by Richard McCurdy; 1967 - acquired by Frank and Pat Garred; 1989 - Scott and Jennifer Wilson made partners.

1890 - A.W. Lee and local investors took over The Courier, one of three daily papers in Ottumwa, IA (daily circulation of 575 grew to 3,709 by 1900); 1899 - he and a group of associates acquired control in The Davenport Times, then weakest of about 10 papers in what would become known as the Quad-Cities; 1903 - acquired Muscatine (IA) Journal (where his father had been head bookkeeper) from family of his brother-in-law; 1959 - company expanded beyond Midwestern roots with purchase of group of Montana newspapers; 1973 - Quad-City Times became first newspaper in world produced totally by computer; 1997 - expanded into Pacific Northwest; June 3, 2005 - acquired Pulitzer Inc. (14 daily newspapers, including St. Louis Post-Dispatch) in transaction valued at $1.46 billion; fourth largest newspaper company in country in terms of dailies owned, seventh largest in terms of total daily circulation; more than 10,700 employees in 23 states, newspaper circulation of 1.7 million daily and 1.9 million on Sundays, millions more through other publications and online sites.

A. W. Lee - founder, Lee Enterprises ( history/aw_lee.jpg)

1890 - Cyrus H. K Curtis founded Curtis Publishing Co.; publisher of Ladies Home Journal; 1897 - acquired Saturday Evening Post from Andrew Smythe for $1,000 (first published August 4, 1821).

May 17, 1890 - Alfred Northcliffe published Comic Cuts, first weekly comic paper, in London.

September 16, 1890 - Ottmar Mergenthaler, of Baltimore, MD, received two patents for: 1) "Machine for Forming Type Bars" and 2) "Machine for Producing  Linotypes, Type Matrices, etc."; changed newspaper business.

1892 - Herman Ridder bought Staats-Zeitung, newspaper launched on December 24, 1834 for German residents of New York City; 1926 - acquired Journal of Commerce; 1942 - Ridder Publications incorporated in Delaware;1969 - went public; November 1974 - merged with Knight Newspapers, Inc.; December 3, 2007 - acquired by McClatchy Company for $4.5 billion.

1892 - Chandler Belden Beach, former sales agent in Chicago for Encyclopædia Britannica, published Youth's Cyclopedia (2 volumes); 1893 - published Student's Cyclopaedia (2 volumes); 1894 - Frank Elbert Compton became general manager ; 1905 - took over; 1907 - name changed to F. E. Compton & Co.; 1922 - produced Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia )8 volumes); 1961 - acquired by Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.

1892 - Louis Fairchild founded Fairchild Publications, Inc. in Chicago; dedicated to being first to break, report news in worlds of retail and style; July 13, 1910 - first issue of Women's Wear Daily; 1968 - acquired by Capital Cities Communications; 1999 - acquired by Advance Publications.

April 5, 1892 - Walter H. Coe, of Providence, RI, received a patent for a "Method of Packing Decorative Films" ("arranged in small books, the sheets of the films alternating with the protecting-leaves of the book"); method allowed correctly precut widths to be matched to application with correct lengths without need for overlapping pieces.

August 13, 1892 - John H. Murphy, Sr., former slave, began publishing U.S. black newspaper, "Afro-American" in Baltimore, MD; merged his church publication with two others; 1922 - newspaper grew from a one-page weekly church publication into most widely circulated black paper along the coastal Atlantic, used to challenge Jim Crow practices in Maryland; more than 100,000 regular readers; Afro-American Newspapers is leading news provider for African-Americans in the Baltimore / Washington, DC Metropolitan area, longest running African-American, family-owned newspaper in the nation; fourth generation members of Murphy family continue to manage paper.

October 31, 1892 - The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by Arthur Conan Doyle, published; author had studied medicine at University of Edinburgh, met Dr. Joseph Bell, teacher with extraordinary deductive power (partly inspired character Sherlock Holmes years later; had published 'A Study in Scarlet', first Sherlock Holmes story, in 1887 in Beeton's Christmas Annual; had published series of Holmes stories in The Strand magazine); Doyle gave up medical practice, devoted himself to writing.

November 3, 1892 - 21 printers, four teenage apprentices, locked out during labour dispute at afternoon Toronto News, created The Toronto Evening Star; price of 1 cent/copy; 1899 - acquired by Sir Wilfrid Laurier for $32,000 (circulation of 7,000, 52 employees); December13, 1899 - Joseph E. Atkinson, former Ottawa correspondent for Toronto Globe, managing editor of Montreal Herald, appointed managing editor, paid $5,000 a year ($3,000 in cash, rest in shares); January 24, 1900 - name changed to The Toronto Daily Star; 1903 - first newspaper in history of Canadian journalism to use wireless to cover news; 1909 - moved into first place among Toronto daily newspapers (circulation of 65,000); 1913 - Atkinson controlling shareholder; 1929 - 650 employees, circulation of 175,000, largest circulation newspaper in Canada; 1942 - Atkinson Charitable Foundation established; 1948 - shares (at death) bequeathed to charitable foundation; Joseph Story Atkinson (son) elected chairman of board, president of foundation; Harry C. Hindmarsh (son-in-law) elected president of The Star; March 25, 1949 - Ontario government introduced Charitable Gifts Act, limited charities to no more than 10% interest in businesses; May 27, 1958 - acquired by five trustees of Atkinson Charitable Foundation for $25,555,000 (highest price paid to that date for newspaper property anywhere); October 1975 - acquired controlling interest in Harlequin Enterprises; January 21, 1976 - board of directors approved corporate reorganization; Toronto Star Ltd. became holding company, The Toronto Star newspaper became wholly-owned subsidiary; 1977 - holding company named Torstar Corporation; May, 1981 - acquired remaining 30% of Harlequin Enterprises; August 1985 - signed share exchange agreement with Southam Press; Torstar acquired 23% interest in Southam, Southam acquired about 30% of Torstar's non-voting shares.

Joseph E. Atkinson - Toronto Star (

1894 - Albert Reed established UK newsprint mill; 1903 - Albert Reed & Co became public company; 1931 - Elsevier began international scientific publishing ventures; 1962 - US Elsevier Publishing Company founded; UK Elsevier Publishing Company founded; 1970 - Reed renamed Reed International Limited; acquired IPC-Mirror Group newspaper and significant magazine, periodical, book publishing and printing interests; 1971 - Elsevier Publishing Company NV, North Holland Publishing Company, Excerpta Media merged, formed Associated Scientific Publishers; 1974 - Reed's publishing activities separated into Mirror Group Newspapers and IPC; 1977 - Reed acquired full control of Cahners Publishing; 1979 - Elsevier Publishing Company renamed Elsevier Scientific Publishers (after merger with Nederlandse Dagbladunie); 1985 -Reed acquired R R Bowker and Online Computer Systems; 1990 - acquired Martindale Hubbell and Verlag A Franke; 1993 - Elsevier and Reed International merged; 2001 - acquired Harcourt General.

November 1, 1894 - William H. Donaldson, salesman for his father's lithography company, James H. Hennegan, worked for family printing firm, published first issue of Billboard Advertising magazine as monthly publication for billposting business ("devoted to the interests of advertisers, poster printers, bill posters, advertising agents and secretaries of fairs") in Cincinnati, OH; eight pages, cover price of 10 cents; November 1895 - 16 pages, one-year subscription of $1; June 1896 - Fair Department introduced to report on carnival, fair attractions that often were advertised on billboards; February 1897 - name changed to The Billboard (until 1961); November 1898 - Donaldson quit after dispute with Hennegan over magazine's editorial direction; bought out Hennegan's share of the operation (for $500, according to family lore), assumed all debts.

November 1894 - World's first color comic strips, drawn by Richard Felton Outcault, appeared in The New York World's Sunday edition.

November 17, 1894 - Frank Brunell founded Daily Racing Form, "America's Turf Authority Since 1894," in Chicago; first appeared as four-page broadsheet; country's only daily national newspaper dedicated to coverage of single major sport; publishes up to 2,000 unique pages of statistical and editorial copy every day, in as many as 25 daily editions, 364 days a year (with the exception of Christmas Day); 1922 - acquired by Triangle Publications, Inc. (Walter Annenberg); 1988 - acquired by News America, a subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch's News Corp.; June 1991 - acquired by K-III Communications Corporation for reported $180 million; May 2004 - acquired by The Wicks Group of Companies, L.L.C.

January 12, 1895 - Printing and Binding Act of 1895 prohibited copyrighting of any Government publication.

April 1895 - John P. Burkhard, Henry Wellington Wack published first issue of Northwestern Field & Stream magazine in St. Paul, MN; 1896 - renamed Western Field & Stream; February 1897 - renamed Field & Stream; 1906 - acquired by Eltinge F. Warner, printing salesman and circulation manager, took over business side of magazine; 1908 - acquired publication; June 1930 - acquired 'Forest & Stream'; 1951 - acquired by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston; 1971 - acquired by CBS; 1986 - CBS magazines acquired by Diamandis; 1987 - acquired by Times Mirror Magazines; 2001 - acquired by Time Inc.; February 2007 - acquired by Bonnier Corporation.

April 7, 1896 - Tolbert Lanston, of Washington, DC, received a patent for a "Machine for making Justified Lines of Type"; typesetting; improvement upon earlier patent.

May 4, 1896 - Alfred and Harold Harmsworth published first edition of London Daily Mail.

August 18, 1896 - Adolph S. Ochs (38) of Chattanooga, TN, bought financially ailing New York Times.

November 1, 1896 - Picture showing naked breasts of woman appeared in National Geographic magazine for first time.

1897 - Frank Nelson Doubleday founded Doubleday & McClure Company; 1900 - Walter Hines Page replaced McClure; name changed to Doubleday, Page & Company; 1927 - merged with George H Doran Company; name changed to Doubleday, Doran; 1946 - name changed to Doubleday & Company.

1897 - B H Blackwell Booksellers published first book, Mensae Secundae: Verses written in Balliol by H.C. Beeching; 1922 - Basil Blackwell & Mott established separate publishing house; 1956 - Basil Blackwell knighted for services to bookselling and publishing; first knighthood bestowed on a bookseller; 1991 - Basil Blackwell Inc. changed name to Blackwell Publishers; July 2001 - Blackwell Publishing Ltd. founded by merging Blackwell Publishers and Blackwell Science; largest, independent society publisher.

February 10, 1897 - "All the news that's fit to print" appeared on front page of "The New York Times".

April 22, 1897 - New York City Jewish newspaper "Forward" began publishing as Yiddish-language daily newspaper; defended trade unionism and moderate, democratic socialism; Abraham Cahan - founding editor; 1930s - nationwide circulation exceeded 270,000.

May 26, 1897 - Horror writer Bram Stoker's classic vampire tale, Dracula, first offered for sale in London; story of Transylvanian vampire and his English victims. 

September 2, 1897 - First issue of McCall's magazine published.

September 21, 1897 - The "New York Sun" ran famous editorial that declared, "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus."

October 24, 1897 - First comic strip appeared in Sunday color supplement of "New York Journal"; called the "Yellow Kid."

December 12, 1897 - ''The Katzenjammer Kids'' comic strip, by Rudolph Dirks, made its debut in Sunday supplement of New York Journal.

1898 - Harvey Mark Thomas established Thomas Publishing; January 28, 1898 - incorporated; published American Grocery Trades Reference Book, first directory of food industry; 1905 - introduced Thomas' Register of American Manufacturers and First Hands in All Lines; 1915 - established independent sales contractor system; May 1933 - introduced Industry Equipment News; May 10, 1938 - registered "Thomas' Wholesale Grocery and Kindred Trades Register" trademark first used in 1903 (annual publication); 1969 - established Thomas Marketing Information Center to market industrial information, databases; May 26, 1970 - registered "Thomas Register" trademark first used in 1905 (annual directory); 1976 - Thomas Regional Directory Company established as division; 1979 - acquired American Register of Exporters and Importers (established 1948) from S. John Cousins; 1980 - renamed American Export Register; 1986 - launched Managing Automation magazine; 1992 - published software guides, directory of software manufacturers; 1998 - all major directories available as databases online.

Harvey Mark Thomas - Thomas Register ( img/img_history.jpg)

May 1898 - Southern Pacific Railroad, largest landowner in California, launched Sunset Magazine (in honor of Sunset Limited railroad line); first-ever Western magazine to "chronicle the world of the West over which the dawn of future commercial and industrial importance is just beginning"; 16 pages, stories on wonders of Yosemite, beautiful, garden-filled streets of Los Angeles; made good things about Western living seem accessible, possible for masses; 1928 - acquired by Lane Publishing Co.; 1990- acquired by Time Warner.